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for the Boers, and, however regrettable Britain has or will immediately have in the circumstance, war can hardly fail to the country a like numerical strength, be the resort.
consisting of the varied branches of the We have spoken of the dynamite mo- service, under the most eminent and wellnopoly and its grinding exactions levied tried commanders. To this strength a upon the British mining companies in the further army corps, of about 10,000 men, is Transvaal by a friend of President Kruger. to be at once added, composed of the The injustice of this impost may be gath- élite of the English army, with possible ered from the statement that the British contingents drawn from the British coloworkers in the gold mines have had to nies. Such of the force as is already in pay as high as $37.50 a case for the dyna- South Africa is stationed at strategic points mite used by them,- four times its value in Cape Colony, in Natal, and in Rhodesia. in the open market; while at that price To it important additions, of infantry, (subsequently reduced to $18.75 a case) the artillery, and cavalry, are now currently quality has been poor and ineffective for arriving at Cape Town and Durban from the uses for which it was required. But England, from the Mediterranean, and the injustice does not end here; the wrong from India; while strong reserves is intensified by the fact that no one can under orders to proceed to the Cape, as import the commodity save through the soon as Parliament meets, to be piaced President's friend, who enjoys the sole under the chief command of Sir Redvers monopoly of importation, and no one, Buller, an officer of great distinction, who moreover, is permited to manufacture it
has moreover the advantage of knowing in the Republic. The grievance is one of the country. many which the British residents in the On the score of military efficiency and Transvaal have to suffer at the hands of the technical training of a soldier, the the Boer government, and the monopoly superiority must largely lie with the Britis said, with truth we believe, to be the ish. We say this without disparagement means of personally enriching the Presi- to the known excellence of the Boers in dent and his closest friends. The extent marksmanship, and to that quality which of the enrichment is seen when it is stated distinguishes them as mounted infantry or that about 250,000 cases of dynamite are guerillas, with a genius for taking cover. used in the mines every year, yielding in Herein lies their chief strength, added to clear profit to the Transvaal monopolist their intimate knowledge of the country fully $2,000,000 annually. The sum, it and the advantage they must have in may be said, is a comparatively small choosing the strong natural posts of demulct in face of the gold yield of the fence. For fighting in the open they have mines, which at the present rate of pro- no liking, while they are said to be afraid duction amounts to about $70,000,000 a of the sabre and the bayonet and chary year. That, however, is not the point: of close contact with cold steel. The the point is the existence of the unjust im- lesson of 1881 has, on the other hand, not post (against which many of the influential been lost on the British; they, too, have burghers of the Republic have strongly learned the use of mounted infantry and protested), and the questionable use made of irregular corps of horse; while even the of the gains of the monopoly, which do linesmen now take advantage of cover and not benefit the Boer State, but, as stated are expert at skirmishing and skilful in above, go into the pockets of President the use of the rifle. Kruger and a few of his personal friends, One material drawback from which the with a moiety expended on the govern- British must suffer is, as we have hinted, ment's secret service mission.
in not knowing the country as the Boers With the outbreak of hostilities, which, know it, while they will, no doubt, be at a as we write, appears perilously imminent, disadvantage in finding the enemy enit will be interesting to glance at what is sconced in the naturally strong defensive known of the fighting strength of the two positions rather than on the open veldt. Boer Republics, and of the composition They must also be at much disadvantage and character of the forces they are likely in the extended area over which the fightto be able to put in the field.
ing is likely to range, with vast frontier bined strength which England will have lines to guard or invade, and immense against her is estimated at from 25,000 to distances to cover from the several bases 30,000 men of all ages. To oppose them, of support and supply. But these are
matters upon which it is perhaps prema- its gold, and who are constantly being inture to speculate. If the war comes, how- famed by the jingo war fever. They of ever, there is no question that it will be a course deem war both unjust and unne. grim though probably brief contest, and, cessary and aver that there is no cause on both sides, a stubborn test of race en- for England's interference. Some even durance and hardihood.
