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who appeared to be a younger sister of her ating. While she was not industrious, she was companion, but you two do wear me out! Year nevertheless an ornament to society. It was a in and year out you slop around, complaining pleasure to look at her and to listen to her. She that you never have anything and never go had a trained and educated mind, and while anywhere, making your beds just before you she stood for nothing in particular and did crawl into them, and looking out of the front nothing worth mentioning, her thoughts were windows at the horses going by! Don't you large and kind, her manners an example, ever think? Haven't you anything at all in- and her company a delight to her friends. And side your heads ? »

yet, as I thought of all that needed doing in the She waited for an answer, but received none. world — of the important tasks left undone for

Don't you even know enough to quarrel ?» lack of someone to perform them — this charmSilence still.

ing woman seemed almost like a criminal to me. «Who do you expect to pay your rent for At best she was a selfish egotist. As for the

other woman — the vampire – there was No answer.

question about her criminality. She was con«Are you going to wait till the sheriff gets at sciously, perhaps deliberately, consuming the your door and then send for me as you did last nerve force, the money, and the happiness of time?»

her young sister. Had she administered slow The languid one preserved her comfortable poison to her she would have been no more silence.

vicious. “Do you expect me to find winter clothes for

☆ both of you into the bargain ?”

To a great extent it seems as if the inNo remarks.

ability to find an occupation of some sort “You know you do! You keep still and look must be the result of careless training in like a Christian martyr, but I know very well youth. The deep, slothful indifference of that you will be coming round with a pathetic women of the type whose conversation I overexpression soon and that I will buy the stuff heard on the elevated train must have been inand send up a dressmaker and fix the two of culated in childhood. Perhaps the child was you out. Then you'll weep because you have not made the companion of the mother, was to (eat the bread of charity, and mother will given no responsibility, was not confided in, weep. But you'll both sit in comfortable chairs nor solicited for help. It was not taught to while you do the weeping, and I'll go down give to others, nor made to feel that idleness town every morning in the slush and snow and was a waste. The kitchen-garden, which is do the work!»

operated much in cities. is a practical effort on Still the silence of the desert.

the part of the benevolent to overcome this “My soul!» sighed the other with exhaustion, supine acquiescence among the poor; it en“it wouldn't matter how I insulted you, you deavors to give lessons in the laws of resistwouldn't have the spirit to answer back. I ance,- the things to be resisted being disorder, know you call it a Christian grace, but I call it dirt, idleness, sickness, and the other discomthe worst form of heathen perversity.”

forts of life, many of which can be successfully She had evidently reached the climax of her overcome. protest, for an ominous silence fell between the All women may not have time to attend two. The women got off the train before I did, classes in psychology at the clubs, and to and as they passed me I looked at them. One acquire a knowledge of the technical divisions was young, neatly dressed, with an alert ner- of force and the will; but it does seem as if all vous manner and a worried, intelligent face. women could, if they would, live each day with From the flush on her cheeks I knew her for vigor, and inspire their children to do the the exasperated member of the duet. The

Ennui would vanish if this were done; other was lank, untidy, and frowsy, and she meanness would disappear from households dragged a beruffled skirt along the car. Her that are now cursed with it; and many of the eyes were half-veiled by heavy lids, her mouth sins of which men and women and boys and was selfish-looking and weak, and she moved girls are guilty would never be committed. with an insolent, slow swagger.

She was, it

For it is the idle who gossip, who are suspicious, was easy to see, of the vampire family,- that who impute wrong motives, and who invent ever-increasing breed of animals that ravage disagreeable hypotheses about their neighbors' society with their insatiate greed and who con- unexplained actions. There is much talk tribute nothing to their generation - neither about the rest-cure, but I have far more confimerchandise nor domestic order, nor fruits of dence in the work-cure, and am of the opinion the field, nor joy, nor ideas. They simply con- that a good part of the ills to which women are vert good oxygen into poison by the act of subject would disappear if the mind and body inhaling and exhaling it.

were happily occupied, if early rising were a

necessity, and if night found the body and the I WONDERED what was to be done with those spirit so wholesomely fatigued that sleep was drones who infest the human hive. In the case inevitable. Enthusiasms are inevitable when of my friend there was much that was extenu- the blood gets to circulating fast enough.


