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she leads also in horses with 1,157,015; Argentine Republic, 22,869,585: United ranks in the fifth place for sheep with States, 48,222,995; Brazil, 17,000,000; Aus2,543,917, and in the third for swine tria-Hungary, 15,085,760; Italy, 5,000,000 ; with 2,684,987. Iowa is second in cattle France, 12,879, 240; Germany, 17,555,694; with 3,410,000 head, and first in swine with United Kingdom, 10,753, 314; in the two 3,408,281 hogs. Montana has but 996,492 Russias, 39,000,000; British India, 65,721,head of ttle, but ranks first in sheep 144; or, by continents, North Ar rica, with 3, 377,547.

Missouri has 2,133,832 56,413,443; South America, 55,675,635; head of cattle, but is second on the list Europe, 110, 238, 202; Asia, 77,290,532; with swine, having 2,949,818 porkers. In Africa, 5,913,797 : Australasia, 13,325, 264; 1898 we exported 439,255 head of cattle, Oceanica, 131,796. or in dollars our exports of cattle, horses, Our slaughtering and packing industry sheep, and all other domestic animals is enormous. Our next census will show amounted to $46, 243,406.

that there are over 1,000 establishments While we are discussing figures we may in the country, employing nearly 60,000 as well glance at a few relating to the people and a capital of $160,000,000, turnslaughtering, the by-products, and the ing out a product of certainly over $620,other rather dry but valuable statistical 000,000

worth a year.

The Chicago data upon the subject. Added to our ex- packing-houses alone employ nearly 25,port of cattle we also ship away 37, 109,570 ooo people and have a capital of $25,000,pounds of canned beef, 274, 768,074 pounds of fresh beef, and 44,314,479 pounds of This census will also show that these salted beef; or a total in value, including 1,000 establishments slaughter about 6,cattle and beef meat, of $66,442,182, repre- 500,000 cattle a year, — leaving the 9,000,senting, all told, about 900,000 head. 000 sheep and 33,000,000 hogs out of the These are the figures for 1898. and during question. Deducting our exports from the same year we exported 51, 150 horses, this total we have left and actually con199,690 sheep, 12, 224, 285 pounds of fresh sume at the rate of one eighth of a pound pork, 88,155,078 pounds of pickled pork, of beef a day for every man, woman, and 81,744,809 pounds of tallow, 709, 344,045 pounds of lard, 650,108,953 pounds of bacon, 200, 185,861 pounds of ham, 25,690,025 pounds of butter, and 53, 167,280 pounds of cheese. But then 1898 was a phenomenal year, the renaissance of prosperity, let us hope, a year during which we exported nearly $200,000,000 worth more of merchandise than we ever did before, and when our exports exceeded our

A CHAMPION SHORTHORN BULL imports by $329,000,000 more than during any previous year. child of our 74,530,000 people. If each

The latest data, compiled in 1896 by one of us consumed one pound of beef a the Department of Agriculture, develop, day we would simply exterminate our stock from authoritative sources, the fact that in of cattle in a year's time. So that we are all the known world there were 73, 308,950 working upon what may be called horses, 8,952,984 mules, 318,988,667 cattle, «factor of safety” of only eight. 532, 239,165 sheep, 104, 156,447 hogs, 32, 268,- In early times stock was raised in the 821 goats. Of that total under “cattle,» settlements of Connecticut, Ohio, and New Canada had 4,291,845; Cuba, 2,485.766; York for meat purposes, the markets of