go the length of saying that the English To those who, like ourselves, have been Foreign Secretary is in league with Mr. hoping for peace, it must have been a Cecil Rhodes and his imperialist friends matter of regret to learn that the ties of in seeking to overthrow Republican inconsanguinity had induced the Orange stitutions in the Transvaal and subvert Free State to espouse the cause of the Dutch rule. This, however, is not the Boers in the Transvaal. We especially
attitude of the Liberals as a whole: regret this decision of the President and many of them, indeed, are not only with Volksraad at Bloemfontein, since England the government in insisting that Presihas no quarrel with the Free State, which dent Kruger shall respect England's suzehas always been friendly to her, as well rain rights, but are sick of his narrow as reasonable and just toward aliens intolerance and his impudent trifling with within her borders. Our regret is the the imperial Power, which he has the keener since, in joining hands with the hardihood to accuse of unscrupulous ag. Dutch in the Transvaal, the Free State grandizement and characteristic bad faith. runs the risk of losing her own independ. They of course do not wish to see hostili. ence, while adding to the area of hostility ties, but will not weakly shirk them where and race disaffection. To Britain the England's cause is, as they properly deem, action of the Free State must have come good, and while the Outlanders' grievwith surprise, for its Executive, in ques- ances go unredressed. They do not care to tions between the Transvaal and England, haggle with the Boer oligarchy over the has always counselled submission to the term “suzerain,” but they want recogniless intelligent and more bigoted burghers tion of the bargain made with England in the neighboring State, and has hitherto when she gave them the internal indejoined with their Dutch brethren in Cape pendence of the State, — the admission of Colony in expressing a desire for justice the Outlanders to equal political rights
The crisis evidently, how- with the Dutch burghers. They feel, it is ever, has been too disturbing for Presi- true, that if this is resisted it is hardly a dent Steyn's “sweet reasonableness," and matter to fight over, in the case of a big its effect can only be to arouse England to Power in its dealings with a weak one. more determined action, however loth she But what is to be done when not merely may be to exercise it, to suppress disaffec- local but vast imperial interests are at tion and protect in South Africa the inter- stake, and when a great historic principle ests of her widespread imperial power. is involved, of “no taxation without repre
A still later development of the situ- sentation”? This is the dilemma in which ation is the cabled dispatch from Eng- the fair-minded Liberals, in common with land, to the effect that the army reserves the government and the nation, find themin the United Kingdom have been called selves; and, though they do not love Mr. out and that Parliament has been sum- Rhodes and barely trust Mr. Chambermoned. In the reassembling of the im- lain, they remember that they are Engperial legislature the English Liberals - lishmen and are neither weaklings nor some of the leaders of which have been poltroons. A few days now must settle stoutly opposed to war — hope to keep the the matter, either for peace or for war. country from a conflict, and if possible In the meantime delay is favorable to force the government, even at the last Britain in enabling her to mass her forces hour, to open the way to an agreement. at the Cape, while it must be disadvanThey still speak very volubly of the Boers tageous to the Boers and put severely to being goaded into fighting by Mr. Cham- the test the resources of their commisberlain's hectoring, behind which they sariat and transportation services. profess to see only the Rhodesian mining
G. MERCER ADAN. speculators, who covet the Transvaal for
THE WORLD AND ITS DOINGS:
The Release It must be with a sense of justice that has taken place, or by the
of Dreyfus relief that our readers see nation at large, that has to bear the disthe affaire Dreyfus" relegated to the limbo honor which attaches to the French name of the past. In the poor victim's case for acquiescing in the foul wrong that truth called for acquittal, not for pardon; was committed in the verdict of Rennes. but in the condition France has long been Thankful Captain Dreyfus may himself in, given over to frenzied hatred of the be that he has at length regained freeJew, to slavish deference to military rank, dom and liberty, with the comfort of reand to every unreasoning and iniquitous union with his devoted wife and family. passion, justice was not in that quarter to But while he has this boon - and to the be looked for. The pardoning act of the poor victim of the caballings and machiFrench government is, however, to be nations of a military despotism we can hailed with some measure of satisfaction, well believe it is a great and highly apsince though it has been suggested merely preciated one he has as yet no salve for by expediency, it gets rid, for the time his wounded honor or reparation for the being at least, of an extremely disquieting years of torture he suffered in the humiliand disturbing affair as well as a matter ating garb of a convict. This is fully and of grave national menace to France. The righteously his due, and until he has both outrage is that though clemency has been reparation and vindication no fair-minded shown the accused, it has not exonerated man can say that he has had justice; still him from the crime with which he was less can he be expected to acquiesce in charged; nor does the pardon given him the official eagerness to close the incivindicate either justice or the accused's fair dent. » name. For