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is centred throughout on the evolution of a companion volume dealing very charmingly the nation politically, and upon the Church's with child life during the colonial period. The varying course in relation to the State. Now story is graphically related how the young of and then are to be met with some striking bit those days were dressed, reared, and eduof portraiture, in king, priest, or minister; but cated; how, under the hard conditions and surnothing is ostentatiously intruded for rhetori- roundings of early life on this continent, the cal effect or to mar the quiet and impressive child passed its babyhood days, was taken – course of the on-moving narrative. The vol- often under the bleakest and most wintry of umes are a contribution of surpassing interest skies — to meeting-house to be baptized; then, to English history, and the author deserves un- when it had grown a bit, was sent to the primstinted praise for the achievement which is the itive log schoolhouse, there, under the rigid fit crown of a long and strenuous life.

supervision of a not unkindly old dame or a ☆

grim old pedagogue, to make its acquaintance Reminiscences of Under the title of “Lights with the hornbook and primer and be disci

the Bishop of and Shadows of a Long Epis- plined in matters scholastical, theological, and Minnesota

copate » that apostolic Father moral. Pace Mrs. Earle, we also see how the of the Western Church, Bishop Whipple, of the little ones amused themselves on the playdiocese of Minnesota, has published a delight ground, on the beach, in the woods, or at home; ful record of his pioneering missionary and how the girls among them were taught needlediocesan labors. This now venerable prelate of craft and the decorative arts; what were their the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United toys, games, and pastimes; how unattractive and States has been long known for his unwearied forbidding were the story and picture books they good work in the evangelization of Indians and read; in what gloom they were trained morally, the elevation of the negroes of the South. His and how austere was their religious upbringing. zeal and devotion in missionary work among When they were done with the dominie, we see the Indians, and his phenomenal success in also what they had to endure at the hands of utilizing them for the Master's service, have the magistrates; yet with all the chillings of the made his name familiar not only throughout old-time discipline we know what sturdy citithe United States, but among the learned and zens the period turned out. We are made to influential churchmen of England, where he see, moreover, that life in these early days was has many hearty friends, and, on repeated oc- much better in many ways in America than in the casions, has been warmly welcomed and hon- England from which numbers of the colonists ored by them. The book is rich in interesting had come.

Especially was this so in the case recollections of the bishop's intimate personal of families of moderate means, and children, contact with distinguished people both in this as Mrs. Earle tells us, shared the benefits of country and in England. His frank and en- these better conditions. The book is replete gaging manners, his great pulpit power and with interest, and many of its chapters have a energy in diocesan work, his interesting mem- positive charm — especially to the grown folk ories of early pioneering life, and alluring with active memories, who have not forgotten methods in dealing with Indians, together with that they themselves were once children. The his enlivening fund of anecdote, give great volume is enriched with a number of interesting charm to the narrative. Nor is the least inter- illustrations. est to be found in the broad catholicity and spirit of religious toleration which characterizes Crawford's That industrious and culthe bishop, and of which there are many pleas- (Via Crucis tured story-teller, Mr. F. Maing examples throughout the volume. In his rion Crawford, has for the time being dropped forty years' labors in the Episcopate Dr. Whip; his delightful “Saracinesca” series of Italian ple has been a most active and enthusiastic stories to give us a romance of the era of the worker. His relations with the dusky children Second Crusade. The story «Via Crucis» of the Northwest, among whom he has zeal- gives a remarkable picture of Christianity in ously ministered, winning many of them to the twelfth century, when the light of chivalry, Christ, are here delightfully yet modestly told, to use the novelist's phrase, “had dawned upon and with a degree of heartiness in his evangel- an age of violence, but was not yet fully risen. izing work which redounds to the good bishop's The crusade is the one preached by the famous honor. No one can read the reverend gentle- St. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, in which over man's itinerary of travel with and among a million men-at-arms of France and Germany them without noting how much good has been took part, but which proved a costly failure. done by this earnest and faithful servant of the The early part of the novel moves rather heavCross.

ily, but it becomes enthralling when Queen

Eleanor of Gascony appears in that rôle on the « Child Life in The entertaining author of scene, and the hero of the book, Gilbert Warde,

Colonial Days (Home Life in Colonial crusader, who had set himself to follow (the Days,” Mrs. Alice Morse Earle, has followed way of the Cross,” falls under the witchery of that interesting historical and social work with a woman's fair face. Here we reach the strong * New York and London: The Macmillan Co.

* New York and London: The Macmillan Co.

