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great masters than one. And just now the first scholars in this country are laying plans to facilitate the migration of our graduate students from one university to another, in order that they may touch the best teachers in more than

one.

While the old college was made illustrious by some such famous teachers as those I have named, it is to be observed that the university of our time demands, as a rule, much larger attainments in its professors than were formerly asked. Fifty years ago many professorial chairs were filled by men who had not made much special study of the branch or branches which they were appointed to teach. I say branches, because in many cases, in scientific teaching generally, a man was expected to teach two or three, or even more, branches. Not infrequently a preacher, who had become weary of writing sermons, or whose parish had become weary of hearing his sermons, was appointed to a chair, because it was hoped he could teach respectably, while he could commend the college to the public by supplying pulpits of the

vicinity from time to time. Having this means of earning something on Sundays, he could afford to accept a moderate salary for his college work. One such gentleman applied for a chair in a college with whose faculty I was connected, and when asked what chair he thought he was fitted to fill, replied that he thought he could slide into almost any one of them.

But teaching in a college or university of the first rank has happily become a profession, for which long and careful preparation is now exacted. A man who has failed in another calling can no longer expect to «slide) into a professorial chair. True, not all the learning which can be acquired in the best American and European universities will make a successful professor of the man who has not in him the divine gift of teaching. But even the possessor of this divine gift must bring to his work now a generous outfit of learning in his chosen branch. And the leading colleges and universities in our country may now well be proud of the brilliant generation of scholars who fill most of their important chairs of instruction.

ANOTHER WORD ON COLLEGE EDUCATION — WHAT IT REALLY IS

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he writer of "A Word on College Educa- quirement of knowing two other living lan

tion » in the August number of Self guages,” which the critic also suggests as an inCULTURE has well stated the funda- novation. At Columbia he must have the two

mental principles of modern college edu- “living languages ) and English; he must have cation as it actually exists. All that he is history and a science course in his Freshman clamoring for has already been done, and the or Sophomore year; he must have (Political thing for his great spirit of irreverence to Economy” (a good live course in it too, rundo now would therefore be to clamor against ning from the science and history of governit-either for a return to more of the old-fash

ment to the management of millions ») in his ioned Greek culture (as Professor Harry Thurs- Sophomore or Junior year; and he may go on ton Peck did in the «Cosmopolitan » about two with these things all he pleases in the last two years ago) or for some new reform. His

years. This is fairly representative of other «Horace, Livy, and Greek” represent no col- college courses. And as for the still more lege of to-day. In the course at Harvard Col- “practical» demands: every college of any lege, for instance, not a word of Latin, Greek, importance now has its “scientific school » or or Mathematics is required; in Columbia no «institute of technology) set down beside it, Greek, under certain conditions no Mathemat- to teach, literally, railroad-building, bridgeics, and after Freshman year no Latin, are re- building, electrical engineering, all sorts of quired. Cornell, Yale, Princeton, and the rest, building and engineering, mining (one of the are rapidly granting the same freedom, or have

chief subjects at Columbia), etc.; and often, as already done so. I know of no college where at Harvard, these subjects are freely interany one of these subjects is required after the changeable with the usual college » work for Sophomore year.

college degrees; at Columbia they may occupy Now as to what the writer calls for in place the whole Senior year, etc. Really, the plea of this imaginary mediævalism, - «the philos- should be, if anything, for the old-fashioned ophy of history; the simple scientific reasons of (mediæval” studies, - at least we should give things; governments and how they are formed

those who want the good old classical culture and how they work.) A man at Harvard may a chance to get it, for it is a real and good be studying all these in his Freshman year,— thing in its place, and is no longer usurping and, if he pleases, nothing else for all four years, too large a share of the curriculum. except English, provided he has fulfilled the re

C. H. PAGE.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.

THE SHEEP-EATING PARROT *

T

HE kea, the large and beautiful mountain

parrot of New Zealand, proved so de-
structive to sheep that special measures

were taken to destroy it, there being a standing offer of one shilling per head for its destruction.

These birds had developed (as is mentioned below) a carnivorous habit of attacking sheep - generally the weaker members of the flock. Having overcome and worried the animal by force of numbers, the keas would proceed to eat their way into the intestinal cavity, generally directing their principal energies toward securing the kidneys and the fat surrounding them.