both of these, it may be taken Whatever theories may be offered in for granted, Dreyfus will unremittingly explanation of the extraordinary miscarstill strive, despite the Minister of War's riage of justice, it is surely madness in a complacent wish to see “the incident nation of presumably intelligent men to closed.” Closed it cannot well be while stand by the ipse dixit of a highly prejuthe victim of these years of exile and physi- diced and unscrupulous military staff, incal and mental distress remains still under stead of by the manifest truth and the the aspersion and the double conviction unimpeachable evidence. To maintain of guilt, and is entitled to acquittal as an the prestige of the army (this is the innocent and sorely maligned man. Nor French contention)" by making a victim can the affair be considered by the Drey- of one man rather than sacrifice the interfusards to be ended after all the insult ests of all,” is surely a discreditable as and contumely that have been heaped well as an ungallant and unpatriotic proupon them, while the scoundrels of the
ceeding. It is upon this ground that we army staff, who have lied and intrigued find the judgment of the Rennes courtall through the affair, are permitted to martial so boldly and defiantly iniquitous. come off with flying colors, in spite of Upon no hypothesis can the decision of their villainies and the depths of moral the court be explained, far less be deinfamy to which they have descended. fended. Nor could any valid plea be made Nor closed can the incident be to M. for mitigation of the sentence, or even for Zola and Colonel Picquart, whose cases pardon, on the score, as the court held, of have to be tried and their brave de- “extenuating circumstances.” If Dreyfus fence made good of an infamously treated is to be deemed guilty, then in the whole and much calumniated man. Still less history of the case there were no extenucan the case be considered closed by the ating circumstances, unless perhaps we French government, which must be held find such in the lengthened imprisonment responsible for the gross perversion of already borne by the accused and the cruel severity of his sufferings. On the ments, with due regard to international supposition that he is innocent, the exten- courtesies, very well lend themselves to uating circumstances become not only il- such an unfriendly and undiplomatic prological but farcical, and the new sentence cedure. To put forward or acquiesce in is thus an outrageous judicial error as a national boycott on the part of any well as a national scandal. On the hy- country would be very properly construed pothesis of innocence—and what sane man as an insult to the French nation, though who has followed the evidence can ques- individual action may thus express itself tion that view of the case ? - the convic- - probably without harm though with tion is a vile and unredeemed iniquity and doubtful good — in showing personal hosa hideous triumph of falsehood and preju- tility to the country and countrymen of dice.
the French military staff. In this Dreyfus That the conviction is an insult alike to matter, if any one wants to show his perGermany and Italy, both of which nations sonal abhorrence of the verdict, he may have unmistakably affirmed that they had do so perhaps more effectively, if he really no dealings whatever with Dreyfus and had cares for that sort of thing, by abjuring no traffic with him of any treasonable kind, French manufactures and products, such is, in one sense, a minor matter, though as wines and silks, by eschewing French it is important as presumptive evidence of watering-places, or, with positive advaninnocence. That this evidence was re- tage to morals, by refusing to read a fused a hearing shows the length the French novel or to witness a French play. court went in its defiance of public opin- A still more effective way would be to dision and want of sympathy for the accused, countenance by his presence such sports while it also shows its own moral obtuse- as have in the past summer been discredness in weighing the pros and cons of the itably drawing thousands of Englishmen case. Nor did the mind of the court, col- and Americans to Boulogne to witness the lectively at least, and throughout the en- bull fights. Nothing, to our mind, shows tire proceedings of the trial, seem to have more palpably the degeneracy of France any appreciative sense of right and wrong. in recent years than the introduction on Everything, in fact, was rejected that did French soil of these brutalizing sports from not make for conviction and utter disre- the other side of the Pyrenees. Here, gard of the truth. Happily Dreyfus was at least, the boycott and censorship may tried not only by the court-martial at well be applied, and an end, we hope, Rennes, but before onlooking nations and made of the insidious introduction on at the bar of the public conscience of French soil of a cruel and morally dethe civilized world. The verdict there grading public spectacle. has not been re-condemnation, but the annulling of the previous conviction, with restoration to the accused of every right Thanksgiving Kindly custom in the United and honor and a frank and unreserved
States has for many years acquittal. Outside of France this has past kept the last Thursday of November been the judgment unanimously rendered, in each year as a day of religious, national, and that with common sense and reason. and social thanksgiving. The festival, as It is the verdict that ought to have been we all know, dates back to the era of the Pilthat of the court at Rennes, in place of grim Fathers of New England, when days the infamous one that has shocked the of prayer and fasting were instituted by the conscience of the world and brought an little colony as an expression of dependadded shame to France.