> *

» *

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and stirring parts of the story, and we conse- pleasing picture; and the novel is true enough quently find the author at his best. The tale to life vividly to show us what were the diffi. has much of the charm of Scott's Ivanhoe,” culties, political and military, that the great which deals with the Third Crusade; but Mr. leader of our arms had to contend with at the Crawford has more brilliant qualities, with head of the Continental army, with a parsimogreater intensity of emotion, than his early nious and often hostile Congress, and with offiprototype; together with a wider range of cers whose fidelity was undermined by intrigue scholarship and greater perfection of literary and jealousy. This adds greatly to the historstyle. His sympathy with Roman Catholicism ical value of the novel. Many of the scenes leads Mr. Crawford to interest the reader are most spirited, while the romantic incidents deeply in the ecclesiasticism of the Middle are in many cases highly dramatic. All centre Ages; yet this is done so artistically as not to effectively round the winsome figure of Miss interfere with, but to give greater scope to, the Janice,” who makes a charming heroine, winplay and passion of romance. Abundant pas- ning the hearts alike of rebel and loyalist. sages throughout the book reveal this, as the One there is, of course, who carries off the two following quotations show:

prize; but his name must not even be hinted at « God, honour, woman - these made up the simple

in these pages.

The story is one that will abtrinity of a knight's belief and reverence, from the sorb and enthral the reader. moment when the Church began to inake an order of fighting men, with ceremonies and obligations of their

☆ own, thereby forever binding together the great con

Knowlson's In this busy age, when, as the ceptions of true Christianity and true nobility.”

( The Art of author of this useful little text• In the absence of anything like real learning among

Thinking »

book aptly says, “life is so the laymen of those days, education in its simplest and complex, the struggle for existence is so keen, most original sense played a very large part in life, and Gilbert (the knightly hero of the book] had acquired

and when pleasures of various kinds are so that sort of culture in its highest and best form. The

cheap and abundant, men and women seem to object of mere instruction is to impart learning for some live entirely on the surface of things. What distinct purpose, but most chiefly, perhaps, in order we need is a call to independent thought. Peothat it may be a means of earning a livelihood. The object of education is to make men, to produce the char.

ple read a great deal more than they used to acter of the man of honour, to give men the inward

do— there is more to be read — but they think grace of the gentleman, which cannot manifest itself less.” To counteract this, and to stimulate the outwardly save in good manners, modesty of bearing,

act and art of thinking, is the purpose of Mr. and fearlessness; and such things in earlier days were profoundly associated in the minds of men with the in

Knowlson's instructive and inspiring volume ward principles and the outward rites of Christianity." just issued by Frederick Warne & Co., London «Via Crucis » will be found to be a great

and New York. The book, which can convenovel, remarkable alike for its power and bril

niently be read through in an evening's leisure, liance, and, above all, for its engrossing quali

is full of the method of clear and practical ties as a love story of the highest and most

thinking, and will be found very helpful to the enduring type.

young student who seeks to know the rules and practices in which the art of thinking consists

and how to avail himself of those constructive Mr. P. L. Ford's “Janice Meredith » belongs Janice Mere- to the same historical period

processes, familiarity with which make the as Mr. Winston Churchill's

clear, the ready, and the accurate thinker. «Richard Carvel, though the chief scenes of

The chapters successively deal with the thinkthe love-story are placed by Mr. Ford in New

ing faculty, what the mind is, how it is furJersey. The novel is a splendid bit of charac

nished, how one can think correctly, creatively, terization, and should be read by everyone

morally, – that is, honestly, fairly, and without who can appreciate a delightful romance and

emotional bias or prejudice. The illustrative especially by those who are interested in a

material is very helpful, as are the works revivid and painstaking narrative of the stirring

ferred to suggested for fuller study. To those scenes in the War of the Revolution. The stu

who are conscious that they daily devour a dent of history should at least be attracted to

heap of scrappy reading and do little or no the book, since most of the incidents of the

thinking, and want a guide and mentor to corwar are picturesquely dealt with, from its first

rect their shortcomings, we commend Mr. outbreak down to the British capitulation at

Knowlson's compact and suggestive little volYorktown. The lovers of the charming hero

☆ ine being numerous enough to include officers

A Canadian That Canadian writers are of Howe's army as well as Washington's, we

Poet's Verse naturally get glimpses of the chief actors on

ambitious to win laurels in the both sides, together with pictures of the social

fields of poesy is again shown by the puband military surroundings of the opposing

lication of a new collection of Mr. W. Wilfred armies. Of Washington himself we get a most

Campbell's verse, from the press of Messrs.

Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., Boston. Mr. Camp* * Janice Meredith: a Story of the American Revolu

bell, who holds a position in the civil service of tion." By Paul Leicester Ford, author of « The Hon.

the Dominion Government at Ottawa, is already Peter Stirling, etc.

dith >*

ume.

536 pages.

New York: Dodd, Mead, & Co.

favorably known as (the Laureate of the

I 2mo,

acters and incidents connected with the literary history of Boston, together with much delightful gossip appertaining to the home-life of its famous residents. A number of woodcuts and half-tone illustrations add to the interest and value of the book, while they give zest to the chronicle of Boston's old-time civic and social life.

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Lakes, and especially is he known by his strikingly beautiful poem, «The Mother, which attracted so much attention on its appearing, some eight or nine years ago, in «Harper's Magazine. The present collection, which includes the latter poem, is entitled Beyond the Hills of Dream,”— the subject-title of a delicious bit of verse which opens the poet's new volume. The work is throughout distinguished by beauty of thought and diction, by melody and tunefulness, and by felicity in the choice of themes. Nowhere is there any mark of morbidness or of those besetting sins of our modern poets – want of sincerity in the themes and their treatment, and lack of lucidity as well as of beauty in the technical fashioning of the verse. The volume bears the stamp not only of mental healthfulness, but of high and severe thought. Nor will the reader fail to mark the note of humanness, and of love and sympathy with nature, which in a special degree characterize Mr. Campbell's work. The poems “Morning on the Shore,» « Victoria,” and the tribute to the memory of a Canadian poet-comrade (the late Mr. Lampman) entitled “Bereavement of the Fields,” are proofs of this. Other examples in the volume strike varied strings of the lyre, and are marked not only by the qualities of imagination and picturesque thought, but also by a fine and exact sense for verse-structure and rhythm. Besides the gift of felicitous lyrical expression the author possesses a wide range of fancy, and, as we have said, is actuated by high and serious purpose.

The work, while it is a distinct gain to literature, confers high honor on Canadian letters.

Zangwill's Under the title of «They «Ghetto

that Walk in Darkness » Mr. Tragedies)) *

Israel Zangwill, the AngloJewish novelist, has issued a fresh collection, with some infusion of earlier material, of the remarkable stories of Jewish life from his pen which he terms «Ghetto Tragedies. The author, it need hardly be said, is widely known both in literary and dramatic circles for his realistic studies of life in the Jewish purlieus of East London. The volume gives the reader many vivid pictures of this life, some of the stories being highly dramatic as well as most thrilling and impressive. Round them play the flashings of an exuberant imagination, with streaks of keen humor and biting irony. The volume is engrossing in its interest and will do much to evoke compassion for they that walk in darkness and to compel admiration for the gifted writer who is its sympathetic interpreter.

Drake's Historic The publishers, Messrs.

Mansions Little, Brown, & Co., have around Boston” done helpful service to the historical student as well as to the lover of oldtime reminiscences in reissuing, in handsome garb, the delightful itinerary around the cradle of the national life from the pen of a wellknown Bostonian, Mr. Samuel Adams Drake. The work originally appeared about a quarter of a century ago, under a somewhat different title: it is once more put on the market with revisions caused by the disappearance of some of the old landmarks and other changes in the historic surroundings of the capital of the New England Commonwealth. Its present title, «Historic Mansions and Highways around Boston,” is a fit as well as an appetizing one, not only to the local Bostonian with antiquarian tastes, but to all who are interested in the early records of a community, many of whom were actors in the struggle of the Thirteen Colonies to throw off allegiance to Britain, or have since been closely identified with the nation's educational, religious, literary, and social life. The itinerary is pleasantly and often graphically written, and is lit up by many enlivening stories and happy reminiscences. The work sets vividly before the reader numberless char

Stories from

In these militant times it is a Froissart's

happy idea to put on the book Chronicle *

market a compact, well-edited collection of the famous narratives which deal with the wars waged in the fourteenth century, from the pen of the courtier-poet and historian, Sir John Froissart. The selection from the well-known medieval chronicler has been happily made by the editor, Mr. Henry Newbolt, who has done his work spiritedly and with manifest sympathy for the roving knight-errant who industriously gathered the material of his martial chronicle from knights, s., -ies, heralds, archers, and yeomen-at-arms either at court or on the tented field. The volume includes, besides the journey of Sir John Froissant and the account of the proposed invasion of England by the chivalry of France in 1386, vivid and entertaining narratives of the naval battle of Sluys, of the siege of Calais, and of those great encounters at Creçy and Poictiers that first taught the French the skill and prowess of English bowmen and the destructiveness, even at that age, of English artillery. The chronicle fairly glows with the military pageantry of the time and the pride of battle. But the narrative does not wholly consist of battle pictures lurid with blood: we see something also of life at court and in hall and castle; and here Froissart is most delightful as a chronicler. The text is the approved one of Lord Berners, and is enriched by many realistic pictures.

