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we slipped into a cleft bamboo held up The exports are mostly hemp and raw by one of the oarsmen. After he had

sugar. There is but thirteen feet of water thumbed these over for some time, to in the river, so only small vessels can lie our great amusement turning them up- at the docks. The sugar in bamboo bags, side down and wrongside out, an entry and the hemp in loose bales, are lightered blank was passed up to us in the bamboo to the vessels in the strait, and tossed pole. When filling this paper the captain aboard by men standing on a series of inadvertently inserted the number of the stagings hung to the ship's sides. These ship's full complement, forgetting, in his Malay stevedores are small brown men struggles with Spanish, that one of the whose entire clothing is not as large as a crew had been lost overboard. After this handkerchief. They are finely formed blank had been studied, the official or- and would delight an artist's eye could he dered the whole ship's company mustered watch the play of muscles as the sugaron the quarter deck. When counted, bags go over the rail in quick succession. there was of course one man short. In a All over the harbor the lightermen are voice of mingled triumph and outraged counting them out, * "O!ban uno, ban dos, dignity he demanded the other man. The ban tres, ban cuatro, ban cinco, ban seis, explanation that he had fallen overboard ban siete, ban ocho, ban diez, — tally; » was so evidently a subterfuge that the and presently you hear some mate bellow, functionary took all the smile out of our "You skipped number nine, you old thief, faces by declaring us in quarantine, upon to the chagrin of the head-man, who the supposition that the missing man had offers profuse apologies based upon the died of cholera during the voyage. His statement that he is not an expert matheonly answer to our protest in the best matician, his early education having been Spanish we could muster was to cast off neglected. the line and head for shore. Quarantine Iloilo was entirely too hot for comfort and fumigation among the Latin races is and too odorous for contentment, so we no joke, and here was a nice situation. went over to Guimaras as often as possiAfter a council of war we hailed a native ble, where we explored a banyan grove boatman and persuaded him to carry until we roused a python from his siesta, ashore a note to the British representa- and ravaged a pineapple thicket until the tive. That gentleman, a jolly Scotch- monkeys, claiming prior right, dropped man, caine off after dinner, and when we upon our backs, biting and scratching unhad warmed his heart toward us with a til we were glad to retreat. We found a bottle of brandy, he said he thought the nice coral beach from which to swim, until matter might be arranged if we would send some natives, passing in their swift proas, by him a liberal present to the provincial shouted a warning in unintelligible Tagagovernor as compensation for trifling with log. This we finally understood after dishis authority. The next day we received covering from the top of a wave an enciran order graciously allowing us to haul cling fleet of sharks' fins sticking out of down our yellow flag, and containing the the water. Spanish equivalent of the adınonitions, Every night during our three weeks'

Honesty is the best policy,” and “Truth stay at Iloilo the clouds gathered around is mighty and will prevail. The method the peak of Guimaras, and by midnight employed by our Scotch friend is worthy a fierce rain-squall was blowing. Some of note, because it is an index to Spanish houses were blown down, trees were torn officialism in the East. He told the gov- up by the roots, and any road which had ernor that the man had really died of happened to be passable was washed out. smallpox, and that our captain, thinking The lightning was so incessant that the smallpox was quarantinable, had endeav- watch on the vessels in the harbor could ored to hide the fact; but, being detected read compass bearings of objects on shore, in the deception, he wished to apologize to see if they were dragging their anchors. and be forgiven. This explanation was Nearly every noon there was a similar so plausible to a Spaniard that it was downpour also. As the wet season accepted along with the present. They about over, it seldom rained during the did not quarantine against smallpox, per- rest of the twenty-four hours. haps on the theory that the visitor was

*This is a good example of the commercial jargon, more likely to take some away with him

- the Spanish numerals, mispronounced, with the Japthan to leave any.

anese prefix, and ending with an English word.


