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reports of these Settlements state that ment. In religion all the Settlements, or they never have a dull evening, no matter nearly all, are unsectarian, and in this what the weather; the “Poor Man's Law- way the dogmatic odium which is the yer” meets his clients, rain, hail, or shine. curse of theological polemics is entirely In many reported instances wrongs have lacking. Thus these organizations escape been redressed. For example:

the three great sources of corruption,« One poor fellow injured his foot by slipping partisan zeal, religious rancor, and color. into a copper of molten lead which was not This must make for peace. Republicans properly protected. He was consequently in- and Democrats receive new ideas of policapacitated for work for months. At the end tics and of religion from such a sight as of a few weeks he was asked to sign a paper in the activities of a University Settlement receipt for the wages paid up to then, and to

affords. It should not be inferred, howrepudiate all further claim upon his employers. He consulted the Poor Man's Lawyer and we

ever, that these organizations are indiffer

ent. wrote a respectful letter urging a claim, on two

The secretary of the Citizens' Union, doctors' certificates, for a more substantial

which ran Seth Low for mayor of New amount. Fifty dollars, in addition to wages

York, was Mr. J. B. Reynolds, director of which had already been paid, was offered in the New York University Settlement, and settlement, which we urged our client to refuse, the influence of this Settlement in that advising him to threaten proceedings if a larger memorable election cannot be understood amount was not offered. The end of it was

as resting on anything but intense devothat he received in all $100 and a promise of tion to politics, but not party politics.

But not only in these broad relations It will be sufficient in this connection to is suspicion mitigated, but also in the point out four ways in which the social friendly relations of the workers and the problem is being aided by such organiza- community. There is an increase of good tions as those briefly described: (1) They will to be expected as a result of the very tend to mitigate the class suspicion which candid way rich men and poor mingle in exists between the higher” and “lowermeetings which are free from cant or the strata of society; (2) they create a better goody-goody at these Settlements. The spirit in the local political life; (3) they men who direct these institutions are in assist by undertaking the statistical study many cases men of wealth and always of the condition of labor in small areas; men of high scholarship. The fact that and (4) they contribute by the examples they live among the poor, share their life, of wisdom and temperance which are af- and help them share theirs, is in itself a forded in the character of the workers. proof of good will; for it cannot be sup

1. The University Settlement tends to posed that these men and women live in mitigate class distinctions. The rich and the slums of their own will, but in obethe poor are suspicious of one another. dience to the great principle, “Not money, The poor man suspects the philanthropy but yourselves.” It is not, of course, to be of the rich man, and when it comes to a expected that results will be startling; but matter of votes he thinks that he is wanted it is obvious that if the social question is only that the boss” may get a place for to be solved, the first step is a more perhimself. The rich, on their side, suspect fect understanding between the extremes the poor; they dare not provoke them for of the social scale. To this work the fear that they may revolt; they read the University Settlement is contributing in a newspapers and view with alarm the

positive way as I have shown. growth of poor men's organizations. And 2. They create a better spirit in local this habit of suspicion is deep-seated. politics. They have helped forward the Wherever it exists there is a slumber- reaction against the machine in its exing volcano, of which strikes are the pre- treme forms, than which I suppose there monitory symptoms.

is no greater foe of freedom in politics, The Social Settlement has shaken the especially local politics. For the so-called force of this fact, to some extent, by its sacredness of party is often synonymous very method.

It is, to begin with, non- with the supremacy of the machine, and partisan and knows no color. In politics this in turn means the control of the boss. each man does what he thinks is right; In the poorer parts of our great cities the union is in the essentials of good govern- corruption is necessarily greater, owing

to the greater need and the facility of * Report of Mansfield House and Browning Hall, London.

bribery. Of course we cannot get along in politics without parties, machines, and 3. But it is more especially in connection bosses; but when the emphasis is placed with the industrial aspect of the social upon these and not upon the great work question that these institutions may be of raising society, it is time to call a halt. favorably regarded. In this work there Now it is the method of the Settlement are three ways that social Settlements are always to coöperate with local govern- contributing. (1) The workers at these ment boards and their officials, though places are, as the reader has already disclaiming any adherence to their politi- learned, interested students of the social cal standpoint; in this way they directly question. I have shown that the Univerinfluence them for good.

