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course, but I find the presumption is not generally a lution. For the fourth grade, among the fact. I would suggest that a great lack is want of topics are: The City Government and its two correlation. Civics, history, and all the sciences
Departments, the City Council and the Mayor should be begun in the first grade and pursued as long and Directors, - showing what some of these as the pupil is in school.”
directors do for the public good, -as, the paving In some of the schools from which data have
of streets, building of viaducts, keeping the city been received the scope seems to be rather clean and healthful; organizing the police narrow, being confined merely to the State force, caring for persons and property, etc. In constitution and the Constitution of the United connection with this subject the suggestion is States. Yet this would be valuable if studied made to tell the pupils the story of the New in a manner calculated to bring out the features York Children's Brigade as an aid to the Street of the State and national governments, and not Cleaning Department. Among the history merely in the perfunctory manner of a rote stories are those of the formation of the Union recitation.
and of the Civil War. It would appear, therefore, that according to With the beginning of the fifth grade, as the requirements laid down for the proper pointed out by the superintendent, there is study of civil government in the public schools more detailed study of the history of the L'nited the teaching now in vogue in the schools is not States. Among the instructions for teachers of adequate.
the seventh grade is this: The plan pursued in the Cleveland public schools seems to the writer well calculated to
«Throughout the year bring out the relation of
cause and effect. So, when studying the Colonial develop civic ideals in children, and might well
and Revolutionary periods, refer to such political and be adopted in other cities. The superintendent, social conditions in England, France, Spain, and HolMr. L. H. Jones, writes that the course of studies land as affect conditions and events in America." was planned with —
Among the rules for the eighth or highest -the idea of trying to get something in each grade grade are the following: adapted especially to the development of the child in that grade. ... Work in civics begins in concrete
“When studying the period of confederation, show instances of city government which are already
the struggle between ideas standing for freedom of familiar to the child, and which are known to him as
the individual and power of the government." functions of government. In questions of conduct we «Trace the history of political parties.” “There rely largely on the story involving moral principles
should be occasional discussion of such topics of conand conduct. In history we rely chiefly on biography
temporary and current history as arrest the attention in the lower grades, coupled with a few of the more
of thoughtful people.” striking events of our country's history. At the be
Sufficient has been here presented of the ginning of the fifth grade, however, we begin taking
course of one school system to show what can topics in a somewhat chronological order, so that sequences of time may be observed and to some extent
be done in planning studies so as to include the law of cause and effect may be seen. The fifth
civil government in the lower grades and correand sixth grades pass over in this manner the entire
lating it with American history. It must be history of the United States, touching, of course, only
obvious, too, that properly to carry out such a a few salient features. Much more work is given in plan teachers must be well drilled and equipped, the outline than we expect any one teacher to teach. and the necessity for their special preparation The seventh and eighth grades respectively repeat has been adverted to. the work of the fifth and sixth grades, but do it with a
A plan such as is here suggested is calculated good text-book in 'seir hands and through the use, to
to vitalize, in the understanding of the pupils, some extent, of books of reference from the school libraries and the public libraries."
the principles and the practices of the American
governments, and to instil, from early child. In the outline of the course of study of the
hood, a love, a respect, and a reverence for that Cleveland public schools for 1898-99, the pro
which is good in American institutions, and vision for the study of government in the first a desire to root out that which is evil in them. grade (the pupils of which are seven years of The study of civil government in the public age) is that it should be by means of concrete schools will, I believe, free the average mind examples only. For the second grade (the pu- of much of the cobweb which now surrounds it pils of which are a year older), among the topics with reference to political action; will lead to are: «The Letter Carrier and his Work,”.
a clearer understanding of the duties and relocation of one or two letter boxes, how to put
sponsibilities of the American voter and citi. a letter in. Among the history stories are
zen; will cause a deeper and more sustained «The Boy Columbus,» «The Pilgrims at Ply- interest to be taken in what is, in common parmouth,» « The First Thanksgiving Day,” refer
lance, called politics; will bring about a healthences to appropriate books being given. For
ier sentiment respecting the doings of officials the third grade, among the topics are: The
and representatives; and will eventuate in a School Council and the Director, - treating of
more general and genuine participation of the what they do,-as, providing school-houses,
people in the affairs of municipality, State, school furniture and equipment, for payment of and nation, expenses of the school, etc. Among the stories
CHARLES S. BERNHEIMER. are tales of the colonial times and the Revo
SOME WONDERFUL PARALLELSI
HOW MODERN SCIENCE HAS INVADED THE REALM OF FABLEDOM
was the music which he made that even rocks moved from their foundations at its sound.