G. M. A. * New York and London: The Macmillan Co.

THE TEACHING OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS

T"

HERE can be no more fascinating study the welfare of the city; for legislators who con

than that of the human institutions un- trol great powers respecting the relations of the der which we live.

citizens in the States, of the States to each Prof. C. R. Henderson, in his « Cate- other, and of the nation to other nations; for a chism for Social Observation,) *

says:

President who makes policies and acts on prin«It seems to be thought at times that children ciples momentously influencing the weal and are not competent to study human relations and woe of the nation at large. The voters ought social phenomena, and that they must be held chiefly surely to be equipped with the best possible to the observation of natural objects. I set high

knowledge of the candidates and the leading value on nature studies, but I believe that humanity

political ideas they espouse, so that they will is the object of keener interest and of higher importance. Children show that humanity is most interest

choose representatives and officials on whose ing to them when they personify all nature objects,

intelligence and discretion they may rely. And giving them the voices, thoughts, and attributes of

if these representatives and officials should man. It is something to know plants and toads and want to be guided by a public sentiment, surely insects, and be able to describe them, identify them, this sentiment ought not to be that of a set of classify them. But it is still more important to know ignoramuses, of a purblind constituency. the essential facts of humanity.”

Accepting the principles of universal sufWith the growing interest in the study of the frage which we have adopted, it ought to be our political and social sciences, the desirability of endeavor to educate our voters not only by a placing the elementary principles of those sub- schooling in the ordinary subjects now taught, jects within reach of the young becomes more but in the principles of government, so that and more manifest. In a country like the public sentiment may be formed by a large United States, where the mainsprings of polit- number of individuals trained to think on the ical action are constantly before the public for questions which bear on our public policies, discussion, it would seem most logical that the who will be able to make effective demand for youth should be taught at least the more es- broad, enlightened action by the legislators, and sential of the principles of government, so that faithful, efficient service by the administrators. they will have a basis of thought and motive in Teach them the basal notions of civic duty, their adult days. One would suppose that in a so that they will have high respect for honesty democratic community like the United States, in public affairs; so that they will contemn provision for instruction would be made for as dishonest acts of officials; so that they will as early a time in the school life of the child as readily reject public men who do dishonorable will enable it to grasp some of the primary and venal things as they would private indi. ideas, so that at whatever age it terminates its viduals; so that they will exact an even cleaner school career ić will have learned somewhat of moral record of a candidate for or appointee to the institutional character of the country. And public office because of the larger relations yet, when the curricula of our schools are ex- into which he enters. amined, it is found that such expectations have Teach the children how the wheels of gov. not been realized, that provisions for the study ernment go round and how they can assist in of civil government are far from being made making them go round so that they will proalong the lines of the foregoing suggestions. duce benefits for their communities. Point On the other hand there is reasonable ground out to them the results of the present manipufor hope of better times coming in this connec- lation of the machinery. Show them the postion, from the fact that not only are educators sibilities of engineering by experienced men and students of government agitating for its whose sole interest is the public welfare. introduction in the public schools, but it is ob- We ought not to place ourselves in the positaining wider and wider acceptance as a school tion of the French, whose indifference to politics subject, and gradually forcing its way in, not- is well brought out by Mr. Bodley in his withstanding the conservative forces repre- (France. »* He observes: sented in the governing bodies of schools.

«In a nation which lives under a representative sysWe ask men to vote for councilmen who

tem of government this slack of interest in politics) is have the disposition and regulation of large an unhealthy sign. ... That the French people ... rights and privileges belonging to and affecting should choose representatives to legislate and to gove the citizens individually and collectively; for a ern, for whom they have scant respect, and who in mayor whose single word and act touch upon

their legislative capacity are incapable of inspiring * Page 52. (Boston: D. C. Heath & Co., 1894.)

