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was indignant both at her disguise and at being called a boy, and endeavored, as well as her infantile speech would permit, to deny her reputed sex and to claim that she was a princess. However, they reached Dover in safety, and the little one was soon in the arms of her mother, far removed from the scenes of contention and bloodshed. This princess was brought up in France, married to the Duke of Orleans in 1661, and, by a singular coincidence, negotiated the Peace of Dover.

When, in 1647, the king was under arrest and confined at Hampton Court, Prince Charles had joined his mother, and Princess Mary was in Holland, leaving but three children in England under the care of the Earl of Northumberland, at St. James's Palace. The king was allowed to see his children each week, in the presence of witnesses, and upon one occasion Cromwell was present and was moved to tears at the pathos of the situation. As the state of affairs became more menacing it was thought advisable to remove James, the Duke of York, beyond the reach of Parliament. Friends connived at his escape, which was effected in clothing contributed by his sister Elizabeth, and, once outside of the grounds, he was promptly transported to Holland.

The precocity of the Princess Elizabeth is shown in the pathetic story of the little maiden who read her Bible in the original when but nine years of age, and who spoke Latin, French, Italian, and German before

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wife of the Prince of Orange and was the mother of William I of Holland. The older sons, Charles and James, came to the throne; Elizabeth died a prisoner at Carisbrooke; and Henry was known as the Duke of Gloucester.

In 1642 Charles ordered the Parliament to convene at Oxford. His queen, who had fed the country to avoid imprisonment on a charge of treason, raised a fund by the sale of her jewels and returned to England in 1643, placing herself at the head of a party of royalists and marching across the country to join the king near Oxford. She remained with him for a year, and when they parted they little thought it was for ever. The little Henrietta was born at Exeter, her father never seeing her face.

As the situation grew more serious the queen narrowly made her escape from England, leaving her babe in the care of the Countess of Morton. Two years later the countess determined to take the child to her mother, then safe in France. As it was impossible for her to leave England openly, she disguised herself as a beggar with a hump upon her back, carrying with her, unkempt and shabbily clothed, the little Henrietta, whom she called by a boy's name, This ruse exposed her to two especial dangers; one was that the countess was a beautiful, refined woman and her disguise might be easily penetrated; the other, that the child

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she was thirteen,-a surprising record ,

Between the two round towers with even in these days of devotion to learning. crumbling battlements is the entrance to An eminent divine dedicated to her «An the inner court, guarded by an iron portExposition of the First Five Chapters of cullis; above, the thick walls are pierced Ezekiel,” alluding to the interest she with loopholes for the longbows, and showed in the dead languages, and stat- arbalists of ancient days. In a portion of ing that it was not from a desire for lin- the castle built in the fifteenth century guistic attainments, but from reverence are the apartments occupied by Charles I for the Word of God, which permeated her beautiful character.) A second scholar, Alexander Rowley, also dedicated to her a book entitled, “The Scholar's Companion, a Lexicon of Greek and Hebrew Words found in the Bible," mentioning in the preface her great inclination to study the Book of Books in the original.”

While the king remained in London he was royally lodged in Hampton Court and treated with all the deference which was his due; but he was still a prisoner, and, knowing the implacable hatred of his enemies, he escaped from his guards and two weeks later was in Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight, no less a prisoner, but more remote from the seat of danger.

This historic castle stands two miles from Newport, a charming

KING CHARLES'S WINDOW drive through narrow country lanes, especially beautiful in during his incarceration there of nearly a May, when the hawthorn hedges are in year, during which time he made several full bloom and the climbing rose mantles unsuccessful efforts to escape. The last every cottage porch and thatched roof. attempt was from the window of his sleepBeyond the picturesque village of Caris- ing-room, where the broken bar of iron brooke rises the ruined castle, built upon still remains to emphasize the story of the the site of a still more ancient stronghold. hapless monarch, who found the opening It is impressive both from its venerable too small, as he could neither move forward appearance and from its historic associa- nor backward. In vain friends awaited tions. The iron-studded outer portal is him with fleet horses; he was obliged to of massive oak, darkened by exposure to call upon his jailer for release.