sity Settlement came into existence as a In London, Toynbee and her numerous result of the economic teaching of Arnold progeny have done a great work in rais- Toynbee, and since his day the work ating the tone of local government. They tempted has always owed its inspiration to have in many instances put up their own social conditions. They are thus placed in candidate for election to school boards, circumstances favorable to the study of the boards of guardians, and boards of trade, condition of labor. The men, by collectand in scores of cases they have succeeded ing facts and by observing the actual lives in securing his or her election. This of workingmen, are contributing at first means, as suggested above, definite work hand to the solution we all desire to see. in securing obedience to existing law and The limitation of the area operated is in agitating the poor man's demands for re- favor of this work. The smaller the area form. In New York the Citizens' Union the more easily it is thoroughly mastered. was served by the University Settlement These settlements may thus, by collecting and its secretary, and no one can say that data, become valued servants of the gova cleaner, more straightforward canvass ernment, and certainly every layman was ever conducted in this country than would be grateful for statistics carefully that of Seth Low and the committees who prepared on how the other half lives;”> had his prospects in charge. Through for our feelings are easily aroused by efforts like these good results come about, harrowing details; but we need conviction, which even the evildoer shares. In White- and this can spring only from ordered chapel, London, the London County Coun- knowledge, from science. (2) The settlecil has been moved to establish a library. ment is a kind of Investigation Bureau A library in Whitechapel! Political par- where such questions as the following may ties have been induced to adopt social re- be most advantageously studied. (a) The forms; the police have been compelled to housing of the people; overcrowding; unenforce order in back streets; the rights of sanitary conditions; evasion of law as to women and children have been defended, proper condition of tenements. I suppose by the members of the University Settle- that there are few questions so fundaments. These devoted men do what ma- mental in the social problem as the ques. chinery — because it is machinery - can- tion of where the people live. Industrial not do. They exert personal force; they progress cannot be expected to come if look at supply and demand directly and not the worker is not housed better than a dog through the medium of taxes; they adapt or a cab-horse. (b) Periodic and chronic themselves to changing circumstances; unemployment, the facts and their causes, they are not afraid of the bugbear of “con- is another problem profitably investigated sistency;» they follow truth in its appli- at the Settlement. Hundreds and thoucation to momentary need; they give them- sands (« General ” Booth says millions) are selves to the social problem.

affected by the phenomena in question; This cannot but result in the elevation but no one seems to know why it is that of politics out of the sordid condition into this problem exists, our information being which it often falls, and in lifting it into the neither reliable nor systematic. (c) The light of a great crusade. The social ques- worker at a Settlement has a splendid tion is a political question; that is, it is a chance of making studies of particular matter of legislation. If these Settlements local industries which are suffering from are creating a better atmosphere by their adverse conditions. These should be attitude toward politics, surely they are studied in their details and on laboratory making a valuable contribution toward the methods; as the results need to be reliable coming of the better time and are there- and scientific. For this work, it is obvious, fore deserving of support and admiration. only trained students are competent, and they should have the best-equipped meth- The social worker is above this evil. He ods and be kept in the closest contact with is, as Sir Walter Besant said in the adlabor organizations and with the bureaus dress referred to, a modern, up-to-date of statistics. Much has been done by the Franciscan. Like the order of St. Francis, University Settlement; but it is feared the University Settlement is pledged to that the hold of sentiment upon the work- organized work, to self-consecration, and ers is often too strong for the scientific to a large extent to celibacy. Thus spirit. One invaluable result of such work equipped, they live their life among the would be its importance for the Settle- poorest and most miserable people. Their ment worker himself. (3) In less direct motto, preached six hundred years ago, and formal ways than the above, the and revived in Carlyle and “Alton Locke," Settlement will be able to serve the labor is “Not money, but yourselves,” and this movement, for example, by cultivating the is the true spirit in which social regeneraacquaintance of the best representatives of tion is to be attempted. For the examples labor and promoting their election in the of devotion, self-denial, and practical wisparticular districts which fall under their dom afforded by the social Settlement notice. It is not too much to say that the work, we cannot be too grateful. One ordinary labor candidate does not possess,