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New York and Philadelphia creating the tremendous production in the Territories demand; then some herds were driven as that reached its very zenith in 1886. far west even as Illinois, and the railroads In Texas the grass is succulent, and soon after offered such opportunities for there is moisture enough to keep it green distribution and increased sales that prime the year around, but when “norther” cattle were carried by them to greater winds and frosts nip it the succeeding distances still. The Texas cattle were not rains and heat rot it. Then the climate a great factor in the problem, nor could and the pestiferous insects, added to poor the Western cattle (the natural increase of winter feeding, keep the cattle thin, longthe stock driven overland and up from legged, bony, and producers of a comMexico in the long ago, or carried around paratively poor quality of meat. by water by the early settlers to California, Those early herders found that the dry, Utah, and Oregon) be so considered either. bracing climate and freedom from insects Then came the war of the Rebellion; the throughout the well-named semi-arid long-horned Spanish-Texan cattle were regions helped their stock, and that the practically confined to their own territory, grasses-less succulent, it is true, but less none being driven north, und few indeed woody and of curtailed growth, owing to finding their way even into southeastern lack of rain-dried down and were cured markets. Left free to roam their native on the stem, forming the best of hay and plains they increased enormously. Soon producing a first-class quality of nutritious after the war it became necessary to find fodder, little affected by frost or snow “pastures new," and, the Union Pacific (that was generally swept off great Railway being under construction, it patches by the prevailing high winter seemed to Texan owners that along that winds ), and sufficient in quality and line they would find a market for their quantity for the long winters until the surplus beef. Great herds were driven green grasses sprouted forth again. Catnorth. An owner would start out with tle-men, from shipping steers only, soon from 2,000 to 4,000 head, tended by ten began scientific breeding operations as men or so. These men led a nomadic life. well as merely holding for supply, crossThe cattle made their own broad trails ing the Texan with the Oregon stocks, leading north and west. There was no and the result was as good a quality of particular objective point, simply a seek- meat as was produced anywhere in the ing of fresh pastures and a market wher- country. This experimenting was begun ever either could be found. This exodus in Colorado and Wyoming; then later the of surplus stock was also effective in stockmen of Montana, Utah, Idaho, and taking out of the country many surplus Nevada took it up and produced from that

The early herdsman in many cases northern country as good meat as the left his native heath for the good of that average beef-making stock of Iowa, Misheath. Then was the time of outlawry, souri, or even of Illinois did. cattle-stealing, and the acme of Western Cattle-raising on the ranges was a new toughness generally. Who has not read art, however, and much was to be learned. stories of the “Texas trail,” buffalo hunt- It was found that cov?s, after the long ing, and cattle-men yarns ?

march northward, and generally reaching It was found that these cattle throve pretty far north too, by winter were in upon the tough grasses of the semi-arid rather poor condition to stand the hardcountry bordering the Union Pacific Rail- ships of that season together with the way and extending north to the Canadian cares of maternity, so they began shipline. They did better than in Texas and ping them by rail, and the great droves wintered better, though it was so much were inade up almost exclusively of steers. colder, and without other feed than their Later still it was deemed more economical grazing they put on flesh. Then it was and better even to ship these by rail to that this stock became a factor in the the western ranges. market. The owners of cattle in Oregon As stated before, cattle-ranching was at and Montana, where stocks had also first a very nomadic existence; the stock largely increased, noting the success of was rounded up only for branding or to the Texans, began to drive their herds select beef for shipping to market. The into the same country, seeking the same men merely camped here or there, but market. These two currents met in Wyo- later home ranches established, ming and Idaho, and the result was some hay was put away for the horses,

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gardens were cultivated, and the stock ins, the bison, roamed in countless milwas kept as near “home” as the range lions. To-day the herds are small and feeding permitted. Nearer still to our widely scattered, and we have but reminown day enough feed was raised and iscences of the halcyon days of the range stored to provide for the weaker members cattle. of the herd, which were fed for short peri- We have said that there were other conods during the winter. The main body, tributory causes to the falling off of range however, continued as before, and as it cattle than the sheep. They are many. still does, to graze summer and winter, The wolf followed the buffalo and on the open range, Uncle Sam's do- preyed upon the young and weak: when main.