He was centuries of sun and storm. The keystone then removed to Newport, and, later, was of the arch bears the escutcheon of the forcibly borne to the gloomy block-house white rose, while a shield with the inscrip- on the Solent known as Castle Hurst. tion "E. R. 1598," tells that it is three centu- The day before Christmas the royal ries since the stately Elizabeth ordered this prisoner was conveyed to Windsor Castle, royal mansion to be thoroughly repaired. where for a little while he appeared to

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feel himself again a king; but, as soon as she should see him, that it was his father's last the sacred festival had passed, active

desire that hee should no more look upon measures were taken to bring him to trial

Charles as his eldest brother onely, but bee for “misgoverning his kingdom.” The

obedient unto him as his sovereign; and that court convened in Westminster Hall on

they should love one another and forgive their

father's enemies. Then said the king to her, Saturday, January 20, 1649. The session

(Sweetheart, you'l forget all this.? No, said was brief, as on the following Wednesday,

she, I shall never forget it while I live;' and.

pouring out abundance of tears, promised him to write down the particulars. Then the king, taking the Duke of Gloucester upon his knees, said, 'Sweetheart, they will cut off your father's head, — upon which words the childe looked very stedfastly on him. Mark, childe, what I saie, they will cut off my head, and perhaps make thee a king, but mark what I saie, you must not bee a king so long as your brothers, Charles and James, do live; for they will cut off your brothers' heads when they can catch them, and cut off thy head too, at the last; and therefore I charge you, do not bee made a king by them. At which, the childe sighing said, I will be torn in


so unexpectedly from one

so young, it made the king Bradshaw, president of the court, gave rejoice exceedingly.” judgment against the king, naming Tues

The following quotation, giving further day, the 30th of January, as the date for

particulars of this interview darkened by his execution.

the shadow of death, was originally acCharles received his sentence with calm- credited to the Princess Elizabeth. ness and dignity. He declined to receive

«We had not time to saie much, yet someany friends, saying, "My time is short

what hee had to saie to mee which hee had not and precious. I hope that they will not

to another, or leav in writing, because hee take it ill that none have access to me but

feared the crueltie was such as they would not my children. The best office they can

have permitted him to write to mee. Hee now do for me is to pray for me.” A full

wished mee not to griev and torment myself for account of those trying days is given in hin for that would bee a glorious death that the “Eikon Basilike," a record long sup- hee should die; it being for the laws and liberties posed to have been written by the king's of the land, and for maintaining the Protestant own hand and finished by his daughter religion. Hee bid mee read Bishop Andrews' after his execution. Subsequent to the

Sermons, Hooker's Ecclesiastical Politie, and Restoration Bishop Gauden admitted that

Bishop Laud's Book against Popery. Hee bid

mee tell my mother that his thoughts had never he had written the book, but that all of

straid from her, and that his love would bee the the contents had been verified by the king

same to the last. Withal hee commanded mee or the Princess Elizabeth. The simple and my brother to bee obedient to her, and bid narrative, in the quaint language of the mee send his blessing to the rest of my brothers period, is very interesting and touching. and sters, with commendation to all his friends;

hee doubted not that the Lord would settle his “Mundaie, 29th January, 1649. His children throne upon his son, and that wee should bee being com to meet him, he first gave his bless- happier than wee could have expected to have ing to the Ladie Elizabeth, and bad her re- been if hee had lived, with manie other things member to tell her brother James, whenever which I can not remember.»



was in delicate health, never having recovered from the shock of her father's violent death, and in a few short weeks the end came.

It was Sunday, and as she listened to the voices from the little chapel of St. Nicholas, chanting the evensong. her head dropped upon her father's Bible, open at the words, _« Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest,” as, after three years of bondage, she entered the freedom of eternal life. Her wasted body was buried in St. Thomas's Church, Newport, and for many years the precise place was known. In rebuilding the church in 1856 the lead coffin was found, marked,





Those present at this last meeting of father and children said it was a most pathetic scene; the king's calmness deserted him; he was completely overcome and sobbed aloud. At the sight of her father, his hair and beard grown gray and his dress neglected, Elizabeth threw herself into his arms in a passion of grief. He gave her a number of jewels for distribution to the family, and two seals for herself, as well as his most precious treasure, his Bible, saying, “This has been my greatest comfort and constant companion in all my sorrows, and I hope it may be yours.”