*Vol. II, p. 192. (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1898)

popular interest, gives the impression that the parliamentary system, and consequently the régime whereof it is the basis, are provisional arrangements. For when parliamentary institutions, by reason of their composition or their action, are not respected, they cannot be regarded as permanent, and it is difficult to foresee who would protest in France if a dictator treated the deputies of the Chamber constituted in 1875 as did Louis Napoleon their more respectable predecessors.)

We in the United States are not looking for a dictator. Those who truly love this country are endeavoring to release citizens from the rule of dictators in the cities and States, are trying to make the government more representative in reality, and are constantly urging more active participation in political matters. Mr. Bodley's observations point an interesting and instructive moral for us.

In an article entitled "Shall We Have Trained Officials?») in «The Outlook for October 29, 1898, the writer said:

( It is well understood that one of the best means of reforming a people, and sometimes the only means, is to educate their children; and I believe that this plan can be applied by the instruction of our children in the public schools in the principles of political reform. The study of civil government, ... once implanted in the minds of our future voters, will go a long way toward compelling changes in our political methods. ... Our colleges, in their teaching of political science, are doing much for the elevation of the civic spirit; and when the boys and girls in our lower schools become imbued with this spirit, by a process similar to that obtained by the graduates in higher education, the politicians will point their fingers of scorn and ridicule in vain.” Mr. Bryce, in his «American Common

says: (That the education of the masses is nevertheless a superficial education, goes without saying. It is sufficient to enable them to think they know something about the great problems of politics : insufficient to show them how little they know. The public elementary school gives everybody the key to knowledge in making reading and writing familiar, but it has not time to teach him how to use the key, whose use is in fact, by the pressure of daily work, almost confined to the newspaper and the magazine. So we may say that if the political education of the average American voter be compared with that of the average voter in Europe, it stands high; but if it be compared with the functions which the theory of the American government lays on him, which its spirit implies, which the methods of its party organization assume, its inadequacy is manifest.”

Now it seems to me that the elementary school has the time or should take the time to give the key to a more specific knowledge of public affairs. And Mr. Bryce himself agrees to this, for in an article in “The Forum » for July, 1893, entitled «The Teaching of Civic Duty,” he declares that the habits which the schoolmaster may seek to form in the pupils are to strive to know what is best for one's country as a whole; to place the interest of one's country,

when one sees it, above party or class feeling or any other sectional passion or motive; to be willing to take trouble, personal and even tedious trouble, for the well-governing of every public community to which one belongs, be it township or parish, a ward or a city, or the nation as a whole.

Assuming then, with Mr. Bryce, the propriety of the schoolmaster endeavoring to instil habits which will lead the pupils to interest themselves in the workings of their local and national governments, so that when they come to exercise the suffrage, to partake of the duties of citizenship, and to help to voice public sentiment, they may bring with them the best possible training, let us inquire as to what knowledge they ought to receive, how it can best be supplied, and to what extent the public schools attempt to supply it.

It is not intended here to outline the exact scope and method which such a study of civil government should take, so much as to emphasize its importance as part of the curriculum of a public-school system, and to urge the introduction of the study into the lower grades of the schools.

In order to ascertain what is being done in the study of civil government in the public schools, the writer sent out schedules to superintendents of the schools of a limited number of the leading cities of the country, representative of the various sections. Replies relating to the public schools of Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, St. Louis, Detroit, St. Paul, Milwaukee, New Orleans, and San Francisco form the basis of the summary. It shows that, as a rule, civil government is not taught below the eighth or highest grade of the grammar school; that the average age of the pupils in this grade is about thirteen or fourteen years; that the proportion of pupils in this grade to the whole does not, in all probability, exceed five per cent; that the study is usually correlated with American listory; and that ordinarily no special training is afforded teachers who instruct in civil government.

On this last point Prof. A. B. Hart, in his «Studies in American Education,» * says:

« Another subject for university participation is history and civil government. Teachers need to be made aware of the possible improvements in the teaching of these respective subjects, and especially in the use of material on what may be called the laboratory method. A good course of this kind ought to give a teacher a fund of valuable material and illustration, and a training in the teaching of history as a developing subject rather than as a memory subject.”

Mr. Robert A. E. Cutter, teacher of civics in the Northwest Division High School of Chi

wealth,»*

cago, writes:

« The presumption is that civics is constantly taught whenever occasion offers during the entire

* Second Edition, Vol. II, p. 276. (London and New York: The Macmillan Co., 1891.)

* Page 63 (New York and London: Longmans, Green, & Co., 1895.)

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