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Almost equal is the provision made for the right to do so was stipulated in the adults. Each reservation has a govern- treaty by which they were settled on their ment agent to execute its treaty stipula- lands. There was no redress to be had, tions, direct its service, compose dissen- because the courts have held that, after sions, and guard the interests of the the admission of a State into the Union, Indians. He is often an army officer de- municipal law overrides federal enacttailed for these duties. At every agency ments. There are a score of kindred ways there is a physician whose services are in which conflict of jurisdiction has worked gratuitous to the Indians. The govern- injury to Indians, and hence the necessity ment employees number 530 whites and 570 for their close restriction to their reservaIndians, who range from laborers, farmers, tions in order to enjoy their treaty rights. and mechanics to clerks, engineers, and The effect of government liberality is judges, and also 804 red men enrolled in not hard to discern. Why should the Inthe reservation police, which is a force rel- dian give up the ease of his endowed atively twice as great, according to pop- communism for civilized ways, when the ulation, as the police of New York city. exchange of a blanket for trousers denotes In the aggregate of the entire Indian the loss of ignoble idleness and the acservice the government maintains one quisition of laborious self-support, tax-payadult person in the field, or exclusive of its ing, and a vote? Why abandon a heathen bureau work, for each 41 red people, and paradise for a civilized purgatory? for this asks no reimbursement. Here is Great things have been accomplished, an example of prodigal nurture for an en- chiefly within the thirty years since the tire race, already rich in lands, live-stock, government addressed itself to the task and invested funds, probably unexampled of educating the Indian race and of fitting in the relations of a civilized to an inferior it to take part in the duties and privileges people. It is as if the United States should of civilized society. The tomahawk has exempt Rhode Island from all public obli- long been unstained with the blood of gations, and appropriate $16,000,000 a year
human scalps; the warpath is overgrown to that Commonwealth, not only to pay
with weeds; the frame-house displaces for the administration of its affairs, but to the wigwam; the children are in school. educate its children and feed its people. In 1898 the government withdrew its garOn the side of good sense this prodigality risons from the frontier posts to send may be a cause of self-reproach, but not them to Cuba and the Philippines, but the on the side of human pity. When other predicted outbreaks of savages from their nations can surpass this record then they reservations did not follow. Red wives may cast their stones at us.
are no longer ruthlessly put away, there Obstacles to the success of the Indian having been in 1897 but one divorce to policy of civilizing our wards are mainly sixteen marriages. More than half the threefold: the generosity of the govern- people «labor in civilized pursuits; ” nearly
: ment, which has put a premium on tribal half have adopted civilized dress, and a communism and encouraged idleness and fifth more use it in part; a fifth speak improvidence; conflict of local and Federal English; and thirteen per cent are Chrislaws; and the hunger of white men for the tian communicants. In 1897 the Indians wealth of the aborigine. This hunger owned $17,000,000 in live-stock and farm has infested the reservations with squaw- products, or $93 apiece, and one third of men and intruders, has engirdled them their families were living on their own with saloons and the shops of unlicensed allotted homesteads. Thus far have we traders, and has plotted to despoil the red gone, mainly in the last generation, tomen of their lands.
ward obliterating the distinctions of condiThe conflict of laws is multifarious and tion between the red and the white races. can only be superficially indicated.
In view of the problems that confront 1873 Oregon demanded that Captain Jack, us in Asia and the West Indies it may be the Modoc chief, should be tried for the asked, opportunely, what guidance may murder of General Canby, not in the Fed- the nation find in reviewing its conduct eral but in the State courts, in order to toward the Indians ? For a century, by make sure of his execution. In 1897 the endowing savagery, we perpetuated it. game-wardens of Colorado killed two Utes It is probable that our practically disand wounded two others for hunting out franchised 13,000,000 Africans will beof season off their reservation, although come creditable citizens quite as soon as
our quarter of a million pauperized Indians, and with a very much reduced expense. But the problems are widely different, for the negro has lived in close association with the whites and individually, while the Indian has been excluded from civilized life and managed in tribes. We have dealt with the latter from the dictates of a sentimental equity which the aborigine has not understood, and have but recently adopted the ideal of making him a part of our national life.
At the same time the Indian has neither been cajoled nor forced into a new career. His traditions have been respected and he has been left to his own self-determination. If he abandons his communism he does so self-persuaded. If he sends his child to school, settles on a homestead of his own, and puts on a civilized dress, he does these things with his own consent.
The same goal is now sought for by the red race as that toward which the white presses. Both are ultimately to possess the same privileges and obey the same laws.
In pursuit of this end the great agency is education. This is not the education of the class-room alone. It is industrial as well as primary. It reaches adults as well as youth. It seeks to connect the Indian with the practical phases of modern life. He sees in the mill, the shop, the railroad, and the telegraph the advantages of the white over the red man's ways, and he is asked by all considerations of his best self-interests to take an efficient part in modern life.
