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is that the American government has in- nila Bay was won. A nation deprived of curred obligations to the Filipinos, to the its liberty of action where its own interforeign residents of the islands, and to ests and the welfare of its own citizens Europe, by the destruction of the Spanish are concerned can in no sense be free. It government in the Philippines, from can make no difference that by its own which obligations it cannot shrink with- free-will its liberty of action was cast out loss of honor and of the respect of the aside. The individual who voluntarily civilized world. Having overthrown one incurs an irredeemable obligation has forgovernment we are morally bound to set ever mortgaged his energies to his obligee up another. With the expiring gasp of and just so far belongs to him. Freedom Spanish authority the sovereignty of this consists in the power of acting by choice. subject people, with all its responsibilities, One may be born an individual's bondpassed to this nation as the fee in lands man, or one born free may make himpasses at death from the ancestor to his self a bondman to circumstance. In heir. This argument is captivating to either case he is not free. one who wishes to approve of what his Did, however, the American people lose government is doing. It is the balm their right to seek their own good by the which salves the consciences of many who destruction of the Spanish fleet? Is this feel within them that the policy adopted assumed obligation real, or is the war was and is injurious to our interests and which we are waging a gratuitous waste unjust to the Americans themselves. It of American lives and money ? It is subassumes that when Dewey sunk the Span- mitted that no such obligation on our part ish fleet in Manila harbor he irrevocably exists; that we never were under obligaaccomplished three things: he destroyed tion, as a nation, to become permanently Spanish rule in the islands, he made responsible for peace and order in the American wards of the inhabitants, and Philippines; and that while the difficulties in consequence of these two achievements of the situation have been immeasurably he imposed upon the American people a increased by the conduct of hostilities, burden the weight and extent of which no our own obligations can be fully met, our man can measure. While the firing of own interests be best subserved, and our Dewey's guns,“heard around the world," national honor be preserved, by withdrawfreed the Filipinos from Spanish dom- ing as soon as possible from this mad atination, it at the same time robbed the tempt to thrust our advantages upon a American people of their freedom to pur- people who, by resisting, show that they sue in their own way, by their own meth- could not appreciate or make use of them. ods, their own true and substantial happi- It is clear that we are not in duty bound ness. That victory, according to the to give all the world the benefit of our argument so confidently and yet so rule, for we are not powerful enough to do thoughtlessly advanced, chained Ameri- so if we would. In the abstract we are can destiny irretrievably to the car of fate, no more charged with the task of preleaving to us no choice of action, no right serving Luzon and the neighboring islands to care for our own interests. The in- from anarchy and revolution, or from arstant the Filipino ceased to be the subject bitrary government, than of preserving of Spanish tyranny, the proud American Hayti, Venezuela, or Central America, at citizen became the perpetual servant of our very doors, from the same evils. Let the Filipino, bound by an inexorable ob- us consider this matter free from mawkish ligation, at no matter how terrible a cost sentimentalism. Let us abandon the hysto himself or how great a sacrifice of his teria which belongs to a religious crusade. own welfare, to conquer, to subdue, to Let us dismiss all lingering notions of the govern, to tutor, to guide, direct, and civ- duellist's code of honor. Let us candidilize, in short to benevolently assimilate) ly face the facts that honor cannot be his charge.

achieved in a war begun in dishonor; that From this burden he may not shrink, self-respect or the respect of others is no matter how long the struggle or how never lost by the frank recognition of a stupendous the loss in life and treasure. mistake or the prompt reparation of a He “dare not stoop to less.”

wrong. Let us view it as Americans from ment be sound, if this obligation be not an American standpoint and apply the fanciful, but real, then the freedom of test of American well-being. What speAmerica was lost when the battle of Ma- cial claim on us have the foreign residents

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If this argu

our

of the Philippines? They located their subject of a European monarch or of an interests there, relying, perhaps, on the Asiatic despot who plants himself outside protection of the Spanish government. our dominions. We are not bound to folThat government, according to our official low him, in subjection to his whim or declaration, by its abuse and inhumanity caprice, on his course around the globe forfeited its right to rule. Such was the whenever he may find native rule disostensible ground of our interference at tasteful to his monarchically trained senall in the struggle between Spain and her sibilities, even though we shall have colonies. Granted the fact of this abuse incidentally aided in establishing that naand brutality, then the downfall of the tive government. American democracy government which fostered it was the has a far grander, more glorious mission inevitable decree of fate. Not being re- than this. The United States government sponsible for the condition, we could not has no moral right to pledge the lives and be held responsible for its natural conse- substance of its own citizens to ensure to quence.

