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the battle with a terrific assault Thomas's extreme left. It was then discovered that his greater force had enabled Bragg to extend his right much farther than was supposed, and Thomas at once sent to Rosecrans for another division for his extreme left. Negley was immediately ordered to report to Thomas at that point, and Wood's division was drawn from the reserve to fill the place vacated by Negley. These changes were the prelude to two blunders which doubtless determined the result of the day's fighting. Instead of reporting to Thomas, Negley entirely disappeared from the line, and nothing more was heard of him until he turned up at Rossville, though two of his brigades eventually reached the extreme left, but too late to be of much service. The fighting was furious during the early forenoon, — Baird, Johnson, Palmer, and Reynolds being engaged. The persistency and severity of the attack on him led Thomas to call again for a division, as Negley had not reported. Rosecrans, however, was ignorant of that fact, and so inferred that the whole Confederate force was massed against the left, and at 10.30 he ordered Van Cleve, the only remaining reserve on the field, and Sheridan, from the extreme right, to go to the assistance of Thomas. About the same time an aide delivered an order to Wood, written in an ambiguous manner, which the latter, resenting a criticism Rosecrans had made of his action earlier in the day, immediately undertook to execute literally, though he well knew someone had blundered," and that his movement would take his division out of the battle and place the whole army in peril. By Wood's action a gap of a whole division front was left between Brannan and Davis, who, by the withdrawal of Sheridan, was left in an isolated position on the right. Before he could close up on Brannan, and while considerable confusion existed owing to the efforts of the other three divisions to change their positions, Longstreet suddenly attacked the Union right with six divisions, a part of his force rushing through the gap in the line which Wood had left. The result was almost immediate and irretrievable disaster. In the complete rout of the right which followed, all four divisions were swept from the field, and Rosecrans, cut off from Thomas, was carried away with the flood. Hastening to Rossville, he found part of Negley's di

vision, which he had supposed was on Thomas's left, and so concluded that the day was lost. After a hasty consultation with Garfield, his chief-of-staff, it was decided that Rosecrans should at once go into Chattanooga to prepare for the reception of his shattered army, while Garfield should try to locate and communicate with Thomas. McCook and Crittenden soon joined Rosecrans in the city.

But Thomas was still very much alive and far from beaten. During the early afternoon he had succeeded in massing the fragments of seven divisions on ridge near the centre of the field, where he stood at bay, “surrounded, two to one.” In front and on either flank was now the entire Confederate army, flushed with victory, and eager to complete the destruction of the Union army, which had been so successfully begun. But close behind

. « our line,” says an officer who was in the fight, «rode a general whose judgment never erred, whose calm, invincible will never bent; and around him thirty thousand soldiers resolved to exhaust the last round of ammunition, and then to hold their ground with bayonets. Soldiers thus inspired and commanded are more easily killed than defeated.” During the afternoon Wood with his division atoned, as far as possible, for his treachery of the forenoon, by fighting with more than human fury. Once, while holding an important position on the ridge where Thomas had taken his stand, the assault on his men seemed fiercer and in greater force than they could possibly endure. Thomas immediately sent two more cannon with the message, « The position must be held.” « Tell Gen. Thomas," was the reply, “that we will hold the position or go to heaven from it. For five long hours the Confederates hurled their divisions against Thomas's faithful army; but always with the same result, a decisive repulse with terrible slaughter. About four o'clock Longstreet drew back and asked for reënforcements from the Confederate right, for a final assault; but was answered that the right was shattered it could not help him. But there were still some reserves behind the Confederate lines, and, drawing from these, Longstreet re-formed for a last effort. The ammunition of the Union army had been exhausted, though the cartridge-boxes of the dead and wounded had been emptied and this final charge

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was met and repulsed with fixed bayonets. heroism and devotion of both armies is a The day was now drawing to a close, and common heritage. In the two days' fightthe Confederate army was too much ex- ing at Chickamauga the Union army lost hausted to continue the fighting. The a total— killed, wounded, and missing battle was over, and Thomas, the Rock of 16, 136, while the Confederate losses of Chickamauga,” had saved the Union from the same causes were 20,950; or about army. “Bragg had torn his columns into 30 per cent of the entire forces engaged useless shreds by dashing them against on both sides. In no battle of the war immovable Thomas.”

