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RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND OPINION
POBYEDONOSTSEFF ON RELIGION AND THE STATE
he following passage from the recently doctrine known as Antinomianism ; that is, the
translated «Reflections of a Russian doctrine that faith alone will be enough, — with-
out works, without morality. I do not say that curator of the Holy Synod of Russia, he intentionally expresses this idea, however. deserves to be placed among the very finest He lays great stress upon religion as a thing by things which have ever been said on the subject itself, and as being important and paramount of religion:
by itself. He admits that as regards good
works, as regards external appearances, as re" The essential in religion cannot be expressed on paper or categorically formulated. The most essential, gards visible fruits, Russian Christianity is the most persistent, and the most precious things in all behind England, behind Protestantism. His religious creeds are as elusive and as insusceptible of
language is somewhat vague, and the precise definition as varieties of light and shade,- as feelings
kind of works which he refers to is not very born of an infinite series of emotions, conceptions, and impressions. The children of different races and different evident. He appears to admit certain moral faiths, in many relations may feel as brethren, and give shortcomings in the Greek clergy, the word to one another their hands; but to feel themselves wor.
(failings » being italicized as though with a shippers in the same temple, joined in religious communion, they must have lived together long and closely;
feeling of almost boastfulness. He then quotes they must sympathize with the conditions of each other's the Gospel, – the words of Jesus Christ. He existence; they must be bound by the most intimate
asks: links in the depths of their souls.”
« What is the part in the world and the church of the The same vein of thought is to be traced wanton and the dishonest, who, in the words of Christ,
shall take a higher place in the kingdom of heaven than again in the following:
the just according to the law ?” « There are ceremonies and practices which to abandon would be to deny one's self, for they reflect the Admitting the superiority of Protestantism in spiritual life of man; they express his spiritual nature. certain visible appearances, he asserts that In differences of ceremony are most clearly expressed
Protestantism appears to him cold and empty, the fundamental and deep diversities of spiritual conceptions hidden in the unrecognized domains of the
and that it fails to appeal to or move the heart; soul.
that it is lacking in the essential and central Not only has Russia some instruction to offer
quality of religion. He admits that many of the world through the heterodox Tolstoi, but
the rural clergy of Russia are ignorant, that also through the official Pobyedonostseff. In
their ministrations are unedifying, that their this book of his there is much thought, all the
articulation of the liturgy is «muttering.” This
he regrets, and in this direction looks for and more impressive because it seems like the reflections of some person come from Jupiter or
desires reform. Pobyedonostseff thinks that
all the ideas and institutions of the West are Saturn, so different are his ways of thinking from those of the Western world. Yet the
mistaken, at the same time showing a very fair passages which I have quoted might be taken
acquaintance with Western ideas and Western up by a Scotch Presbyterian of the old-fashioned
literature. It is quite evident that Western type, and applied to the Scotch metrical version
literature is not by any means tabooed in of the Psalms, the old psalm-tunes, and the
Russia. It is wonderful how much reality and other characteristics of the old, unchangeable
how much depth there appears to be in the Scotch worship. There is something in those
cogitations of this Russian politician. Crazy as passages which has a generic application, and
are his views on the subject of representative which strikes something at the root of all re
government, there is an ingenious vein of ligious observances.
reason running through them, and his whole Pobyedonostseff, in his strenuous defence of
book seems to have in it more body and more the Russian Church, and his apology for the
substance than one would naturally look for. defects of the Greek clergy, would seem almost
S. J. MACKNIGHT. to verge upon the theological or untheological TORONTO.
A CADET'S DAY AT MICHIGAN MILITARY ACADEMY
This military method of going and coming from the class-room prevents slouchiness and loitering, and ensures promptness, attention, and order. It saves time and gives each cadet a whiff of fresh air and a little physical relaxation after the confinement of each recitation.
At eleven o'clock books are laid aside ; white gloves, guns, leggings, sabres, and spurs take their place, and the infantry and cavalry drill of the day commences and continues for one hour. The various military movements are executed with all the exactness of regulars.
The stimulating outdoor exercise of the hour creates an appetite and a readiness for dinner, which is served at ten niinutes past twelve. The battalion marches in as at breakfast and observes the same system.
