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owner is careful to keep it concealed : him the mysteries of the Thunder-bird perbut his acquaintances gravely state that
formance.” doubtless he has it, «for he is very suc- The Indians who take part in the cerecessful in catching the sea otter.”
monies seek the secluded depths of the According to the Makahs one of the pine forests. They hoot like owls, howl principal homes of the Thunder-bird is on like wolves, paint their bodies black a mountain back of Clyoquot, on Vancouver Island. Here is a lake around which are
many fossil bones, and these, assert the Indians, are the remains of whales killed by the monster.
At a display of fireworks in Port Townsend a number of rockets, on bursting, showed fiery serpents. These the Indian spectators insisted betokened the Thunder-bird, and offered large amounts for pieces of the «animal,” some going as high as two hundred dollars.
Among the Northwest Indians there is a performance in honor of the Thunder-bird. It is termed the Thunder-bird Dance, or Klale Tah-mah-na-wis. Concerning its origin the Nittnat Indians have the following legend:
«Two men bad fallen in love with the same woman, but she would not give preference to either. Thereupon they began to quarrel. One of them, with more sense than the other, said: "Do not let us fight about that squaw. I will go and see the chief of the wolves, and he will tell us what is to be done. But I cannot get to his
THE TAH-MAH-NA-WIS, OR BLACK MAGIC DANCE
with barnacles. their limbs to cause profuse bleeding (in I shall bleed and remembrance of the man dragged over pretend to be
the stones), fire guns, pound on drums to dead, and the
represent thunder, flash pitch wood torches wolves will
to produce lightning, and whistle sharply come and carry
in imitation of the wind.
Candidates for initiation are put through
an ordeal, and it is claimed by trappers but when the and other adventurers that the shaman, wolves were or medicine-man, develops strong mesready to eat him
meric power. he jumped up The Makahs usually occupy five days in and astonished
secret doings, during which the courage
them by his Flá
of the initiate is proved. Among the boldness. The chief wolf was
Clallams the initiate is thrown into a hypso much pleased
notic sleep. with the brav
This Black Magic organization extends ery of the man from the Columbia River to Alaska. No that he taught white man is knowingly allowed to wit
SHAMAN OR MEDICINE MAN
ness the secret rites and live to tell have endeavored to combat superstition, the tale. Some of the details of the yet this freemasonry of the tribes — the ritual, as permitted to be known, are Klale Tah-mah-na-wis or Black Magic closely akin to Masonry. The symbolisms exists to-day in all the savage phases it has are lofty and the purpose high. The so- nurtured for hundreds of years. ciety is powerful, and although the gov
Edwin L. Sabin. ernment officers and the missionaries
ANGELICA KAUFFMANN, ROYAL ACADEMICIAN
HE great financial rewards of artistic
success in London, and the readi
ness of society” to open its doors to eminence of any kind, are so well known that we can hardly wonder that men and women of ambition and ability are often tempted to leave their native lands and accept the brilliant hospitality offered to them. Thus Lawrence AlmaTadema, born in the Netherlands, and Hubert Herkomer, a native of Bavaria, have become domiciled in England, and are both Royal Academicians, as also was the late Sir Edgar Boehm, the sculptor, who was a Hungarian by birth.
A most interesting figure in English society during the last third of the eighteenth century was Angelica Kauffmann, one of the only two women who have attained the rank of Royal Academicians, the other being Mary Moser.
Angelica's talent was in part inherited, for her father, Jean Joseph Kauffmann, of Vorarlberg, in the Tyrol, was a wandering artist, who, though possessing only a moderate degree of merit, could yet turn his hand to almost any kind of painting. In the course of his roaming in search of a living he came to Coire, in the Grisons, where he met, loved, and married Cléophe Lutz. Of this union was born in 1741 the subject of this sketch, Maria Anna Angelica Kauffmann. Angelica grew up into a charming little girl, the inseparable companion of her father, whom she never wearied of watching at his easel. She soon displayed a wonderful aptitude for drawing, which her father did all in his power to develop. Under his loving tuition she acquired a skilful use of her pencil and brush so rapidly that at the age of nine she was able to help him in decorating Swiss churches. Though by no
of the great masters of painting and architecture, whom he taught her to regard as the equals of kings and princes.
In 1752 Kauffmann, having received a commission from the Bishop of Como to decorate a church, removed to Como with his family. Angelica was now eleven years of age, but, young as she was, had made such advances in pastel-painting that the bishop sat to her for his portrait. It would be interesting to know what the grave, wise old bishop, and the wonderful little girl with the blue eyes, rich red lips, and abundant tresses of black hair, talked about during the sittings, but that they had many pleasant conversations hardly admits of a doubt. When the portrait was finished the kindly prelate was so pleased with it that he spread her praises everywhere, and induced many of the visitors in Como to sit to her.
Precociously clever though Angelica was, she was also wonderfully painstaking; and, despite a degree of success that might well have turned the head of a much older person, she went on diligently with her studies.