enthusiastic admirer went so far as to say or profess to possess, extraordinary polit- that if Christ were living on the earth toical wisdom or virtue, and the consequence day He would have been a social Settleis that voters are as often duped by these ment worker. Exaggerated as this may people as served. Trade unions, friendly be, no higher tribute could have been paid and mutual-benefit societies, should utilize the organization. the service offered by the Settlement, as The keenest observers of things social it is a direct gain in the important work are rapidly coming to the view that of self-government, and in this way good social reorganization needs the religious men may be selected and elected to re- inspiration; that discontent is but the natsponsible positions in local political life. ural reaction against materialism; and that I have already shown that a large place the newer synthesis into which we are in the educational work of the Settlement coming must secure, for basis, the life is given to social questions. It should be that is built on faith and service. We vastly increased. Shakespeare said, “There are undoubtedly on the eve of a great is no darkness but ignorance,” and igno- religio-social revival. Men of all shades rance is most dangerous where there is of belief cannot bear the idea of society only a little knowledge. The working growing without faith in the eternal light. people need enlightenment on their own This is the underlying and sustaining life. With this, many of the evils of their faith of the University Settlement work. condition will be effectively overcome. It is by cultivating the broadest sym

4. It remains to mention the example pathy with the new methods whereby the of wise and temperate spirit which is spirit of man is seeking self-realization shown by the workers of the Settlement. that our own life grows more rich and This is no small contribution toward the true-seeing. If this article shall have conpractical solution of the social question. tributed to this end it will have accomThe ordinary political and economic stu- plished its purpose. Society is still an dent is necessarily indifferent to feeling, Inferno; but every clear voice, of poet, phisince his interest in the question is intel- losopher, and prophet, bids us look ahead, lectual. Such students are not always not back, to the “life the undiminished wise or even temperate. But the social man demands.” It is only of the future worker, by reason of the character of the that we can say in the glowing words of inspiration upon which he relies, touches Lowell, the singer of true socialism: men on their intrinsic side. One writer

" What man would live coffined with brick and has said that the Settlement worker has shown us that the social question is a spir

Imprisoned from the influences of air,

And cramped with selfish landmarks everyitual movement, involving sympathy and

where, service as well as politics. «The labor When all before him stretches, furrowless and

lone, movement has too often been hindered

The unmapped prairie none can fence or own? by the hasty partisanship of those who

(The Pioneer.) should have given strong and impartial

HENRY DAVIES. counsel.”




Few months ago the entire English- quality of the best poetry. The world's speaking literary world was rap- great satires are poetical in form and in

turously discussing a little poem some other features, but are little known containing only thirty lines. It was the as compared with the poems that are perfamous Recessional."

vaded by a spirit of affection and of huMany ballads and poems had been writ- man interest. Love of men; pity for men; ten by the same author, but nothing pos- the desire to help men to live and be sessing such qualities of style and thought happy: justice, peace, and truth,- these as the “Recessional.” Its diction is fault- are the things that the poet was born to less; its versification is regular and mu- sing. Patriotism in the large sense- - not sical; its theme and its sentiment are that national bigotry which exults in trimajestic and reverential.

umph irrespective of right or wrong, but While the Queen's official poet and a that higher patriotism which would mainhost of ambitious performers were filling

tain national dignity and perpetuity by the public prints with rhymes flattering maintaining national justice, - this is preto royalty and sensational to the minds of ëminently a poet's theme. the throngs that were gathering for the Even poems of nature, seemingly withcelebration of Victoria's Jubilee, Rudyard out a mention or trace of the human eleKipling alone fitly moved by the tre- ment in them, conform to this rule. Namendous possibilities of the occasion and ture is visited, and studied, and loved, by the history of the past — was unosten- and sung by the poet because of her gentatiously penning a poem that touched the erous responsiveness to human feeling and hearts of nations, taught them a lesson in needs; because of her reflection of human morality, and will live in the literary his- thought and fancy; because of her moods tory of England.

of sympathy. The poem, in the form of a plea to God,

« For his gayer hours is an admonition to his country that in the She has a voice of gladness, and a smile day of her might and power England shall

And eloquence of beauty, and she glides

Into his darker musings with a mild not forget to be modest, just, and unselfish. And healing sympathy that steals away The first rounds of applause for the

Their sharpness ere he is aware. «Recessional” had not died away when The great study for man is man and his an American magazine published, and correlations with the universe. The devothers reprinted, another poem which has otee of science and nature who affects to attracted its full share of attention,- despise or openly disparages the study of « The White Man's Burden.” But if the literature, languages, and history,-even latter production attracted as much atten- he, upon a closer analysis of his own work, tion, it certainly did not meet the same can find only one reason for his devotion, universal admiration and heartfelt ap- namely, that the natural world is someproval among all classes of men. Whatever how indissolubly bound up with the fate, attention and interest it won was chiefly the well-being, the interests of humanity. due to attendant political and interna- It is because of this universal sympathy, tional crises; while the lack of approval is this absence of narrow selfishness, this due to the deficiency of the poem in true tenderness of heart that bled for human poetical qualities.

sorrows and weaknesses, and encouraged The most vital element — the golden aspirations for freedom, that the great rule —of poetry is sympathy. Enduring poems have lived. And it is precisely bepoetry must possess it. All rules of crit- cause «The White Man's Burden” is defiical art are included in this, as all of the cient in this respect that its reception Ten Commandments are included in the particularly in America - has not been so one commandment to love God and our hearty as that given to the Recessional.” neighbor. Effort to make poetry without We feel that - unintentionally perhaps — it will fail, however much other rules it voices a limited interest; that in the samay be followed.