The study and recitation periods begin again at one o'clock and continue until half-pastthree. The ensuing half-hour interval is designated consultation period,” because it gives the cadet a chance to consult his teacher concerning his work and to make up deficiencies if
Day in the life of a cadet in the Michigan Military Academy is an exceptionally busy and active one, with no
counterpart in military exactness and academic richness except West Point. From « Reveille » until «Taps » every hour is fully occupied, and not a minute of time is wasted. The sound of the Reveille » and the boom of the morning gun at six o'clock arouse the cadet and usher in the day's work. With a quickness only surpassed by that of a fireman, the cadet is out of bed, dressed, and has his room ready for inspection. «Mess call” sounds at twenty minutes to seven, and the « Assembly » five minutes later. At this summons a hundred and thirty cadets fall in and answer roll-call, and then the ranking captain marches the whole battalion in columns of fours to the mess hall. Each cadet stands at the back of his chair until the command is given: «Take seats!) when the chairs are swung back in the cadets' right hands, and all strike the floor simultaneously with the seating process. The ranking captain gives the command «Rest!» and immediately eating and talking begin. Thirty minutes is allowed for breakfast and for supper; dinner takes forty minutes. Each table, except the instructors' and chaplain's tables, seats ten; its head is called the chief and does the carving and ordering. Lively conversation is allowed at the table, but no rudeness. The food and service are equal to those of any first-class hotel. When breakfast is finished, at the order, «Battalion, attention! Rise!» — bang! go the chairs back into their places, and the battalion marches out and is dismissed.
Recreation, social chat, letter-writing, visits to the tailor or bootblack occupy the next half hour.
At eight o'clock the chapel call summons the cadets to simple and impressive services, consisting of Scripture-reading, a song, and the Lord's Prayer recited responsively.
Immediately at the close of the chapel services the academic work of the day is commenced with a noticeable earnestness. The academic day is divided into six recitation periods, each of which is announced by a bugle call. When this call is given the cadets having a recitation fall in line in the area, are divided into class squads, and are marched by the ranking cadet of each class to their respective recitation-rooms in the academic building.
The hours from four to six illustrate the di. versity of activities of academy life. On the athletic field two football teams are in hard practice; five tennis courts are filled with lovers of that game.
From the golf links comes the warning call of «Fore!) If a visitor strolls to ward the buildings he will hear some musical organization at rehearsal,— band, orchestra, glee club, or mandolin club.
At 5:35 the first summons for «Retreat » is sounded. Presently the evening gun is fired and the flag is lowered, the band playing the national air, and the battalion standing in line. Then comes supper, after which there is an hour when the cadets are free to follow their own inclinations. At this time the library is usually full of young men reading the current monthly and weekly publications; most of the better class of which are to be found on the reading-room tables. At seven o'clock comes the “Call to quarters, which means that each cadet must go to his room for the study of his next day's work. At nine comes the warning « Tattoo, and half an hour later the bugle notes of <<
«Taps are sounded, by which time the cadets are required to be in bed and lights to be extinguished. The day's work is thus ended.
W. C. BURNS.
ORCHARD LAKE, MICH.
HE only tea-factory in the United tea were the products of distinct shrubs
States is located at Pinehurst, near instead of being different preparations of
Summerville, South Carolina. It the same plant, made two species of the stands in the midst of tea-gardens some Chinese variety and named them Thea fifty acres in extent, part of the beauti- Bohea and Thea Viridis, a nomenclature ful estate of Dr. Charles U. Shepard, a which holds good to this day. scientist and scholar, who has made the In this connection it is perhaps pertiproduction and manufacture of American nent to remember that though either sort tea his main study during the past decade. of tea may be manufactured from the same
Most people imagine that black tea leaf, experience in the Orient has shown and green tea differ because they are that each variety of the tea-plant is made from different species of the tea- better adapted for the manufacture of plant. Yet Linnæus, who gave the tea- the one or the other. The intention of plant its botanical name, labored under a the grower to produce green or black tea similar wrong impression. It was he who will consequently influence the selection called the tea-plant, Thea Sinensis, and of the seed. From the Darjiling of India, then, thinking that green and black and from the varieties of the higher Copyrighted, 1900, by THE WERNER COMPANY. All rights reserved.