After two years Kauffmann failed to find any more work to do in Como, and it became necessary for him and his family to set forth on their travels again. Moving to Milan, he obtained work as an assistant to other artists. The atmosphere of Milan was a very wholesome one for a youthful prodigy like Angelica, for there her crude efforts were brought into comparison with the work of skilled painters, and she was able to secure instruction from competent teachers. Her parents wisely provided her with the best teaching they could afford. Besides her great natural talents for drawing and painting Angelica possessed a sweet voice and a correct ear, which her mother, unwilling that the artistic development of the gifted child should be wholly the work of her father, had taken great pains to train. At Milan An
a great artist, Kauffmann had a genuine enthusiasm for art, and was wont to fire his little daughter's ambition by telling her stories
gelica had excellent opportunities for pur- a figure of a girl with her head turned suing the study of music, in which she away from the spectator. Leaving Boattained such excellence that many friends logna, she spent a month or two in Naples, thought that the operatic stage offered the painting portraits. In 1776 she went to best and most remunerative field for her Venice, where she was well received by talents. After living for some time in Mi- the artistic world. She became very lan, Angelica, who was now twenty years popular among the English visitors, and of age, was offered an opportunity of making her debut in opera; and was at first much inclined to accept the offer. But the stage was not then so highly esteemed as it is at the present day, and Angelica, being a pious little woman, decided that it would be best for her to devote her life to painting
After making her decision the young artist began to copy some of the pictures in the fine gallery of Robert of Modena, governor of the city. She did this so skilfully that the Duke regarded her with much favor and procured many commissions for her. It was at Milan that she suffered the first great grief of her life the death of her mother. This painful event made her father anxious to leave the city, which he was soon able to do, for he obtained from the Bishop of Constance a commission to decorate a church at Schwartzenberg. For this church Angelica executed her first original work, a fresco painting of the Twelve Apostles. Her mother being dead, Angelica and
ANGELICA KAUFFMANN her father once more became inseparable
(From the painting by herself.) comrades, travelling through Italy, and living in various cities, such as Flor- a great favorite of Lady Wentworth, the ence, Parma, Rome, Bologna, Naples, and wife of the British Minister to Venice: Venice. At Florence she began to learn who, being about to return home after etching, her first work in this branch of living for many years in Venice, persuaded art being dated 1762. In 1763 she etched Kauffmann and his daughter to accompany the portrait of an artist with a pencil in his her. Angelica's fine voice, good figure, hand, and a student reading a book. In and charming manners, combined with 1764 she went to Rome, where she re- her skill in music and painting, made her mained for a year, studying perspective an almost immediate social success. The and making friends with many people of English nobles, who in that day were distinction, among whom were Raphael rather fond of playing the part of patrons Mengs and Winckelmann. The latter sat to artists, received her very well, and gave to her for his portrait, and had consider- her many commissions to paint portraits. able influence upon her style: from him The Marquis of Exeter introduced her to she derived her tendency to imitate class- the leader of the English art-world, Sir ical models. Winckelmann spoke in the Joshua Reynolds, whose criticisms much highest terms of commendation of An- improved her technique, so that a considergelica, telling a friend that she spoke able difference may be observed between English, French, Italian, and German with her pictures painted before her arrival almost equal facility; that she sang with in England and those painted afterwards. great taste, and was an eminent portrait- Angelica had been in England scarcely painter.
a year when the Duchess of Brunswick, Toward the end of 1765 Angelica re- sister of George III, engaged her to paint moved from Rome to Bologna, where she her portrait, and was so delighted with it executed her finest etching, “The Toilet,” that she presented Angelica at court, and
spoke of her to the king in terms of such It is remarkable that a young woman, praise that His Majesty asked her to paint certainly of a very affectionate nature, the portraits of the queen and his son. idolized by society, and surrounded by From this time forth Angelica was the brilliant men, could have resisted the fashion in England: “she shared," as a attacks of Cupid as long as Angelica did, writer of that day says, “with hoops of but her fate was near at hand, and a cruel extra magnitude, toupees of superabun- and unmerited one it was. In 1767, when dant floweriness, shoe-heels of vividest she was at the height of her popularity in scarlet, and china monsters of superlative the British capital, there appeared in good ugliness, the privilege of being the rage.) society a young man who asserted that he Fortune showered her gifts upon Angelica: belonged to a noble Swedish family, and she was flooded with commissions to paint called himself Count Frederick de Horn. the portraits of the most distinguished Being agreeable, well-mannered, and pospersons: no great entertainment was com- sessed of ample means, he was well replete if ungraced by her presence. Fuseli, ceived. He at once singled out Angelica the eminent painter and writer on art, for his special attentions, and his youth, courted her, and Sir Joshua Reynolds is handsome looks, and fluency won her said to have offered himself to her in mar- heart. Telling her that some mysterious riage several times. It is singular that family circumstances made it necessary Angelica should have discouraged the at- that their union should be kept secret for tentions of so distinguished a man as the a time, he got her to consent to a private President of the Royal Academy, but it is marriage, which took place in January, said that she left Lady Mary Wentworth's 1768. A few days had scarcely passed
before ominous rumors began to be heard that the young man was an impostor who had robbed his master and assumed his title. These dreadful reports proved all too true, and the false count took flight. On February 10 of the same year the marriage was annulled through the influence of Angelica's friends at court, and the impostor, whose real name was Brandt, received a small annuity on condition of never returning to England.