The destruction of this govern- a few foreigners a chance to live indefiment was therefore one of the accidents, nitely in the Philippines or elsewhere unor rather sequences of life to which those der American rule. If these people prefer affected must submit, as to the result of the Ainerican system it is their privilege, an earthquake, a cyclone, or a tidal wave. generously extended, to come to The system perished, not by our act, but shores and live under our flag. Here they by its own inherent moral rottenness. will find the protection they ask; here If, however, our nation was the instru- our duty to them will begin and will be ment of precipitating the final catastrophe, abundantly discharged. there was indeed imposed on us a duty to

There is as little difficulty in measuring those whose error of judgment had led our national obligations to the native Filithem to cast their lot with the miscalled pinos. Having accepted their assistance Spanish government of the Philippines. in defeating Spain we were bound not to

There is, on this point, no dispute with make a treaty of peace which would force the adherents of the duty” theory. But them back to Spanish misrule.

Here our what was the nature, the extent of that obligation ceased, excepting as we duty? Does it require us to substitute duties to the Armenians or any other opourselves for the Spaniards as the pro- pressed people. So far as we were contectors of these foreigners living on soil cerned it was for them to try their hand foreign to us as well as to them? As- at government and abide the result as did suredly not. Our duty to these commer- our neighbors, Mexico and the Spanish cial adventurers was clear and simple. It South American colonies. If internal discan be plainly stated. It was to afford to order should have followed, we might rethem protection from the vengeance of call our Chicago and Cleveland riots and the natives, who regarded them as their extend to them our fraternal sympathy oppressors, until they should have oppor- and appreciative good will. tunity to decide whether they would seek There may be sound reasons for our safety in removal or would take their government's so-called imperialist policy chance with the new, untried forces which which is rapidly committing this Republic aspired to rule. We should have given to a career of costly militarism. If there timely notice of our intended withdrawal are such reasons, by all means let them of protection, and then, with dignity, be given to the public. But let the decome home. Our moral duty to the for- ceitful cry of duty and of honor cease. It eign inhabitants of the Philippines ex- tends to silence protest and to quiet contended and still extends no further than sciences disturbed by tales of glorious this. There is no rational basis for claim- slaughter of our misguided foes. If our ing more. These people could have course can be vindicated by man's reason looked and still can look to their own gov- addressed to man, let us have this justifiernments for protection. One may talk cation, to whose logical force we must all grandly and theorize learnedly about our yield. But let us have an end to this cowduty to the foreign residents of the Span- ardly shrinking behind the plea that we ish archipelago, but there can be but one are helplessly bound to destiny,” and conclusion if we « set a plain man's com- blindly guided, we know not whither, by

sense against the pedant's pride.” the hands of a bloodthirsty god. We are under no special obligation to the TRENTON, N.J.

LINTON SATTERTHWAIT.

owe

mon

N

UTCRACK NIGHT was the most popu

lar in all the year among the youth

of the North Countrie of Britain. Nuts were distributed with lavish hand and cracked and eaten in abundance, besides being made to decide the fate of many a lad and lassie. In the words of Burns,

« The auld guidewife's weel-hoordit nits

Are round and round divided.
And mony lads' and lassies' fates

Are there that night decided :
Some kindle, couthie, side by side,

And burn thegither trimly ;
Some start awa' wi' saucy pride,
And jump out-owre the chimly

Fu' high that night.” The nuts were placed in the hot ashes or along the bar of a grate, and when they burned peacefully side by side the happy fate of the couple was assured; should one or both of them crack and jump away the thoughts of a successful courtship might as well be abandoned.

Not satisfied with nut-cracking, the pulling of the kail was also a part of the evening's sport. · With closed eyes the young people made a raid on the goodman's kail stalks, that perhaps had been allowed to stand for this very purpose. Upon the nature of the stalk pulled depended the appearance and disposition of the mate for life. Should a stalk be well formed and straight the finder was considered fortunate, especially if a quantity of earth clung to the roots, which indicated that a goodly amount of earthly goods was to accompany the union. If, however, the stalk was crooked and runty, the finder was mortified at the thought of being mated for life with a crooked stick”; and was doubly mortified should the pith of the kail taste bitter instead of sweet, as that was a sure indication of a disagreeable disposition.

Other spells more weird by far were tried that night. Why should they not be, when that was the night of all the year that spirits walked abroad and fairies were most bold ? Not only did disembodied spirits make free with the rights of earth, but well-regulated spirits still occupying human tenements of clay manifested a disposition to leave their habitation for the space of time it would take to appear to their future mate whose Hallowe'en spells called them forth.