ence upon a Divine Being and of gratiOnly a word need be said of the rather tude for mercies intermittently vouchsafed foolish talk indulged in outside of France, to it. At certain seasons, particularly to boycott the Paris Exposition of next after harvest, or on the arrival of a new year. As a protest against the Rennes ship from England, bringing added store verdict, and considering the indignation to the colony's scant supplies, and, above aroused by the truculent decision of the all, the fellowship and communion of new court, it is not unnatural that some such immigrant friends, the little community step should be seriously proposed. Re- was fain to make devout acknowledge prisals of this sort seem, however, a trifle ment of its gratitude by setting apart a childish, while they are inexpedient in the day of thanksgiving. Then was underinterests of commerce. Nor can govern
taken the search in the woods for game,
that the festival might be one of good conflicting parties in the stronghold of cheer, as well as one that warmed the Tammany. The reception was in itself a heart with thankfulness for merciful dis- severe test of a sailor's endurance, as it pensations, loving care, and gracious must have been trying in its effect on the bounties. The festival, as we to-day have personal character of the modest admiral. it, though it has had grafted on to it the Perhaps of all the sightseers who had genial practise of family and social re- gathered to pay honor to the occasion, no union, is still, in its primary aspect, as one was more surprised at the extent and the President's proclamation annually re- heartiness of the demonstration than the minds us, an occasion of praise and hero-subject of it. In New York, as well thanksgiving for Divine favors.
as subsequently in Washington, the adship means anything at all, and is seemly miral was acclaimed with more than royal in the attitude of the finite toward the In- honors, for Democracy, when it has the finite, then the November call to the opportunity, is in no degree behind Imnation to give praise and thanks is no less perialism in its liability to excess. At the a duty than it was in the Plymouth Plan- national capital most enthusiastic also was tation two hundred and eighty years ago. the reception by the President and the
Nor is a grateful Nunc Dimittis on the Executive, and interesting the presentapart of this nation to-day less fitting than tion of the sword, the gift of a grateful it was at the time of the little May- nation. From the pinnacle of fame to flower” colony. We have had a bountiful which he has thus tumultuously been harvest, with well-filled garners, much elevated, Admiral Dewey, if we do not general prosperity, and reviving trade. mistake his character, will soberly step But for the pitiful war on our hands in down, and, with ready alacrity, resume the Far East, our cup of national bless- the performance of his every-day duties. ings would be full. Is it not then our With all his honors and trophies, we may duty — nay even our privilege, to be thank- be sure that adulation has not spoiled him, ful, and to own the High Source whence nor is he the sort of man who has any cometh every national as well as liking for mere honorary functions, still munal and social good? Should not, at less for self display. He is made of the same time, the spirit of the season robuster material than to care for these lead us to be charitable, and prompt us, things, and so his good sense will no as we gather round the festive board, to doubt have been preserved by him. In think of those whose meed of comfort is the maintenance of his accustomed balfar below ours, and whose wants are many ance of mind and mental saneness he can, because their opportunities are few and at the present juncture of affairs in the their purse has long been wofully and de- Philippines, be of great service to the pressingly lean ?
Administration, and so add to the coun☆
try's obligations. The national hero has re
☆ Coming of turned to his native shores Death of Mr. Despite the possession of a Dewey and has had a great and
hundred millions, death has
Vanderbilt thoroughly democratic welcome. New
levelled the late Cornelius York may be said to have surpassed her- Vanderbilt to the common lot of all. To self in the magnificence as well as in the minds not heavenly in manifesting resigenthusiasm of her demonstration. The nation with their earthly estate, we can two days' celebration drew hundreds of well believe that that lamented occurrence thousands of spectators to the city, not has given - if we dare say it—some only to see Dewey and his brave com- modicum of real though doubtless conmand, but to witness the great water and cealed satisfaction. And yet, with all his land pageants organized as tributes to the colossal wealth, it would perhaps be paladin-admiral, upon whom the patriot- difficult to find a more hard-worked toiler, ism of a continent and a large share of or one more simple in his tastes and the attention of the world have for a year exemplary in his life, than the multiand a half been centred. Needless to say millionaire who has recently closed his that on the occasion the great city was labors and passed from this evanescent given up to jubilation: great public issues mundane sphere. Lucky he may be said were for the time being forgotten, and to have been in inheriting vast riches, but with them even the venomous passions of more lucky still was he in having made