When the digestion is perfect, it is impossible to avoid happiness in some degree. For even if one has suffered the loss of one's best beloved, yet one must find other friends, if one is well in mind and body; and though a shameful sorrow may have come, yet one can attain philosophy. One can say: «Was I to blame? Then I will retrieve myself. I will build anew the structure of my life. What is past is past - my sins among othe things. Was another to blame? Then, though he be my own child, yet the sin is his and not mine. It is my life that I am living. He must live his. part when I give him my loyal love in spite of his sins.” If one has merely lost fortune, that can be regained, and in any event it is a superfluity. All one needs is enough to eat and wear; and there are occasions on which it is a

comfort to drop a burden of property and be care-free. Poverty has many ameliorating features.

To sum up, what the world needs for its happiness is more work, more achievement. Nature, which is never at rest, sets a superb example, not only of unceasing industry, but of exquisite workmanship. For not a beetle crawls along the ground but has a burnished back of ebony or jeweled green; not a weed by the roadside goes to seed but hides its promise of next year's blossom in a pod of fairy delicacy; not a spider-web glitters in the sun that is not marvellous in its structure. If only the world could be more conscious of “the Master of all Good Workmen » there would be less heartache than there is.


I do my



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to live and let live ) is an old adage which

is growing more difficult of application every day. At this time, nearly the end

of the nineteenth century, the labor question is one of absorbing interest, not only to the economist but to all classes of society,in the case of the capitalists, how to obtain the greatest amount of labor for the smallest wage; in the case of the laborer, how to obtain the greatest wage for the work performed.

Year by year there have been factors entering into the various fields of labor which have nearly revolutionized old-time conditions. Machinery has played an important part by reducing the requirements for physical labor, but it has also opened up other avenues, and, as a whole, elevated physical labor to the realm of mental. The fact that one machine does the work of many men has congested the ranks of mental labor.

Another factor which is rarely taken note of is the fact that with higher mental cultivation comes also a higher appreciation of the luxuries of life. American people are no longer content to live as their ancestors did.. The young man just entering upon the arena of life seeks to obtain for himself all the luxuries which were formerly the prerogative of the privileged class. The young woman keeps pace with her brother, and her requirements are largely in excess of those of her grandmother's or even her mother's girlhood.

Within the last few years luxuries have become so commonplace that they appear to be necessities. While all men are not to blame for this state of affairs, still, in an indirect way, the most of them are. Mr. Ridley states that in order to arrive at conclusions » of value to both men and women it will be necessary accurately

to define the cause and nature of women's interferences with industrial, commercial, and professional conditions, which disturb and conflict with general interests.” It appears to the present writer that –

1. Male neglect or inability properly to provide for daughters, and men's unwillingness to deny themselves luxuries in order to make provision for the future, have immediately conduced to the necessity of women entering the various fields of labor.

2. The treating habit and the club have largely taken the place of domestic life among men and practically deranged and disturbed social conditions.)

3. The plainly expressed admiration of men for expensively dressed women has encouraged extravagance in dress, being the incentive to many young women to enter the ranks of wage-earners. 4. «Such inroads and inversions »


domestic life have proven disastrous to the home, calamitous to the nation, and utterly subversive of natural laws and relations.)

Our interest in the matter is not so much the presence of women in the industrial field as the undercurrent which forces them into it. The new woman is but the old woman under different environment, the outgrowth of the present social conditions. In earlier days she was the proud helpmate of an energetic, ambitious husband, a co-worker with the man of her choice, who rewarded her affection by considering her the crowning blessing of his life.” To-day she must share her supremacy with the club or saloon, with politics and her husband's business (which frequently consumes an incredible amount of his time), and frequently she attains the distinction of being mistress of

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*A reply to a paper bearing this title, written by Mr. Edwin Ridley, in the "SELF CULTURE MAGAZINE » for October, 1899, Vol. X, No. 2, p. 181.

his establishment rather than, as formerly, be- every day; they are your neighbors and friends. ing mistress of his heart.