This principle of inanimate nature being influenced by rhythmical musical sound-a myth no longer - is well-known to science under the name of «sympathetic vibration. It has recently been discovered that every object has its vibratory period, or what is known as its sympathetic note. If this note is sounded persistently, there is produced in the object a responsive motion or vibration which may in time acquire considerable - even destructive — force. Glasses are sometimes cracked by continuously singing into them their sympathetic note.
The familiar story of the fiddler who threatened to destroy a bridge by fiddling before it is simply an example of the same scientific fact.
HOSE of us who have been accustomed to
smile at the impossibilities) of fairy tales and mythology will do well to reflect
that modern science has already duplicated many of their greatest marvels. In some cases the reality has proved even more amazing than the fancy. A glance at the following parallels should convince the most skeptical that in this age of the world it is wise to be sparing in the use of the word “impossible.”
The Frost Cap and Liquid Air In German and Russian folk-lore is found the wonderful tale of the «Frost Cap.” The German version tells how a party of travellers were beguiled by the wicked king of a certain country into a banquet-room built all of iron and located directly over a red-hot fire. As the heat began to be unbearable all sought to escape, but found that the doors and windows were barred. Finally, when all the rest had abandoned hope, one of them turned on his head the magical cap which he wore. Instantly there ensued such a great cold that the food froze fast to the plates, and frost formed on the window-panes in spite of the raging fire beneath.
So much for fable, now for fact. At a recent lecture in New York some experiments were performed with liquid air. In one of them a kettle-full of water was heated over a bunsen burner until it boiled violently. Then the lecturer lifted the cover and dropped into it a small quantity of the liquid air. Almost immediately frost formed on the utside of the kettle although the flame still burned beneath.
Vulcan's Invisible Chains and a
Modern Battery The great fire-god, Vulcan, from whose name we get our verb, (vulcanize," and our noun, (volcano,” was the most skilful artificer.known to fabledom. In his great forge under Mount Ætna were fashioned many wonderful pieces of work. One of the most famous of these was a chair so devised that the unsuspecting occupant would suddenly find himself bound with invisible chains, and unable to rise.
One need not be a god to-day in order to equal this. An ordinary chair provided with metal handles and a battery connection is all that is required. Let the occupant be induced to grasp the handles while enough of the current is turned on to contract his muscles, and he will find himself quite as firmly bound as the sitter in Vulcan's chair, and with chains equally invisible.
The Bag of Æolus and Compressed Air
Greek mythology tells us that when Ulysses was on his voyage after the famous siege of Troy, the wind-god, Æolus, presented him with a bagful of favoring breezes, and these he used as occasion required upon the sails of his vessel. Here we have the principle of wind (or air-pressure) stored for use as motive power, but never until recent years has such a thing been possible outside of mythology.
To-day, however, in New York, in Paris, in Chester, England, and in other places, may be found street cars which whiz through the streets without horse, steam, trolley, or cable. Instead of these, each contains a tank of compressed air, from which, under direction, air rushes through the driving mechanism of the car and propels it. It is the bag of Æolus greatly improved.
Jove's Thunderbolts and Electrocution
This same Vulcan forged the thunderbolts for great Jove, the supreme god of all, and the latter used them occasionally to destroy mortals who had incurred his displeasure.
Man has not yet, it is true, equalled the fearful stroke of a flash of lightning, but he has produced an electric current which will instantly destroy life, and has repeatedly used it for that purpose in Sing Sing prison.
Dædalus and Herr Lilienthal
Orpheus and Sympathetic Vibration One of the most romantic characters of mythology was the musician Orpheus. So sweet
Dædalus, who built the Labyrinth where the monster, Minotaur, was confined, became, we are told, weary of his exile in Crete, and in order to escape he constructed wings to be worked by his own muscles. With these he flew safely over the sea, although his son Icarus was less fortunate and fell into the water, since The modern pharmacopoeia also knows of drugs that will weaken and destroy memory. Carbon disulphide and others are claimed to have this effect.
The Water of Life and Toxicology In fabledom we frequently encounter a mysterious (water of life, sometimes from an enchanted spring, sometimes from a witches' caldron, but often with the peculiarity that whosoever drinks of it sparingly is greatly invigorated, but the one who drinks to excess dies.