Religion is not excluded. On the contrary, it may come or go without challenge or hindrance, but it must rely on its own powers and the support of its friends. These are all American princi
. ples, and step by step they have been wrought into our Indian policy. Their success can only give serious emphasis to the belief that the United States can hopefully administer the affairs of the peoples whom the fortunes of the recent war have put under their guidance. VINELAND, N.J.
D. O. KELLOGG.
HE true scope as well as the powers and has no absolute power over disease.
and limitations of the medical man He is simply one learned in the science of
are often imperfectly understood; medicine, and he should likewise be well the various functions of the physician learned in all the collateral sciences and cure, alleviation, prevention, and teach- experienced in the management of sicking - are better defined by the Latin ness; but he is only one factor in, yet the cura, “care,” than by its derivative, “cure, chief of all the forces operating for the in its modern sense. To care for the maintenance of life and against death. health of the whole community is a far The nurse, the patient himself, his friends, wider field of usefulness than to cure the and often his ancestors, influence the resick individually.
sult for good or for evil. In his work among the sick the physi- The power of the physician against discian is too often viewed as a kind of ease and death lies chiefly in his trained sorcerer, and he is invoked to use the faculties of observation; in his superior inmysterious chemicals he is supposed to sight into details and particulars; in his have. How many people there are to-day comprehensive grasp of medical principles; who imagine that if they could get hold of in his profound knowledge of all the conthe doctor's prescription-book they could ditions which are for and against life; in his perform wonderful cures! Yet few drugs wise judgment, his honesty of purpose, his that we use in medicine have any cer- sympathy of heart, and conscientious aptainty of action. Indeed, of the more than plication. These are the qualities of brain four thousand drugs in use to-day, about and heart that enable a physician to the action of less than twenty is there nurse the flickering flame of life back to any real certainty.
health and strength where a less skilful Surgical and other remedial measures hand would extinguish it forever. are more certain and positive in their ac- Like the architect, the builder, and the tion; indeed, these often act like magic; general, the doctor is a director of forces, but in the large proportion of cases the a supervisor, an exerciser of good judgphysician is far from being a magician ment; but his equipment is intellectual more than physical; his power to cure is sun. On the horizon there rises a small oftener in his head than in his satchel. cloud. Its appearance is unheeded, and
How notable in the inexperienced and though the cloud waxes there is still no newly initiated young physician is the awakening When presently the storm readiness to know and possess the very breaks upon the ship with vicious fury, a “specific for any ailment that may come wild rush is made to take in sail and to to him, let the same be acute or chronic, set the vessel in order, but it is too late. as compared with the ripe and experienced Such neglect would be criminally bad physician whose saddle-bag contains no seamanship, but it is an illustration of specifics, and whose remedies are by no what occurs every day upon the uncertain means numerous.
sea of life. It is to be feared that the physician has The efficiency of the medical man will sometimes permitted or encouraged an be immensely increased when his relation exaggerated estimate of his power and to the family is inore constant instead of importance. The physician is human, and being intermittent and irregular. The when the patient gets well he has not the doctor should come and go like the clerheart to dispel the illusion which inspires gyman or priest, instead of being looked grateful praise. Perhaps he feels that upon as a necessary evil, whose visits are these are in some measure his due, to avoided as long as possible, and are at all offset the unjust criticism which all phy- times a source of uneasiness. He should sicians receive. But in the end he must be a sanitary officer of the family, with remember that any mistaken idea of his whom there should be free intercourse. powers will react when he fails to save a He should be consulted on a hundred percase which no power on earth could save, sonal and family questions which may when it is said of him that he utterly perhaps influence the symmetrical develfailed to grasp the situation. Therefore opment of a child, if not, indeed, shape the interests of both physician and patient the destiny of a man. are always best served by both having The eradication of inherited tendencies an intelligent comprehension of the scope, to disease; the direct improvement of the the powers, and the limitations of medical physical and mental measures of stocks; science.
the development of a hardy constitution The cure of disease will always be an in weak children; the stoppage of many important element in the physician's fatal organic diseases in their incipiency; work, and the care of the incurable sick, the arrest of acute inflammations at a time the alleviation of pain and suffering, and when this is possible; the ensuring of the prolongation of life are priceless bene- longevity and a sound old age,-these are ficences; but the most valuable service some of the things which the physician of which scientific medicine is capable of to-day is able, but which he is not often rendering lies in the direction of the pre- permitted, to do. vention of disease in the family, in the It must be admitted that it is impossible state, and in the nation.
to go into details with every patient; yet Indeed we cannot fail to realize that it is likewise true that, to some extent, this is the great era of preventive medi- every patient can be made to comprehend cine. To-day it is known that nearly every some of the salient features of the case in disease has its own specific germ origin; question. and the laws that govern and control Teaching should be an important part this germ in its every form are becoming of the physician's daily labors. Medical known. Herein lies our greatest hope, for advice given in the abstract is wholly barthe ounce of prevention will ever remain ren of results. The instruction should be better than the pound of cure. Even of such a character as to convey clear ideas though medicine has made marvellous of pertinent physiological and scientific strides in the recent past, it must be ac- facts. As in all teaching, the living voice knowledged that our resources are still is effective in a greater degree than the wanting in view of the severity of many printed page can ever be; indeed the talmaladies. Therefore it behoves us to ent which some physicians have for clearly use our best efforts to prevent the develop illustrating a subject or emphasizing a ment of disease.
fact is an important element in their sucLet one of our magnificent ocean ves
IRVING DAVID WILTROUT. sels be sailing the high seas under a tropic EAU CLAIRE, Wis.