were the assaults fiercer, or the resistance About the middle of the afternoon Gar- more stubborn and decisive, than on the field had reached Thomas, and had at second day of this battle; and when the once informed Rosecrans that he was suc- day closed the absolute limits of human cessfully resisting all attacks. Rosecrans endurance had been reached. It was the immediately ordered Thomas to assume irony of fate that the results of this terricommand in the field, and McCook and ble sacrifice brought rejoicing to neither Crittenden were ordered to join him at side, though its effect upon the Southern once. He was also instructed to take a cause was more demoralizing, following as strong position at Rossville, whither am- it did so closely upon the great Union vicmunition and rations would be sent. tories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg. No Thomas, however, determined to hold his more conclusive testimony to this fact position until nightfall before retiring; could be given than the statement of Gen. and it was not until about six o'clock that D. H. Hill, who commanded one corps of Reynolds was ordered to begin the move- the Confederate army in the battle. He ment. So perfectly were the plans laid says: and executed that the entire remnant of «There was no more splendid fighting in '61, the army was transferred to Rossville when the flower of the Southern youth was in without the loss of a man, and there re

the field, than was displayed in those bloody formed to await any further movement

days of September, 1863. But it seems to me

that the élan of the Southern soldier was never by Bragg. The latter, however, was in

seen after Chickamauga — that brilliant dash no condition to follow up the advantage

which had distinguished him was gone forever. gained on the 20th; and as no further

He was too intelligent not to know that the attack was offered, on the 22d the entire

cutting in two of Georgia meant death to all Union army was concentrated at Chat- his hopes. He fought stoutly to the last, but, tanooga. Bragg soon moved his army up after Chickamauga, with the sullenness of deand took a strong position on Missionary spair and without the enthusiasm of hope. Ridge, opposite the city, with his centre That (barren victory) sealed the fate of the stretched across Chattanooga Valley, and

Southern Confederacy.) his left extending over Lookout Mountain One can but feel the strongest sympathy and across Lookout Valley. The Army for Gen. Rosecrans in the result of this of the Cumberland was shut up in Chat- battle. He had been badly beaten in the tanooga, and in a state of siege.

action, although the Confederates had In these days of frantic jubilation over been so thoroughly worn out that they bloodless skirmishes, and maudlin adula- were unable to follow up their victory. tion of the alleged heroism of soldiers who The superb strategy by which he had never smelled an enemy's powder, it is re- forced the larger Confederate army out of freshing, if we must draw our inspiration

middle Tennessee and had afterward sefrom the conflicts of war rather than from cured possession of Chattanooga excites the victories of peace, to contemplate the the deepest regret that he had not been bravery and endurance of American sols properly supported and loyally sustained diers in a war worthy of the name, and in at Chickamauga, and so have been able, a cause which merited the devotion and by a crushing defeat of the enemy, to win sacrifice given to it. The proportion of for himself imperishable renown. But his killed and wounded in any battle is the fate was sealed. On October 16 the Miliaccepted test of courage and endurance; tary Departments of the Cumberland and and when so regarded the record of the of the Ohio were merged into the Military Civil War is without a parallel in history. Division of the Mississippi, under Gen. However we at the North may regard the Grant. Rosecrans was removed, and Thomcause for which the Southern armies risked as became leader of the Army of the Cumtheir all, to them it was sacred; and the berland. The latter had richly earned his promotion, though he was the last one 20th, when the hour of supreme trial came in the whole army who would have taken

and he was left on the field with less than half it at the expense of a brother officer, for of the strength of the army that the day before he was as modest and generous as he was

had been barely able to hold its own against

the rebel assaults, he formed his 25,000 troops brave. Summing up the results of the

on ‘Horseshoe Ridge, and successfully resisted battle of Chickamauga, Gen. Cist, the

for nearly six long hours the repeated attacks author of «The Army of the Cumberland,

of that same army, largely reënforced until it in the “Campaigns of the Civil War” series, numbered twice his command, when it was says of Gen. Thomas:

flushed with victory and determined on his «Well was he called the Rock of Chicka

utter destruction. There is nothing finer in mauga,' and trebly well for the Army of the

history than Thomas at Chickamauga.) Cumberland that George H. Thomas was in

C. W. CHASE. command of the left at that battle. On the

(To be continued.)