As to the women, I am sure they will acknowIt is manifest error to suppose that the ledge they prefer silk to cotton, but would majority of women wage-earners take up the rather have their husband's admiration than work from vanity or desire for notoriety. anything else. Many of them not only are dependent upon their Now, as to how woman shall earn her living. own exertions, but have others depending upon Why is it that men always expect more of them; in numberless instances having to take women than they do of men? They would up the work of the father, who by age or in- never suggest that a farmer should suddenly firmity has become incapable of supporting the plunge into Wall Street ; that a clerk in a store family, or that of a deceased husband. Woman should work in a blacksmith shop ; that a mer(at least the working woman) is not usually a chant should command a vessel. If a man grumbier, and often, although she feels the takes up something with which he has not been load a heavy one, she assumes it with a familiar, or for which he has not been specially cheerful face if not with a cheerful heart, real- trained, and makes a success of it, he is conizing that the ideal » existence is not for her, sidered a genius. Yet Mr. Ridley coolly se- at least for a few years, but she usually be- lects a dozen from the hundreds of avocations lieves that somehow, somewhere, the future of man and demands that women shall enter will provide a home which will compensate into competition, not only with the former her for the ills she is now called upon to occupants of those fields, but with every other endure.

working woman, and, no matter whether the The women who are working at the present work is congenial, attractive, or within the time for "pocket-money ” constitute but a very limit of her ability, she must do it so well as to small percentage of the employed. Even the receive a salary equal to that obtained by giddy girl, to whose mind business at first a man for the same work. As a rule seemed a fascinating pastime for which she women are more adaptable than men, but would receive a salary, soon discovers that the when men propose that a woman shall neinfraction of nature's law brings a swift pen- glect those avenues in which she is fitted to alty of failing health; that the daily round succeed and do work selected for her by those grows monotonous; and that something is who do not know anything whatever about lacking in her life. She has also learned that her, it is about as reasonable as to expect her wants are many, and, if she has been an a western cowboy, who has never been in the observing girl (as she usually is), that man, city before, to lead a German at the Waldorftoo, has wants far in excess of the average sal- Astoria. It must be borne in mind that women ary received by young men; that in married are not all cast in the same kind of mould, life it is frequently the wife who makes all the some larger than others, but all being adapted sacrifices; the husband must keep his social to certain lines of labor. They have as differposition and treat his friends to cigars, dinners, ent tastes and inclinations as men.

When they and drinks, even though the grocer and land- realize that it is necessary for them to seek emlord are becoming disagreeably attentive. ployment, they do just as a man would do,Then, too, she discovers that men are attracted turn to that which can be made useful to them to well-dressed women, and that modest worth, at the earliest opportunity; and they usually plainly attired, must give way to the repre- decide quickly, as in most cases sentative of fashion, even though the plainly pressing before they realize the necessity of appareled woman is his wife. Not that he providing for themselves. is untrue to her, but he is so constituted Then, too, every avocation is already full, that he cannot help admiring, at least with his and nothing is open where her work will not eyes, the woman whose charms are augmented conflict with man. The bookkeeper, clerk, by luxurious and tasteful dress. All women stenographer, and newspaper man are fully like admiration, and it is particularly grateful satisfied that woman's province lies in work from those they love; therefore it is not at all radically different from theirs. The doctor is surprising that a woman determines to obtain sure that the woman whose sign hangs in close that which shall make her charming, even if proximity to his own is out of her sphere. The she has to work for it.