Without it, verses may cred garb of poetry it robes the theory of be made, but their artificiality will fail to tyranny. meet the requirements for lasting appre- There is little in the poem that is Amciation. Human sympathy is an essential erican. And this happens because the

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author is not American. He is an imperial- monarchical and commercial institutions, ist, born and reared in the atmosphere of if the genial current of his poet's nature monarchical domination and not of indi- had not been stagnated, he would surely vidual freedom. He was never habituated have seen the heartlessness and the falseto the theory of human equality as the ness of any such theory; and he would genuine American understands that the- have refrained from putting under the ory. This is not a fault in Mr. Kipling, guise of truth a theory that is, to speak for he is certainly an advocate of higher gently, a cruel sophism. He no doubt has things than he ever found in his native a good heart and lofty purposes; but it is environment, but if that environment had the trouble with most of us that our hearts been in democratic America he would are touched through the perception of hardly have written «The White Man's facts, and that our perception of facts is Burden.” It bears, throughout, the tone sometimes dimmed by the mists thrown of aristocracy and falls far below the around us by the prevailing ideas and in-. American ideal. Yet we must admit that stitutions of our locality. the American practice is somewhat below There are a few noteworthy phrases in its 'ideal.

the poem : If we look for the message of the poem

Your new-caught sullen peoples, its apparent meaning is all in the first four

Half devil and half child" lines:

The phrase "new-caught was an « Take up the white man's burden

fortunate one for the poet's purpose, but it Send forth the best ye breed

is very true as to fact.

Is there a people
Go bind your sons to exile,
To serve your captives' need.”

on earth that will not be sullen” if

“caught?” Even the birds of the air are The entire poem is an elaboration of this

so! It may be there is a half-child” naone idea. The white nations are to go out

ture in the aboriginals, but certainly, in with the force of sword and gun, conquer

most cases, the half-devil” entered after the colored and heathen races, and then

the advent of the white man with his dehold them in captivity till they are healed

ceit, his greed, his vices, and his liquor. of disease, relieved from famine, and led

In the second stanza are the lines out of ignorance. In spite of these benevolent deeds of ours, the poet tells us, these

“ By open speech and simple,

An hundred times made plain, captives will “hate us and will be “si

To seek another's profit, lent” and “sullen.”

And work another's gain.” Against the theory and the real purpose That, indeed, when isolated, is a generous of this poem a protest must be entered.

sentiment. But not often has the white It is contrary to the facts of history, phi- man done such a thing. When he has, losophy, and religion. It is simply the almost never has it failed that the open voice of monarchy, centuries old, some- speech and simple ” won the affection and

» what euphemized. The Stuarts, with

allegiance of the new people and brought that egotism which characterizes tyranny, legitimate profit to both parties. believed that the will of the king was But the idea is carried farther: fraught with good to the people ulti

« Take up the white man's burden, mately. But the humane instincts and

No iron rule of kings : the discernment of a poet ought to debar

But toil of serf and sweeper,

The tale of common things.” him from using his art to make the theories of tyranny more savory.

Now if the poet were advising the powerThis poem is gratefully accepted as true ful white man to proceed along this bephilosophy - at least as convenient phi- nevolent line, the proposition could be losophy — by the advocates of civilization accepted with consistency and with ferthrough slaughter. Men who defended

But, judging from the context, we slavery deemed bondage a good thing for feel that he means to say that such has the slaves. Men who are looking into the been the white man's method. Opposed islands of the sea for purposes of profit

to this is the historical fact that almost and power chant “ The White Man's Bur- invariably the inferior» races have been den” as a vindication of their resort to made the victims of our heartless comforce and subjugation.

mercial ideas, and have been reduced litIf Mr. Kipling had been reared under erally to the condition of “toil of serf and other influences than the opinions of sweeper” for the white man.



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