On the Tasman Glacier they are fairly numerous. Atan altitude of about 4,000 feet, keas may be seen soaring like eagles far overhead, uttering their cry, “Kiiaa! Kiiaa!) A party camping on the glacier describes the birds as becoming anxious to inspect them closely, finally gathering close about the hut.

« At length they began to drop down, some upon the slopes of the mountains, others on the moraine, on the ice of the glacier itself, or among the shrubs in the narrow intervening valley. All the while they seemed to be talking in their strange tongue to each other, from point to point, and gradually closing upon us. Their language became more animated, they mewed like cats, howled like dogs, chattered like monkeys, and made many various sounds, the favorite being a yelping like that of a pleased puppy.

"We did our best to imitate these sounds, and had no difficulty in getting individual keas to answer us. evening approached, their desire for a nearer acquaintance increased. The notion of fear never at any time seemed to enter into the question. They approached

slowly, hopping, flying, and walking, not with caution, but rather with circumspection, as if everything on the road had to be examined. On the high flat, just opposite the house, they were very busy. Here they found meattins, old rags, bottles, and other camp refuse ; these were examined with the greatest care. A sardine-tin would occupy a bird for half an hour; it had to be turned over and over and thrown first one way and then another, then up in the air. A glass bottle-head was tossed about, apparently because it made a ringing sound; the same bird tossed it up in the air dozens of times. Some of the newer tins contained bits of meat, and these had to be carefully examined, but I could not see that they ate either this or the good meat and bread given them. Pieces of wood of considerable size were bitten into small fragments, apparently in search of grubs, but possibly only as pastime; the operation showed the great strength of their long, hard beaks.

« All the while they were whistling and chattering in their own fashion. We counted sixteen in all, and this lot, with occasional changes, hung about for the four days we spent there. Gradually they closed up to the hut. As we sat at meals inside they came to the open door, and in turns looked in. They did not enter, as they sometimes do, but stood in the doorway. Then our fire, which was made in a large nail-can, with a draughthole, attracted much attention. The fire was carefully examined through the draught-hole. Then one bird, overcome with curiosity, put his beak in the hole and got it burned. He hopped away with an air of indignation, but this did not prevent two or three others from making the same mistake. It was very interesting to stand among the stones at dusk, and turn from bird to bird as they walked up to us to see what was going on, sometimes hopping and sometimes flying from one boulder to another. One of the party held out a letter in his hand to a bird on a boulder; the kea nibbled the other end of it. This intense curiosity is enough to account for the kea learning to eat sheep; the old rags and sucks near the camp were riddled with holes torn by them. No doubt they have explored dead sheep in the same way, and, liking the meat, have thus learned the trick of eating their way into live ones."

As

THE CARE OF GOLD-FISH

F

| EW people are aware that the secret of Should the fish become affected with the keeping gold-fish in health is the main- fungus growth mentioned, they may sometimes tenance of an even balance between ani- be saved by a careful brushing with a camel's

mal and vegetable life in the aquarium. hair brush, and restoration of the balance of Plain water alone will soon develop a fungus life in the tank as speedily as possible. which attacks the fishes' gills and skin and Fish are very often injured by excessive causes death. Some water-weed, like the feeding. More food is thrown into the tank Vallisneria, should be planted in the tank, but than they can dispose of, and it speedily sours it must not be allowed to spread too rapidly. If and taints the water. The best food is inthis is permitted, the glass will take on a coat sects, worms, and fresh-water crustacea, as of green slime, showing that vegetable matter caddis worms, with small quantities of breadis in excess.

crumb or small dough-balls. Bran is someAbout the best method of keeping this bal- times given, but all forms of bread or grain ance is to introduce into the tank some water- must be fed sparingly in order to avoid the snails, which will keep the glass clean, and, in souring mentioned above. proportion to their numbers, will keep the

ELFORD E. TREFFRY. balance even.

AKRON, O.

* Condensed from "The Leisure Hour.”

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Come and Rest Awhile.