florist, whose roses and violets must come into Of course the men who do me the honor to competition with those of his gentle neighbor, read these pages are not considered in the above fully realizes that she has mistaken her vocacategory. If their income is not large enough tion. The male school-teacher, who has already properly to support the family and to obtain been pushed far into the background, cannot beautiful plumage for the wife, they recognize view with equanimity the presence of women that a loving, gentle woman is more attractive in high schools and colleges. True, she may than the frail adornments which last only for a perhaps be better fitted for primary grades and season, and the plain gown of the wife is more early grammar-school studies than men, but in fitting and beautiful in their eyes than the most the higher education she is plainly an intruder. charming creations of ideal artists. But you Taking up Mr. Ridley's list of employments all know men who are otherwise; you meet them open to women, it must be granted that there

wants are

are many requisites for a nurse which the majority of women do not possess. The ranks of literature are already crowded, and unless one has unusual talent and originality women cannot hope to obtain remunerative employment. A successful introduction into art-life requires many years' preparation, which the average woman is not financially able to procure, even if she possesses the necessary talent. As for the stage, all women may be charming, but the demands of the stage do not end there, and the dragons who guard the entrance do not always recognize the talent which so many women would gladly exchange for lucre. It may also be stated that, in America, guides and chaperones are not much in demand outside of New York, and all working women do not live in New York.

Perhaps the largest and most accessible opening for women is that of cook. This line of work requires as special talent as music, poetry, or art, and offers abundant work and good salaries. But the families who enjoy the product of her labor consider the service menial, no matter how ladylike or refined the cook may be; and owing to this feeling, which prevails in all grades of society, she is debarred from all association with cultivated people. But few men or women care to be seen in the society of a cook, no matter how much they may enjoy her ait. It is not a question as to whether this distinction is a proper one or not. It prevails, and no woman has power to make it otherwise.

The plan which is sometimes suggested to clear certain channels of women wage-earners and confine them to a few special lines (for which the masculine mind considers them specially adapted) takes no note of the rights of florists, musicians, authors, physicians, artists, teachers, cooks, or men and women of the stage. Of course these people have no rights which other professions feel called upon to respect. Just imagine the chaos which would result in these occupations by the influx of all the women at present employed in earning a living, to say nothing of the failures which would result from women essaying to work in vocations for which they were not adapted.

Then as to the conjugal province.” Strange to say, the men who so glibly, in writing and conversation, advocate marriage for women, are usually bachelors. They can idealize the state for their neighbors, but as for themselves prefer (single-blessedness, so there will be no necessity of sharing their income with a family; and if, in addition to reserving their salaries for their own special gratification, they could prevent women from entering their special province, - thus preventing competition and permitting them to receive all the advantages arising therefrom,-- it would be “a consummation devoutly to be wished.”

As to salaries, the distinction lies not in sex, as has been claimed so many times, but is simply between experience and inexperience.

Skilled labor commands the highest prices, and many women are drawing salaries as large as men. But it is impossible for the masses of women to prepare themselves, in the short time usually available, to compete in point of salary with men who have been trained to certain lines from boyhood. If she demands with her inexperience the salaries to which they have risen, many times by slow stages, there could be no question as to the result. Their salaries were not large at first, and woman cannot stop to question, when the opportunity to earn her living comes, but must try and do as well as as she can on the best salary she can obtain.

But the great factor in reducing salaries is that of supply and demand. When the supply exceeds the demand, wages go down. The future prospect under conditions now existing is certainly discouraging both to men and women workers, for mothers, seeing the trend of masculine ideas, are now beginning to prepare their daughters to take care of themselves, because they fear for their future, even though there are no present indications that they will need such training. In a few years, when these girls who have had the training of men appear in the arena, there will be a more difficult problem to solve. The man who is now paid a large salary receives the greater portion of it for experience, consequently he can obtain more than an unskilled woman; but when experienced women enter the wage-workers' field in great numbers, as they will in a few years unless there is a change in present sentiment, the question of wages will be a more serious one than now.

The home life is certainly the proper sphere for most women, but it is hard for women who are adapted to such life to fill vacancies which do not exist. It might not be amiss for mothers to spend a part of the time which the masculine mind has allotted for the domestic training of girls, in the domestic training of their sons. There are numberless men who are willing to be married, but few home-makers, and the women of the present decade have too often seen Cupid's taper burn low where home was but a name. The true mother has ambition as well as love for her children, and the mother heart of every reflecting woman desires to be assured of a considerate, loving father for her children, whose affection for her is not likely to be shared by an unworthy object, and who is financially able and willing to support them.