Dire were the consequences attending some of these spells. The imagination or

a practical joke sometimes caused the “spierer” of fortune a shock that was lifelong in its effect. Among these spells was that of eating an apple at midnight before a looking-glass, which was practised by some maidens with the expectation of seeing the appearance of the future husband looking over their shoulder in the glass. Burns writes:

" Wee Jenny to her granny says,

Will ye go wi' me, granny?
I'll eat the apple at the glass

I gat frae Uncle Johnny.'' Her granny indignantly puffs her pipe and responds, –

a Ye little skelpie-Jimner's face !

I daur ye try sic sportin',
As seek the foul thief ony place,

For him to spae your fortune:
Nae doubt but ye may get a sight!

Great cause ye have to fear it ;
For mony a ane has gotten a fright,
And lived and died deleerit

On sic a night.” No doubt «wee Jenny” was frightened from seeking to cast her fortune for that night, but by the space of another year she would be more bold and anxious.

Presumably it was the same (Uncle Johnny)—a bachelor of long standing—that presented the looking-glass to Jennie, who tried that night in vain to change his fate by endeavoring with closed eyes to stick his finger in the dish containing clear water, or even in the dish of colored water, but who for the third time picked the empty dish, thus indicating that neither maid nor widow was to fall to his lot. The result is comically set forth by Burns:

"In order, on the clean hearth-stane,

The luggies three were ranged.
And every time great care was ta'en

To see them duly changed:
Auld Uncle John, who wedlock's joys

Sin Mar's year did desire,
Because he gat the toom dish thrice,
He heaved them on the fire

In wrath that night." Younger men, more bold than Uncle Johnny, tried charms that took more courage. Sowing hemp-seed and harrowing it in with whatever utensil came handiest was done alone by the brave. While harrowing it in he repeated the words

" Hemp seed, I saw thee, hemp seed, I saw thee, And her that is to be my true love

Come after me and draw thee." On looking over his left shoulder he saw the appearance of the one he was to marry in the attitude of pulling hemp.

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Burns says “Fighting Jamie Fleck » swore by his conscience

« That he could saw hemp-seed by the peck ; » - accordingly – « The auld guideman raught down a poke,

And out a handfu' gied him.” This handfu' » Fighting Jamie took, and stole away unseen to the barn, where he procured a fork with which to harrow it in. He bravely commenced to sow the hemp-seed and harrow it in, repeating the usual words, and

"Although his hair began to arch, he kept on and

& Whistled up Lord Lenox' march

To keep his courage cheerie." Almost before the charm had time to work he hears a “squeak” and “gruntle that causes him to peep over his shoulder, the effect being that

«He roared a horrid murder-shout

In dreadfu' desperation !
And young and auld cam rinnin' out

And hear the sad narration:
He swore 'twas haltin' Jean M'Craw,

Or crook-backed Merran Humphie,
Till, stop-she trotted through them a'-
And wha was it but Grumphie *

Asteer that neght ! »
Fighting Jamie was fain to hide his

head at home after the sad joke played on him by the innocent pig.

Few carried to a successful issue their Hallowe'en spells.

The maiden who was brave enough to steal out to the kiln and throw in a skein of yarn, a loose thread of which she retained in her hand and wound over an old skein, was sure to drop the yarn and fly with all speed to the house if, when she neared the end of the skein, it was caught and held, as she hoped and expected it would be. She should have held to the yarn and asked “Who holds ?» when an answer would have come from the depths of the kiln giving the full name of her future husband.

The observance of All-Hallowe'en is dying out in Great Britain. It never was observed properly in the United States. As belief in superstitions died out the spells that had been practised gave place to practical jokes, and Hallowe'en came to mean merely a license to destroy property and annoy peaceable citizens.

In some places dipping for apples, burning nuts, and pulling cabbage stalks are still observed, but the Nutcrack Night of Burns's time has disappeared for ever.

EMMA SEEVERS JONES. KENT, O.

(

WILL WALT WHITMAN'S WORK SURVIVE?

C

ICERO, in the second book of his « De Once that time of outrage came when

Legibus,” states that Epimenides, on March 1, 1882, Oliver Stevens, District

on leaving Athens, told its inhab- Attorney of Boston, acting under instrucitants to erect on the Areopagus two tion from a Mr. Marston, then Attorney unhewn stones as altars to Outrage and General of Massachusetts, sent an official Shamelessness. They were to look on letter to the publishing house of Osgood those personified attributes as the demons & Co., saying that he intended to institute who had vexed their city, and whom they suit against Leaves of Grass” and for its must entreat never again to trouble them. suppression, which threat was duly carWhat Epimenides counselled the Athe- ried out, inuch to the amazement of mannians, certain critics, ever since the first kind ever since. But these officials have appearance of “Leaves of Grass,” have their successors: they still live: some on been counselling the Fathers in the Re- Beacon Street, some in the Bowery, occapublic of Letters, and assuring the read- sionally one even in Paternoster Row and ing world that in Walt Whitman outrage many other places than bookstalls; and and shamelessness, in theme, style, and every now and then they rush to attack as literary treatment, were monumental, and did the soldiers of Minucius against Hannithat so to brand his poetry was the first bal at Cannæ, only to expose their supreme duty of the literary man. But as Æschy- egotism and provoke humiliating defeat. lus says, in his "Agamemnon":