O RAPID has been the development of ninety-five miles per hour, and by the the American locomotive within the achievements of America's fastest trans
past few years as to thoroughly dis- continental train, which regularly travels credit the predictions of a diminution in a distance of three thousand miles in one the pace of progress in this branch of hundred hours. steam-engineering science. Indeed, with Thus, with the picture of locomotives the possible exception of shipbuilding, it weighing from eighty to one hundred is doubtful if there is another industry tons travelling upon hundred-pound rails with a field so rich in promise and possi- and drawing trains of seventy cars bilities as locomotive-building, or a sphere a present reality, it is not difficult to so certain to enlist the highest effort of treat with tolerance prophecies regardinventive genius so far as it is capable of ing the future which might at first seem utilization in the interest of economy of highly improbable. It is worthy of note, time and energy.
moreover, that development has been The tendency of the age is manifestly simultaneous in the case of the types of toward a continual — and, all things consid- locomotives designed for passenger and ered, a rapid-increase in the size, weight, freight service respectively. Present exand speed of railroad trains. The demand actions in the case of the latter are well for locomotives of greater power and exemplified by the guarantee that each of speed follows as a natural consequence.
the locomotives furnished to a company A few years ago public opinion, which re- whose line extends from Buffalo to Chiceived some countenance in technical and cago shall be capable of hauling fifty cars,
There are built in the United States thirty years ago to the sixty to eighty ton each year several thousand miles of rail- engine of to-day they have gained in road, and with the rapid evolution of loco- speed, traction power, and endurance. motive design the engines in use on old- It must not be imagined, however, that established roads are bound to be displaced the British builders have been driven after a comparatively brief term of ser- from the field, or are, indeed, likely to be vice. At the same time it would be a for some years to come. The competition manifest injustice to underestimate the between builders on opposite sides of the influence exerted by the export, trade in Atlantic has been in progress for a number locomotives which has grown up during of years, and to some extent the product the past quarter of a century, and which of British shops has held its own despite has enabled American builders to supply our recent orders from English railways. to foreign railways during that time in the The aggregate value of locomotives exneighborhood of four thousand locomo- ported from Great Britain during the past tives, valued at more than $36,000,000. half-dozen years is nearly double that of
Indeed it was the merit in the design those exported from the United States. and construction of American locomotives The development of the export side of furnished to railroad builders all over the locomotive manufacture in America has world, together with the celerity with certainly, however, been an exceedingly which commissions therefor were filled, rapid growth. For the first four or five that first engendered that apprehension of years commencing with 1890 rarely did American competition which is to-day so the exports exceed one tenth of the total marked a characteristic of British indus- number of locomotives manufactured, trial life. The fact that the American while now they constitute almost one locomotive has been accepted as the stan- third. dard of construction in most other countries A tendency on the part of students at is one of many qualifications which might engineering colleges to spend their sumbe cited in its favor, and while, all points mer vacations in practical work in locomoof excellence and demerits considered, its tive construction and repair shops has of superiority has been demonstrated, it is late years become so general as to prove by no means universally conceded as yet noticeable. Certainly almost limitless posby English and Continental locomotive- sibilities for a high degree of practical constructors.
skill as well as inventive genius are held The English builder unquestionably by a field which is occupied by over a spends considerably more money in the dozen large firms who turn out each construction of a locomotive than his con- year locomotives almost equal in numfrère on this side of the Atlantic. It is a ber to the miles of railroad constructed question, however, whether the excess of in the United States within the same the British price, over the $10,000 to $12,- period. 500 which a completed locomotive costs in Keeping pace with improvements in the America, is really a wise expenditure. locomotive itself, methods of locomotive The American builder claims that it is un- construction have undergone very radical necessary, in that it really adds nothing changes within the past few years, – to either the endurance or the efficiency of changes necessitated in a great measure an engine.
by the demand for heavier engines and One vantage-ground possessed by Amer- the exactions imposed by the necessity for ican builders which has been noted above more rapid work. Nevertheless, the erectis exemplified by their ability to buy the ing-shop constitutes to-day, as of old, the material for a locomotive and deliver the embodiment of all that is interesting in completed machine all within six weeks. the process of manufacture of the iron In England a much longer space of time monsters. It is here that the efficiency is required. Material is purchased much not only of every department, but almost cheaper in the United States than abroad, of every employee of the entire works, is
ut on the other hand labor costs fully put to practical test. Every part of the fifty per cent more. Finally, the Ameri- locomotive must arrive on time, and every can locomotive is much heavier than the part must fit into its proper place when it English, but the builders in this country does arrive. A faulty piece of workmanclaim that by the transformation from the ship or a few minutes' tardiness may retwenty-five to forty ton locomotive of sult in a costly delay.