In this respect it bears a striking resemblance to a recently discovered law of toxicology, namely, that all poisons taken in sufficiently small doses are tonic in their effect, in slightly larger doses are narcotic, and in still larger doses are fatal.
known at that point as the Icarian Sea. This, of course, is the purest myth.
Recently, however, Otto Lilienthal, a German inventor, succeeded in taking a number of short flights with wings of his own construction, using no other motive power than that of his own muscles. His experiments realized for him the fate of Icarus, as in one of his flights he fell and received fatal injuries.
Aërial Navigation, Fictitious and Real
Going a step farther, the idea of travelling through the air, not by wings of one's own manufacture like Dædalus, but by means of external machinery, occupies a large place in fable. Mythology and fairy-tales are so full of accounts of winged horses and flying carpets, of cars drawn by birds or dragons, and of other methods of magic, that the mere list would be a long one. And yet not until the advent of the balloon (about one hundred years ago) has it been possible for man to rise into the realms of the air without the direct or indirect support of the earth's surface.
To-day aëronautics have so far advanced that balloon ascensions are no longer a rarity. Balloons have also come to have a recognized value for military purposes, and even a polar expedition by balloon has been undertaken by scientists of standing. It is generally believed that we are on the eve of much greater things. Maxim, Langley, and other inventors have already accomplished so much in their experiments that, in the opinion of many scientists, aëria) navigation will be an important factor in the travel of the early future.
Bazr Badim and a Submarine Diver Occasionally in fairy tales mortals are permitted to visit the bottom of the sea.
The «Arabian Nights » tells of King Bazr Badim, who obtained his power to do so as the result of having his eyes pencilled with a mysterious powder, while there were recited over him the names graven on the seal ring of Solomon.
To-day the method of preparing a diver for a trip to the sea-bottom is rather more complicated and includes a metal helmet, rubber suit, leaden weights, air-pump connection, and other things; but once at the bottom he enjoys a considerable degree of freedom. He can view his surroundings, walk about and work for an hour or two if he desire before returning to the surface. This may seem less attractive than the method of the «Arabian Nights, but it has this point in its favor — it can be done. Submarine boats are also beginning to be heard of and promise to figure largely in future enterprises of peace and war.
The River Lethe and Medical Chemistry
There was a celebrated stream in ancient mythology of which it was said that whosoever drank of its waters would lose all remembrance of the past.
Ancient and Modern Employment of
Apollo and Neptune The crafty king of Troy made a bargain with Apollo, the sun-god, and Neptune, god of the sea, by which they were to build for him the walls of the city. He later failed to keep his part of the bargain, and the deities took revenge. Since to the imaginative Greek mind these gods represented respectively the power of the sun and of the sea, this fable practically pictures the sun and the sea as furnishing working energy to mankind.
To-day, while we no longer deify sun and sea, we do know them to be vast storehouses of power, and have been able to use that power for mechanical purposes.
There have been various solar engines devised in which curved mirrors have been employed to focus the sun's rays upon boilers, wherein the water was thus heated to the steam-generating point.
Recently, too, considerable attention has been attracted by a proposition to construct great piers in the ocean and utilize the natural rise and fall of the ocean tides and swells, operating through a series of floats, air-compressors, and dynamos, to furnish power for all sorts of purposes.
It is claimed that practically unlimited mechanical energy could thus be obtained, and that Neptune might soon become a great manufacturer as well as wall-builder,
The Kindling Water and Nitric Acid Ancient Greek mythology and more recent European folk-lore tell of wonderful lakes and rivers wherein if a stick were thrown it would burst into flames on touching the water.
Strong nitric acid, as we know it to-day, is not unlike water in appearance, and if a piece of heated charcoal be cast upon it, the latter will take fire and burn rcely.
HARRY CHASE BREARLEY. NEW YORK
(To be continued.)
A NATION OF OAT-EATERS. In a recent interview, Secretary of Agriculture, James Wilson, stated some astounding facts relative to the increased consumption of oats among Americans. After giving some startling facts concerning the remarkable increase of manufacturing, he says:
« The amazing growth of the popularity of oats as human food in this country is due to an increased familiarity with its value in the diet. It contains a very large proportion of the substance that makes muscle and blood.
«Oats are destined to become steadily more popular in this country as food. As I have said, we are becoming a nation of oat-eaters. It is a good sign, and promises well for the future of the country and its people.”
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