Of the subject of women in business men are the arbiters of their own fate -- the future is entirely in their hands. When they become anxious to secure homes for themselves and are willing to admit the woman of their choice to an equal partnership in all their pleasures cares, affection, and income, then the business woman will disappear like snow upon a sunkissed mountain top, and America will be a land of homes and happiness.

Emma F. Smith,


Smith has much that is original and important

to say.

dom » *


« Po

Goldwin Smith's From a past-master in histori

«Political His- cal studies, one of the great tory of the

English thinkers of the time, United King

we have in these two compact

and thought-laden volumes a unique «History of the United Kingdom political lines. Their author, Dr. Goldwin Smith, once held the post of Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford, since filled in succession by such scholars as Stubbs, Freeman, and Froude, and early in the 'seventies he became honorary professor of English and Constitutional History at Cornell. For the past quarter of a century this eminent scholar, it will doubtless be known, has been a resident of Toronto, Canada, where he has given prestige to Canadian letters by his connection with many notable literary undertakings and has put his pen to almost priceless purpose in writing works of such great and abiding value as the one before us and its companion work, a litical History of the United States.) As has been said of these works, they present a review of the political growth of the English-speaking race in the form of a literary masterpiece, which is as readable as a novel, and is remarkable for its compression without dryness, and its brilliancy without any rhetorical effort or display.) The author's gift of lucid, succinct writing is nothing less than remarkable, as the reader must note in every chapter of the present fascinating history.

The story is concisely told, with no wcarying detail, but on broad lines, yet with such fullness of knowledge, as well as consummate literary skill, as stamps the work of rare and permanent value. The book reads more like a masterly essay than a labored history, though it is an essay charged to the full with the results of a scholar's life-work in the way of reading, reflection, and historical research. In this respect the volumes have a unique value, alike to the student and to the general reader, – the summing up, as it were, of all that has been thought and written concerning a great and strenuous people throughout a thousand years of the national history. Within the space at our command it is obviously impossible to enter into any detail of the history, or to discuss the points raised in regard to the political events of any individual epoch. The work abounds in material for intelligent and interesting discussion in connection with the formative and critical eras in England's history. Of these crucial eras, the shaping forces that find afterexpression in the national life, Dr. Goldwin

The eras covered by the volumes are those beginning with the Norman Conquest and ending with the Reform Bill of 1832. An introductory chapter treats of «Old English Polity, as we see it in the Saxon kingdoms in England under Alfred and his successors; while a closing one deals with the United Kingdom expanded into a British Empire, embracing India and the great self-governing colonies of the Crown. Within these widely-separated periods the learned Professor discourses of the political history of the nation in some thirty chapters, characterized, as we have said, by much originality of thought and sincerity of purpose, illumined by great picturesqueness of style. The attractions of the latter are so manifest as to arrest the reader on almost every page, while he will be no less struck by the rich suggestiveness of the matter, as well as by the surpassing interest of the story, so vigorously and instructively related. Examples of the author's acuteness of thought and incisiveness of style we have marked throughout the volumes; but had we even the entire magazine at command we would despair of exhausting the beauties » of the work. It has simply to be opened and started upon to engross even the most indifferent reader.

Naturally the more striking parts of the work are those that deal with the great formative movements and crises in the national history. Of paramount interest are the chapters that treat of the struggle between the crown and baronage and that between the crown and the church; the birth of Parliament; government, civil and religious, under the Tudors, with its pendant, the fight for sovereign power between the crown and the commons which marked the era of the Commonwealth; the crisis that brought doom to the Stuarts and led to the Revolution of 1688; parliamentary government under the first two Georges — the ministries of Walpole, Chatham, and Pitt; the «tragical disaster » in English history, the rupture be. tween England and her American colonies; the national contest with Napoleon; and finally the era of parliamentary reform and its fruits. On all these topics Mr. Goldwin Smith discourses in a most illuminating and stimulating manner worthy of his high reputation as a scholar and thinker. In covering the immense ground the writer lingers nowhere, nor does he weary the reader by taking up matters of minor detail. The literary progress of the nation is only occasionally referred to, as are matters military, industrial, and social. The attention

* New York and London: The Macmillan Co.

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