the buffalo was exterminated, the wolf The cattle-men have learned many les- turned his attention to the cattle. A sons and have had much to contend with. merciless war was waged against him, Among their tribulations not the least has and he too was almost cleaned off the been the sheep-men. The latter, finding plains by the hunter and poisoner. His that their sheep did fairly well upon the lessened numbers giving less trouble to open range in Oregon, and being awake the settler, and his hide being worth but to the advantages enjoyed by the cattle- little, the war was relaxed. He increased man in his new territory, began invading quickly in numbers and in wariness, and the borders of the latter, then encroached has been long and is now a most serious further and increased his flocks. It was a element of danger and loss to our range great invasion, and the cattle, ever shy of cattle. man and dog, and fretting in the pres- Angelic settlers are found mostly in ence of the fleecy intruders, penetrated heaven. Among those who drifted to the further and further into the country and plains there were some who were not into an ever-decreasing radius of terri- angelic and who could not or would not tory. It was not that the sheep ate all distinguish 'twixt meum and tuum. The the grass about, but merely passing over temptations were certainly strong. With it spoiled it for their rather finnicky great herds of cattle at large, only seen by horned co-tenants. As the cattle sought their owners or herders at rare intervals, distance from settlements and sheep, both the identification of the young was almost followed them, pressing rather closely, impossible, and some of these found their and, assisted by severe winters, fencing way into the possession of the innocent in of water, overstocking, and other settler, who frequently thus founded conagents, have well nigh succeeded in clos- siderable herds of his own. Later, when ing the history of the great herds that, a Indians or other depredators thinned out few years ago, ranged over those semi- his herds, there was a cry for law and arid plains in uncounted numbers where, order," and short shrift was given the new again but a few years before, their cous- thief-when caught. It was not an unfre

So says

quent occurrence that the cow was killed $40 that in '90 and '91 would sell for to prevent any possible identification of the perhaps $15.

. calf. Then, too, there was the meat-eater,” A northern range steer will weigh from — the small settler who, with limited stock 1,000 to 1,300 pounds, and will dress to of his own, yet fond of beef, found it about 50 to 57 pounds of meat to 100 cheaper to kill from the great man's herd pounds of his weight. A prime steer will than from his own few. Both these even go 60 pounds. His maintenance methods of poaching proved serious upon the open range, herding, etc., costs sources of loss.

his owner about a dollar a head a year, But the great decimator was the severe and his expenses to market, commission winters. In the summer of 1886 meat-rais- to the agent, railway fare, feed in transit, ing on the plains reached the topmost etc., will cost from half a cent to a cent a notch. There had been losses before, but pound. But, dear reader, you must not figthe winter was one of unprecedented sever- ure upon this basis that there is yet an enority and cold. There were terrific gales, mous margin of profit; there are losses blizzards, and heavy snowfalls. Whole that must be considered. This year, for herds were wiped out of existence and instance, in orthern and western Texas, every man lost heavily. It was the turn- New Mexico, and the Indian Territory, ing-point, and range-cattle-raising has winter losses have been as high as twenty never since been what it was before. Many per cent; in western Utah twenty five per went out of business, and the commerce cent; and in some parts of Wyoming, assumed new features.

Colorado, and the Dakotas individual Since that year there has been an abso- losses have been as high as forty per lute decrease in cattle production in that cent. The country over, the loss last region. Producing them in Texas, matur- winter averaged four per cent. ing them north, finishing and fattening the Department. Cattle-men claim that them in the corn country, additional and the average loss is far greater, some skilled care and winter feeding upon com- putting it at ten per cent. paratively valuable land have not only In boom times cattle were sold in added wonderfully to the quality of the bunches at the range; to-day animals are meat but have also added as wonderfully selected for market. The commission to the cost of it, and the era of cheap beef man acts as agent for the owner and hagis but a memory.

gles with the agent of the slaughter-comWhile the range cattle of the semi-arid pany. This part of the business has debelt never represented a majority of the veloped wonderful astuteness both supply, their decrease was a sufficient sides, and buying and selling are really factor forever to affect the market.

arts, and the artists receive the highest We are hardly confronted with any emoluments. The cattle-man drives his such dire possibilities of a deficit in cattle market selection to the railroad, the latter as has been prophesied for wheat, but the delivers to the packing-house chutes, and supplying of a moderately cheap meat is there the cattle are weighed out by the enough of a serious problem to keep many yard-man to the purchaser, but until then wise men thinking.

they are the property of the cattle-man. We still ship enormous quantities of beef, The great cattle associations and many and are actually eating less of it than of the States have inspectors at the yards formerly - we consume proportionately to look after their interests.