“They deride you,” said some to the « One outrage done of old

philosopher Diogenes, to which he reIs wont to breed another outrage still,

plied, “I am not derided,” — accounting, Sporting its youth in human miseries At once, or whensoe'er the fixed time comes.»

as Plutarch observed, those only to be * The pig.

ridiculed who feel the ridicule and are

discomposed at it. In the same spirit, and uncomplainingly then and always, Whitman has replied to his fiercest mockers and assailants, as in the prose addenda to the last edition of Leaves of Grass,” entitled "A Backward Glance o'er Trayelled Roads,” and which every reader of Whitman would do well to read before venturing further upon the author's writings. Listen to his passionless defence, so full of the calm self-reliance and sweet charity which characterized his whole life.

« That I have not gained the acceptance of my own time, but have fallen back on fond dreams of the future,

"Still lives the song, though Regnar dies;' that from a worldly and business point of view

Leaves of Grass) has been worse than a failure; that public criticism on the book and myself as author of it yet shows marked anger and contempt more than anything else; and that solely for publishing it I have been the object of two or three pretty serious official buffetings,is all probably no more than I ought to have expected. I had my choice when I commenced. I bid neither for soft eulogies, big money returns, nor the approbation of existing schools and conventions. As fulfilled, or partially fulfilled, the best comfort of the whole business is that, unstopped and unwarped by any influence outside the soul within me, I have had my say entirely in my own way, and put it unerringly on record, the value thereof to be decided by time. »

heard in Babylon when he wrote: «And there came and touched me one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me.” It is the life not only of a strong, healthy, cosmopolitan soul, dwelling in and interpreting the meaning of life, individual and social, in these United States of a given period; but it is also the life of a hero, such as Whitman was,- of one who laid down his physical life in the hospitals about Washington in his ministrations to our wounded soldiers, and who never swerved from his purpose to write and act as a man and American, though his resolve took him by the lonely road of continued isolation, poverty, and even obloquy to the end. Indeed he comes with a gospel and a life nearer in many respects to that of the Nazarene than any other of his era. No wonder men loved him and followed him as a loving friend wherever he lived. «He could not be hid;" and all the places in which he dwelt bear witness to the fact that “the good gray poet” possessed in his life what is most plain and powerful in his verse,—the soul and spirit of Love, to whose dominion he bowed, and whose empire by pen and life, in Fraternity, Good Hope, and Content, he promoted.

“Poetry," wrote Wordsworth in his Observations prefixed to his Lyrical Ballads, “is the breath and finer spirit of all knowledge; it is the impassioned expression which is in the countenance of all science.” And he adds, “Some of the most interesting parts of the best poems will be found to be strictly the language of prose, when prose is well written.” These words of a master justly exalt this vehicle of expression, and at the same time display its affinities. Metre and rhyme are but the accidents of real poetry, and by no means its central part and stem, as the Biblical poems and parts of Heine and Ruskin bear witness. That Whitman was not a verse-maker in an artistic sense must not be made the reason for his rejection from the field of poetry any more than "Joe Wheeler's lack of West Point inanners should debar him from the title of a military general. But, studied aright, Whitman is always poetic, even in his prose, and the very titles of his poems have more in them of poetic genius and suggestion than some whole volumes of verse. Forms and set styles do not deceive the truly educated reader. There is a set order of the cultivated garden, but a far more interest

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And then he adds:

«The profoundest service that poems or any other writings can do for their reader is not merely to satisfy the intellect or supply something polished and interesting, nor even to depict great passions or persons or events, but to fill him with vigorous and clean manliness, religiousness, and give him good heart as a radical possession and habit. The educated world seems to have been growing more and more ennuyed for ages, leaving to our time the inheritance of it all. Defiant of ostensible literary and other conventions, I avowedly chant the great pride of man in himself. I depict uncompromisingly my own physical, emotional, moral, intellectual, and ästhetic Personality, in the midst of, and tallying, the momentous spirit and facts of its immediate days (1850-1880 A. D.), and of current America, - and to exploit that Personality, identified with place and date, in a far more candid and comprehensive scheme than any hitherto poem or book.”

And this he has done, and to-day «Leaves of Grass" is the greatest incarnation since the Gospel of St. John. As one reads it he hears the voice Daniel

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