Such is the tale generally told, but many different versions are given of the affair. It has been suggested that the real author of Angelica's misadventure was a Lord E-, who, having met her when she was a girl travelling with her father, made love to her, but was repulsed. Meeting her again in London, and already a famous woman, he renewed his suit, but was rejected with scorn. He is then supposed to have arranged this match with the sham count in order to humiliate Angelica and thus have his revenge upon her; but the story, besides being inherently improbable, is rendered more so by the fact
that no trace of a Lord E— can be disSIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS
covered among the acquaintances of An
gelica. The episode of the false count house, and established herself in Golden has been much elaborated in Wailly's Square, in order to escape from them. novel, «Angelica Kauffmann.” Sir Joshua, in his diary, often mentions The French biographers of Angelica tell Miss Angelica, and once even speaks of a different story, saying that it was an Miss Angel. He twice painted her por- eminent English painter who tried to take trait, and twice had his painted by her. this mean revenge upon her; and one
writer goes so far as to suggest that Sir Joshua Reynolds was the man.
It can hardly be supposed, however, that Sir Joshua, even if he really was responsible for the deception, ever intended it to go so far as a marriage with De Horn. Yet it is asserted that, for some reason or other, Angelica always refused to meet Sir Joshua after this humiliating episode. Others, again, say that Sir Joshua still remained one of her most trusted friends, and allege the continuance of their friendship as a proof that he really was not instrumental in cruelly deceiving her affections. The fact is that this entire episode is obscure, and so full of contradictions that it is impossible to gather any clear idea of what really took place beyond the fact that Angelica had an exceedingly brief and painful matrimonial experience with an impostor.
Disastrous as was Angelica's excursion into the realm of married love, her courage and elasticity of spirit soon reasserted themselves: she plunged eagerly into artistic work, and, when the Royal Academy was founded at the close of the year 1768, was chosen one of the thirty-six original members, contributing «The Interview of Hector and Andromache,” and three other canvases (all representing classical subjects) out of 136 that were hung on the walls of the first exhibition. It was about this time that she painted what is probably her best picture - the portrait of the Duchess of Richmond, and also a very well known one of the Duchesses of Devonshire and Duncannon seated side by side in a park, and holding each other by the hand. From 1769 to 1782 she was a regular exhibitor, and occasionally sent as many as seven pictures. In conjunction with Biaggio Rebecca she painted the Academy's old lecture-room at Somerset House. In 1795 she painted a portrait of Lady Hamilton which is now at South Kensington. Even after she had left England and returned to Rome, she continued to contribute to the Academy, and exhibited pictures there as late as 1797. Much of her great success as a portraitpainter was due to the fact that her portraits, while unmistakable likenesses, were flattering. She was rather inclined to place her sitters in affected attitudes, but painted the drapery with great care.
Angelica was nothing if not ambitious. Not content with being a successful portrait-painter, she conceived the desire of
becoming a historical painter as well. In accordance with this ambition she exhibited “Vortigern and Rowena” in 1770; also «Hector Upbraiding Paris,” and “Cleopatra at Mark Antony's Tomb." Her coloring was dainty and her touch delicate, but her painting lacked strength in conception and execution. Her drawing also was somewhat faulty, for, owing to the prejudice of the day, she had never made that thorough study of the nude which is the indispensable foundation of figure-painting. That the English held the fair foreigner in high esteem was shown by her being chosen, in company with Sir Joshua Reynolds, West, Bray, and Cipriani, to adorn the bare walls of St. Paul's Cathedral. But the work was not done, for, though the Dean of St. Paul's readily gave his consent to the plans, the Bishop of London curtly refused to approve them, regarding the decorations as savoring of popery.
Among painters, as among operatic singers, actors, and the rest of the artistic folk, intense jealousy is very common.
Of this passion Sir Joshua Reynolds, as President of the Royal Academy, not unnaturally became the victim. It being his duty to reject many of the pictures offered for exhibition at the Academy, he incurred the dislike of many artists. In 1775 a painter named Hone, wishing to revenge himself
upon Sir Joshua for some supposed injustice, exhibited a picture representing the President as an old man with a conjurer's wand, summoning spirits for the amusement of a child standing near him. The spirits were portraits of Sir Joshua's admirers, and among them was Angelica. But the British public resented this attempt to make their favorite ridiculous, so that Hone thought it best to write to her a letter of apology, in which he disclaimed any intention of wounding her feelings or making sport of her.
Angelica's patrons being of the highest and wealthiest class, she realized a handsome fortune by the sale of her paintings and etchings. Her accomplishments and personal graces rendered her welcome in the best London society; yet, when her father (to whom in all her prosperity she showed unfailing devotion) broke down in health, she gave up her splendid London life and returned with him to the Tyrol, in the hope that the air of his native land might prolong his life. By this time her husband, the impostor Brandt, was dead,