These men three times as much mutton to-day as we soon become exceedingly expert in identidid ten years ago, and from a beef-eating fying cattle. The owner rarely pays atpeople have degenerated to a mutton- tention to the brands of the cattle he consuming one,— but our prices are ever ships. All those that are with his herds, mounting higher and higher. True, there whether of his herd or not, are shipped, had been an over-production, but to-daydepending upon those inspectors to note with our own consumption and the aver- the stray brands and turn the value of age export we have maintained for the those animals over to the rightful owner, past three years, we are approaching

are approaching through a sort of clearing-house arrangedangerously near the line of actual pro- ment. This inspection keeps thieves in duction, resulting in beef at 4 cents a check too. Some of these fellows either pound gross that used to cost us barely brand stolen cattle with some unknown 2 cents. To-day a cow and calf will bring brand: or not at all, and attempt to sell

on

more

them. In either case the inspectors con- in supplying us with reliable data and fiscate these cattle to the funds of the other means of intelligently improving State from which they were shipped. stock, and, through its Bureau of Animal Large owners help in the work by ship- Industry, in destroying germs or at least ping any strange brands they find among enabling us to control animal diseases. their own, the unregistered being con- It has inaugurated inspections of cattle, fiscated to the State. The thief being of meat, of killing and packing methods, thus unable to sell his stolen stock, there and of shipping, yet, as in much else is a discount placed upon the traffic. governmental, while the regulations and

As before stated, the new methods im- rules are full and excellent, their enforceproved the stock. Perhaps the quickest ment is difficult, and, as the results of improving agent ever discovered was the recent investigations show us, there is a result of the enormous corn crops in Mis- vast difference between the theory, the souri and Kansas from 1895-97. There spirit, and the practice of inspection. was no demand for it, and rather than With time and more liberal Congreslose it the farmers went into the mar- sional appropriations the work of this ket, competed with the packers,

Bureau will be- come and bought stock to

perfect, and

better results which they might

still

will follow. feed their su

The Federal perfluous corn.

regulations are The improvement

supplemented was so rapid and

with State and marked that it be

municipal ones, came a regular sys

under all of which tem, and a great

we should have perproportion of range

fect meat. cattle to-day are

Pleuro-pneumofinished” in the

nia once threatcorn belt, that is,

ened to ravage our fattened for a while

cattle, but by great before going to the

efforts and the exbutcher. In 1897 the

penditure of nearly farmer actually over-bid

$2,000,000 the disease has the butcher for range stock,

not only been held in check and gradually the cattle have

but has been unknown since been going to the corn-feed

1892. yards younger, and maturing

The (Texas fever,” another into good beef earlier, than here

disorder that has played havoc tofore.

with the herds, is now held pretty The cotton-seed oil-cake of the

well in check. The Gulf Coast and South has of late years been largely used Southern cattle, while perfectly healthy for “finishing” too. It is cheap and a themselves, whenever they came in congreat fattener.

tact with — or, for that matter, were Texas is still the breeding State par merely followed in a field or over a trail excellence; whatever stock goes north is by — other, or northern cattle, conveyed simply to mature and in transit to corn a disease — through a species of “tick” and to the market. There the normal in- that thrived upon them — that was often crease of stock is nearly ninety per cent fatal to the latter. There has been estabof the cows of the herd. These begin pro- lished a line clear across the continent,ducing as yearlings and keep up the good from Norfolk, across Virginia, North Carowork until they reach even fifteen and six- lina, and Tennessee, north of Arkansas teen years, while on the range the order of and the Indian Territory, then down to maternity is not high, never extends be- the Gulf, south of New Mexico and Ariyond ten years, is rarely over fifty per cent, zona, then on the line between Nevada and the great percentage of loss is among and California to the northern border of suckling cows.

California,-demarking the quarantined Our government has done wonders, section of Southern cattle, across which through its Department of Agriculture, line they can only be shipped under

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