elevations of Ceylon, northern Japan, and account of the methods of manufaeture as China which have been found most adapt- conducted at Pinehurst. able to the southern climate of the United Sheltered from the burning rays of the States, better black than green tea can be southern sun, on the South Carolina planmade. The American product is on this tation, under the stately southern pines account more likely to be manufactured whose branches interlace high overhead, into black than into green tea.
stands a substantial, three-story wooden A tea-garden with its broad array of leafy structure with sloping roofs and wide vebushes, about three feet in height, set out randas. This pleasant-looking house has with geometrical precision, looking like a unique distinction, for it is the first teawell-pruned willows with glossy green house or factory in the United States. foliage, affords a very pretty spectacle. Within the comfortable building is carThe gardens at Pinehurst are in a state of ried to completion the intricate and inperfect cultivation, as shown by the re- teresting process of tea-manufacture, from markable color of the leaves, a deep, vel- the first stage of withering to the final act vety green shining with vigorous health of weighing and packing the tea for on the lower leaves of the plant. The uni- market. The visitor is impressed with formity and perfection of shape of the the evident care exercised, and the cleanplants, indicative of skilful pruning, is liness of all parts of the building, from the next noticeable.
machine and firing rooms below to the Interesting and instructive as is the broad lofts with shining floors above. story of the scientific methods of soil It is not a tedious operation, for teatreatment, of cultivation, and of pruning manufacture must be accomplished with originated by Dr. Shepard, the process of expedition. Nor is it a costly one. And manufacturing will appeal even more it is essentially scientific. Even with the strongly to the inquiring mind. How are most complete knowledge so far attained these fresh verdant leaves converted into and the best machines that have been dethe crisp black tea of commerce ? What vised, there still remains an open field is the science of the preparation ?—what inviting to more thoroughly scientific the chemical transformations of the leaf? conclusions as to the best means of con
It is the purpose of this article to answer serving the original nutriment and vigor these natural queries briefly by some of the leaf by an appropriate method of preparation. Of course much of the value simply "pekoe” tea. The addition of of tea depends upon its preparation. the next two leaves on the stem makes
Two processes are requisite in the man- first and second souchong.” At Pineufacture of all teas: rolling, or other hurst never more than the second souchong manipulation, whereby the leaves are pre- leaf is included, for Dr. Shepard is aiming served; and firing. In making black tea at the production of only the finest grades. two additional steps are necessary: with- The youngest shoots of the bush are ering, whereby the leaf is prepared for used for tea, because the cell contents rolling; and oxidation, or fermentation, have not as yet become fixed, and those whereby the oily cells in the leaf are constituents which give flavor and body broken and their contents rendered easily to the tea liquor are more abundant. extractable by hot water. Machines have About one fifth of the constituents of tea been successfully substituted for about all is cellulose; and from ten to twenty per manual operations in the manufacture of cent is tannic acid, to which is due its punblack tea. The preparation of green tea, gency. There is a very large proportion however, still involves much and skilful of albuminoid matter in tea (legumin, globmanual labor.
ulin, and albumen), and from one to seven The process of manufacture may be said per cent of theine. Gallic, oxalic, and boto begin with the picking of the leaf. heic acids; gum and dextrine; mucilage This is a work requiring care and discrim- and pectin; fixed and volatile oils; gums ination. The growing tea-plant throws out and waxes; chlorophyll (which gives the from its branches tender, bright shoots color to the leaf); other mineral substances frequently during the season. These new and moisture, — comprise the various conshoots constitute a fush,” and trained stituents of the tea-leaf. pickers must be at hand, at each success- Trout-baskets have been found conveive flush, who are practised in the art of nient receptacles for pickers in the field, nipping off the leaves between the thumb because the leaves can be dropped one by and forefinger. Only the tip of the shoot one through the opening in the lid and lie and the most tender leaves are taken. If lightly in the basket until removed; for only the tender, unexpanded leaf bud at while the green leaves are being picked the end of the shoot is picked, the tea is they must not be packed too tightly, or called flowery pekoe. If the first leaf, allowed to lie long in a mass, for fear of almost as tender as the bud, is added, it fermentation, or a process similar to it makes orange pekoe. If the second which quickly sets in. For this reason leaf, slightly firmer, goes in, it becomes the pickers are not permitted to remain in