Letting this brief description suffice for ish; and about a hundred years ago there the physical characteristics of the islands, was another Chinese invasion. The Spanwe find the ethnological conditions even iards numbered only about five thousand, more curious. The population is estimat- exclusive of the military, and were largely ed at between seven and eight millions, of the official class. Add to this mixture divided into about eighty distinct tribes. a multitude of half-castes of various anOf these there are probably some millions tecedents and all degrees of character from of people who have never heard of us to virtue to villany,- political refugees, outthis day, and many of whom may never laws, that class of patriots who have left have heard of Spain. The original inhab- their country for their country's good, and itants are a black race of uncertain origin, some Sepoys remaining from the English -"Negritos,” the Spaniards call them,- occupation, - and you have the stony who have been driven from the coast line ground on which it has been proposed to to the mountain fastnesses. Their relation transplant republican institutions. The to the other inhabitants is about the same so-called "Filipinos,” who were originally as that of the North American Indians in supposed to be agreeable to this undertakthe early part of this century. They are ing, are neither the aborigines nor the savages, file their teeth, tattoo their bod- people of the first or second invasions, but ies, and make household ornaments of the mostly the half-castes and Catholic Madried and varnished heads of their con- lays; in the main docile and peaceful peoquered enemies. These blacks were driv- ple who had been goaded into rebellion en back, but were never subdued, by the by the rapacity and inhuman cruelties of Malays, probably some hundreds of years the Spanish officials and the Church of ago; and these were again driven, but Rome. Believers in a personal devil will also never conquered, by an immense in- find him fully represented in the governcursion of Mohammedans from no one ment of the Philippines. The Tower of knows just where and when. These Mal- Babel may not have had its counterpart ays and Mohammedan-Malays, and the in the islands, but the effect is there. "Igorrotes” or “wild men,” now form the Perhaps the best illustration of the almost bulk of the population. The first are hopeless mixture which we foreigners are part heathen, but having ingrafted upon undertaking to amalgamate is the official heathenism the forms of the Church of recognition by the Spanish government Rome. The Igorrotes are apparently pa- of thirty different tongues, and I was gan aborigines, and are distinct from told there were double that number of either the Mohammedans, the Malays, or dialects. the Negritos. They occupy and share Mr. Whitelaw Reid, Justice Harlan, and with the Negritos the large territory that other expansionists seriously suggested was not under Spanish control. The term that we establish a territorial government "Igorrotes” has become a general one for over these people. “Negritos, Igorrotes, all the untamed tribes except the Negritos Pagan Malays, Catholic Malays, Moham- . and the Moros. Some of them show mix- medans, Chinese, Mestizos, Spanish, Coolture with the Chinese.

Others are cop

ies, Dwarfs, and Sepoys; farmers, fisherper-colored and take scalps like the North men, miners, traders, soldiers, slaves, American Indians. One tribe makes a cannibals, savages, pirates, cut-throats, specialty of head-hunting, like the Dyaks thieves, and lepers,— Fellow citizens, we of Borneo.

welcome you! Brutalized by invasion, rePersonally I have little choice between bellion, and three hundred years of Spanthe savage negro; the Malay, running ish oppression, plunder, and inquisition; amuck with his murderous kris, or sneak- throw down the arms with which you have ing among the islands in his piratical proa; maintained strife for centuries, march side or the Mohammedan fanatic, who thinks the by side to the polls, and elect your terriway to salvation lies over the dead body of torial representatives!” Distinct from this. a Christian. These objectionable individ- medley is a majority of tractable people, uals do not really represent the entire pop- and a sprinkling of Europeans and of ulation, but they are sufficiently numer- educated Filipinos who might compare ous to leave a lasting impression upon favorably with some of our own citizens. the visitor.

(expansionists for example), and who are Later than the Malays came the Chinese; probably just as capable of governing during the reign of Philip II came the Span- others if they could be started right and

were strong enough to control the dis- If the individual refused, or was unable cordant elements. With some needed to pay the amount arbitrarily assessed help and wise guidance, the native who against him, he could be tortured, imunderstands his compatriots could do this prisoned, or transported, often leaving his better than any strangers.

family in distress, and in some instances The machinery of the Spanish govern- he was murdered. Any show of prosperity ment of the islands consisted of the gov- immediately drew the attention of the taxernor-general, appointed for three years, gatherers, the same as in China; and after and a cabinet and council which, act- the taxes were paid a large portion of the ing together, formed the chief execu- money was stolen, - more than in America. tive. Under the governor-general were One unique extortion was the obligation provincial governors corresponding to our to purchase yearly, at a considerable price, State governors. “Little governors ” had a cédula, or evidence of identity. In case charge of smaller districts, and their dep- of internal disorder persons without these uties were placed over collections of fami- cédulas were treated as outlaws and were lies. We can form an idea of this method sometimes shot. They were used as passof control if we suppose our President and ports, and no one was authorized to cross Cabinet to be aliens appointed by the boundary lines without one, and no civil Spanish ministry, both National and State process could be commenced without exassemblies abolished, and the Supreme hibiting it. The courts were apparently Court made subordinate to the orders of subject to the orders of the governors, who the Executive. Then place the appoint- had authority to interpret the laws and ments for State governors, mayors and were merely fleecing-machines. A case aldermen in the hands of the President, might not be concluded as long as the litiand give these officials so little remu- gants had any property from which to neration that it would not pay office ex- extort fees, and even a person found innopenses.