After many kisses and embraces the royal sire asked Bishop Juxon to lead the children from the room. All wept bitterly. The king covered his face and tried to restrain his tears; but when an agonized cry broke from his daughter, he hastened to her side, folded her in a close embrace, showered kisses upon her lips and brow, then fell upon his knees to seek help from his Heavenly Father.

The king, so affectionate by nature, but weak in governing, met his fate courageously upon the appointed day, saying as he neared the scaffold, «I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible crown.” As there were objections to his burial in Westminster his remains were placed in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. As the coffin was borne to the grave, the falling snow covered the black pall with a mantle of white, the emblem of purity, to friends typical of the king they mourned.

The children remained with the Countess of Leicester for a year and a half, then Parliament ordered their removal to Carisbrooke, a place of melancholy memories to the fatherless ones. Orders were given that they should be treated as children of gentlemen, but no titles must be used; they were known as Miss Elizabeth and Master Henry. The Princess

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The queen caused a beautiful monument of Carrara marble to be erected within the church. An arch is within the wall, the broken bars at the back suggestive of the prisoner's release. In the niche reposes the marble effigy of the Princess, her cheek resting upon the open Bible,the position in which she passed away: the likeness being from a portrait in the possession of the queen. After the ordinary inscription are these closing words:


through it like a silver thread. In all directions church spires rise above little villages sheltered in luxuriant foliage, between which are rich farming lands divided by blossoming hedges into narrow fields, their varied colors giving abundant promise of a bountiful harvest. At the right rise the stately towers of Osborne House, the palace of the queen, and farther away are the dashing waters of the Solent filled with all manner of sailing-craft; little pleasure boats, yachts, and ships, with steamers flying the flags of all nations, and possibly, at anchor, a British man-of





1856 Many of the rooms at Carisbrooke are roofless now; within, the birds fly and sing, building their nests upon the surrounding trees or in the thick masses of ivy that cover the embattled walls. From a window of the Princess Elizabeth's apartments one may see the long flight of steps leading to the massive Norman keep, the oldest portion of the castle. Mounting the seventy-two steps of broken granite, a stone gateway, formerly guarded by a portcullis, is reached; a dozen steps more lead to the sunny promenade of the ruined tower, from which a magnificent panorama of the “Garden Isle » is obtained. The busy town of Newport seems close at hand, the river Medina running

Standing thus upon these ruined walls, partially supported by the clasping fingers and rope-like stems of the English ivy, looking out upon the peaceful landscape, and remembering the royal family once sheltered here, the suggestive words of an unknown poet come to mind: « There is no ruined life beyond the smile of heaven, And compensating grace for every loss is given; The ruined, shattered wall is loved of flower and vine, And round each crumbling arch the ivy tendrils twine.”




N OUR own times we have known in

stances where one man, though an

indifferent organizer, has by his very mastery of words virtually held a great political party together in the face of crushing defeats, and other men we have known who by that same “persuasiveness of tongue,” singly, and unaided by press or friend and seemingly even by circumstances, have inaugurated astounding reforms. History is replete with similar cases where an individual, by his eloquence alone, has been a far more potent factor in the great world-movements than has his more heralded and always better remembered brother-in-arms who generally completed the work. But it is doubtful if a parallel case may be found where a man possessing few qualities that would endear him to the people, a known coward in the face of physical danger, and not an organizer in any sense of the term, has by words, and words alone, but words

most eloquently uttered and from the heart, held such sway for so long and exerted so powerful an influence in worldaffairs as did Demosthenes. We are told that even the bold Philip of Macedonia, after his victory at Chæronea, trembled when he thought of the prodigious power of that orator” whom he had but just then put to undignified flight!

Some writers cite Peter the Hermit, the zealot preacher of the first Crusade, as a peer of Demosthenes in the power of leadership by words. But Peter never led, nor did he hold any sway over, the hordes of enthusiasts he started against the Moslem. He but keyed them up to the

proper pitch of enthusiasm, and the different rulers of Europe and their petty satraps, glad to divert each other's and their peoples' attention from their own generally rather tangled affairs, did the rest.

I have heard such eloquence as Peter's is said to have been. Some years ago I

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