N ONE of the busy thoroughfares of on one side, in further explanation, these
London there has been raised, words:
through private generosity,

« Passengers Through the Busy Streets of London, chapel that when finished is to be open all Enter this Sanctuary for Rest, and Silence, and Prayer, day for rest, meditation, and prayer. The

Let the Pictured Walls within Speak of the Past

Yet ever Continuing Ways of God with Man.” weary and troubled are ever to see its doors open, are ever to read its yearning, On the other, these : pleading invitation, and when they enter

" Is it Nothing to You, All Ye that Pass by ? are to find there the holy silence, the high thcught, the strength of faith, and Commune with Your Own Hearts, and Be Still,

Jesus Christ, the Same Yesterday, To-day, and For Ever.” the divinely tender pity that shall ease them of their burdens. It is not designed The lunettes at the side entrances also that there shall be service or sermon in have an interpreting verse of Scripture. the chapel. The beauty of the paintings This Chapel of the Ascension, as it is is to offer the inspiration and the comfort. called, stands on Bayswater Road, as the Art is to speak to the soul with no human approaching realization of the hope and voice. Over the left door there is painted, dream of a wealthy London woman who in a small lunette on the outside wall, the has not lived to see the fulfilment of her returning prodigal; over the right, the plan. Mrs. Emilia Russell Gurney, after father seeing him afar off and eager to many discouragements in failure to secure seal the penitent's pardon with a kiss. desired sites, and in the doubt and disapThe scenes are emblematic of the purpose proval of friends whose advice she valued, of the chapel. The central doorway has persevered, and finally, in the latter part Copyrighted, 1899, by THE WERNER COMPANY. All rights reserved.

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of 1890, secured the permission of the that even in the narrow limits of his own Burial Board and the Bishop of London to new structure he was hampered by the carry out her project in the old Bayswater necessity of presenting unbroken spaces Road cemetery, at the side of the then of wall for the reception of the artist's decaying mortuary chapel. The location scheme of painting. The latter was to be was well-nigh ideal for her purpose, - on very elaborate, and since it seemed un

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a great highway, but little removed from wise to await the completion of the buildone of the busiest convergent points of ing and the careful preparation of its London's traffic, and yet enough with- walls for strictly mural paintings, it was drawn from the actual noise and hurry to resolved to make use of a medium that meet her purpose of bestowing spiritual would permit a beginning of the work in peace. The architect and artist were the studio while construction was yet in already chosen. The former was Mr. progress. Accordingly blocks of slate Herbert P. Horne, the latter Mr. Fred- were riveted to the walls, with an aireric Shields, and at Mrs. Gurney's request chamber behind them, and on these are and expense they visited the northern affixed the artist's canvases, so that the Italian cities to gain, if not inspiration, effect of mural painting without suggeswhich was already present, at least sug- tion of framed pictures is easily given. gestions for their treatment of the work. That the fresh permanency of the work

Construction began shortly after their may be assured, the deed of gift stipulates return. It was not an easy task that had that no artificial light shall ever be introbeen entrusted to the architect, and if at duced. The hours of God's day are suffithe first glance there be a tinge of disap- cient for the purposes of the chapel. pointment before the simple dignity of his Mrs. Gurney died in 1896, after seven design is realized, it must be recalled that months of illness had long kept her from the conditions required that the old chapel the sight of her Refuge, or, as she called be preserved on the one side, and the it, «the Glory.” The last time she saw it caretaker's dwelling on the other, and alone was the day after the scaffolding had been removed from which the artist approve; but the function of the chapel, had painted the frieze and the panels of the design to make its decoration appeal the enclosing woodwork. The next day to the jaded brain and to the untaught there was the first of a series of lectures passer, needing its lesson more often than on the purposes of the chapel decoration, art critic and fresh intellect, is to be to which many of Mrs. Gurney's friends considered as a probable and sufficient had been invited, and on the day after explanation. At the right of the door in that she was stricken. The large paint- entering there is also a very beautiful — ings, of which a number are still unfin- if somewhat conventionally appropriate ished, were not then in place.

and simply symbolical — figure of the Good To understand and earnestly to appre- Shepherd, crowned with thorns and scarred ciate the decorative scheme, it is necessary with wounds, and going before his sheep to keep in mind the purpose of this chapel. through the Valley of the Shadow of That, of course, gives the dominant char- Death. He carries a lamb in his arms, acter to the plan, offers to it its keynote. and restrains another from the edge of The invitation which is on the outer wall the dark abyss with his rod and staff of finds its complement in the words that comfort. But one must not carry into the are seen on the decorated timbers of the chapel this coldly critical attitude, though

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