cent of a capital charge might be recomNearly everything from the cradle to mitted if there was any money in it. the grave was taxed, either by the Church The islands have been priest-ridden to or the State; the fees for marriage and the last degree. You cannot realize the burial being so large that birth, matri- immense temporal power of the ecclesiasmony, and death become luxuries which tics. The archbishop sat beside the gove could be afforded only by the prosperous. ernor-general in the council and actually The taxes were collected by the officials exercised a veto power. As the provinwho were responsible each to the ranking cial governors seldom understood the officer, and subject to severe penalties if language of their subjects, and the priests they failed to turn over what was essen- made a study of the dialects, the governtial to the support of the State. Now, ment was really in the hands of the latter. suppose our aldermen were collecting With the exception of the Jesuits a more taxes in each ward; the mayor collecting corrupt lot would be hard to find. The them from the aldermen, the State gov- educational system was controlled by ers from the mayors, and the President them, and is of course, therefore, very defrom the State governors, each with power fective. Persons of means sent their chilto assess, legal or usurped; and you will dren to other countries for improvement, understand the evils of the Philippine although there was a fair university at system, whose possibilities for plunder Manila.

JAMES J. WAIT. would stagger even a Tammany politician.

(To be continued.)


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HE region here referred to

as the Canadian West »

is the country lying between Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains. In truth, however,

the whole country between Lake Superior and the Rockies, a distance of twelve hundred miles, may properly be included under this head. British Columbia is of course a part of western Canada; but it is separated from the immense plain country by great ranges of mountains and has a character so much its own that it must be considered as a distinct section. In the same way the coast States of the Union have a history and an outlook different

from those of the States between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains. From north to south the width of the area under consideration is about four hundred miles, though there is undoubtedly great wealth in the practically unexplored country stretching from the Saskatchewan Valley to the Arctic Ocean. Taking Manitoba, which is three hundred miles square, as a basis, this region from Lake Superior to British Columbia, containing about half a million square miles, has room for about six provinces, and is equal to all the provinces of eastern Canada put together, if the northern unexplored parts of Quebec are left out of calculation.

This great western territory, formerly known as Rupert's Land or Hudson Bay Territory, came into possession of the Dominion of Canada by purchase from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869, and became part of the Confederation in the following year. The Province of Manitoba was created and united with the other provinces in that year, while the rest of the country was given a territorial government. The Dominion Parliament has gone on granting increasing measures of self-government to the part not included in Manitoba, until in a very near future the greater part of what is now known as the Northwest Territories must be admitted to full provincehood.

As has been said, this Territory first became a part of Canada in 1870, but until the advent of railways in the early 'eighties it made very little progress. In Manitoba, in 1881-82, the construction of railways and the sudden opening of the country caused the famous boom which inflated real-estate values to an absurd figure, and left the Province, when the tide receded, with a bad reputation that it never deserved. Towns that have since become thriving centres of local trade were mapped out on the lines of great cities, and they undertook to aid public works, especially railways, in a measure altogether out of proportion to their means. There was of course the inevitable reaction, when values went as much below their

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real level as they had previously been affairs. This famous company has beabove it. The next ten years were spent come a great departmental store and land in apparently discouraging but really solid corporation in the south, while in the far development. The Canadian Pacific Rail- north it still carries on the trade in furs way was completed to the western coast, around the shores of Hudson Bay and and many of its branch lines were built, up through the Mackenzie River district opening up the great wheat fields in the to the Arctic Ocean. Though the fur south and centre, the lignite and bitu- trade has declined considerably, it is still minous coal inines in the Territories, in the aggregate very important, the anand the great park or mixed farining nual exports of furs from Manitoba avercountry in the north.

The railway mo- aging over $600,000. nopoly was abolished, and the Northern When at length, in the early 'nineties, Pacific railway entered the Province, the tide began slowly to turn toward while less noticeable but none the less Manitoba, the Province had all her insti. important improvements were the exten- tutions established and ready to receive sion of wagon roads, the draining of large the newcomers, while in like manner the areas, the building of bridges and school- framework of industrial, political, and rehouses, and generally the framing of the ligious life was laid in the whole western municipal system and the development country. This slow development, while of industries subsidiary to the leading very disappointing at the time, may have ones of grain-growing, ranching and been one of the causes why Manitoba and lumbering, - namely mining, fishing, and the Territories never had any of that dairying. The once sole industry of the « wild west” life which marked the opencountry, the fur trade, had steadily de- ing of States to the south; for property clined for a number of years in the south, and life were always as secure as they but the traders, chiefly the Hudson's Bay were during the same period in eastern Company, turned their attention to other Canada.

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