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CHICAGO

THE CENTURY'S ACHIEVEMENTS IN BUSINESS

M

ORE radical changes have been made It is not difficult to discern why these in the conduct of business during stores are making such headway. The

the century now drawing to a close convenience of satisfying all one's wants than in all the eras preceding. In fact, at a single establishment, at prices which business as to-day conducted is a creation ordinary "one-line merchants cannot hope of the last hundred years, or, to be more to approach, explains the situation. Anaccurate, of the last fifty years.

other factor is the large amount of advertisThe colonists who came here from Eu- ing which these establishments maintain. rope established general stores, in which Instead of waiting for the public to come was to be found a variety of articles that to them, they have invited it, through the is not, perhaps, surpassed to-day in the medium of the public press, to come and largest department stores. The field of view the bargains displayed; and as barthese general stores was naturally a local gains have a potent attraction for all one, each establishment being confined to women the response is enthusiastic. its own neighborhood. As the population Advertising is, indeed, one of the great. increased, and it became necessary to keep developments of the century. It has revin stock a larger number of the various ar- olutionized business and made it possible ticles, stores were established carrying but to accomplish in a few years what othera single line of goods,--such, for instance, wise would have taken generations to as groceries, hardware, etc. These estab- compass. To-day the advertiser, through lishments survive to-day, but are being the medium of the public press, can inrapidly overshadowed by the modern de- troduce his article to the entire public partment store, which is easily drawing to almost literally at a bound. Such a seritself the trade not only of its own neigh- vant at the seller's elbow has naturally borhood, but, through the ease with which made business vastly different from what orders by mail are filled, of communities it was several hundred years ago. It is hundreds of miles away.

no longer necessary, as it was in previous The department store is indeed the generations, to confine one's commercial crowning achievement of the century in transactions to a limited area. In fact the the world of business. The idea originated manufacturer of to-day regards the world in Paris, where even to-day the Bon Marché as his field; and there are quite a number stands unsurpassed for its size and volume of proprietary articles, widely and favoraof transactions. At a recent meeting of bly known in every quarter of the civilmerchants in Chicago eight thousand mer- ized world, which have been introduced chants testified that they had suffered during the lifetime of their present profrom the inroads of these establishments prietors, who are men only in the prime into their business. The tendency of the of life! Without advertising, by which it department store is to eliminate the small is possible to reach and influence hunmerchant altogether, and thus make us dreds of thousands of persons simultareturn once more to what is really a mod- neously, such a result could not be accomified form of the general store.

plished in several generations, if indeed

a

it could be accomplished at all. Nor has One of the century's most gratifying this advertising benefited the seller only. achievements in business is the universal It has brought to the knowledge of the realization on all hands that, regarded buyer the hundreds of improvements and merely as a matter of policy, honesty articles by which life can be made more pays best in the end. The recognition of pleasant; by which the health can be pre- this fact has made merchants chary of served, the palate gratified, the intellect selling to customers articles which they fed and satisfied. It is no exaggeration cannot recommend, or of putting forth to say that no force has conduced more claims which cannot be substantiated. As to knit the world closely together, nor a result the general exaggeration which made our mutual interdependence more prevailed in trade announcements in the apparent. It is but the simple truth to early part of the century has almost enassert,” says a recent writer, “that the tirely disappeared, while methods which loss of the information which the adver- tended to deceive and rob the customer tisements furnish would be one of the have fallen into deserved desuetude. greatest imaginable misfortunes to civil

Among other things, the practice in reization.”

tail circles of having no definite price for A phase of trade that has differentiated an article, but depending on the clerk to the century from others is the tendency get as much for it as possible, giving him to combine forces, everywhere apparent as a reward one half of all he secured in the business world. This tendency is above a certain sum, appears to have been due to the increasing magnitude of com- entirely eliminated. The best mercantile mercial transactions requiring a large out- ethics to-day provide for plain pricemarks. lay of capital. Corporations, syndicates, This is largely due to the influence of the and trusts are the result. That the num- department store, which was the first estabber of these will greatly increase in the lishment to base its claim for patronage future admits of little doubt. Without upon a comparison of values offered for them business as to-day conducted could specified amounts. not exist. This tendency to centralization Perhaps the most peculiar achievement has produced our great department stores, of business in the present century is that our great mills and factories, and other it has succeeded in outliving the stigma commercial enterprises. That there are which in former ages attached to commergreat evils connected with it no rational cial pursuits. To-day it is not at all infremind doubts; but at the same time it quent to find sons of wealthy and refined must be acknowledged that it is one of parents entering mercantile life. Business the crowning achievements in the world has been broadened so much within recent of business of the hundred years drawing years, that to succeed in it requires as to a close. To confine it within proper great if not greater mental capacities than limits, so that the entire extinction of the are called into requisition in the professions. small merchant may be averted, will be To manage an establishment employing the task of the twentieth century.

thousands of people; to correctly gauge One of the latest developments in the public wants and supply them at a profit; commercial world is the realization among to seek, discover, and develop new marbusiness men that south of us, in Latin kets,- all involve qualities of foresight America, we have a field for trade devel- and execution that the commander of an opinent that has long been overlooked in army or the executive of a nation would spite of its promise. Those who have cul- find extremely useful. The recognition tivated this field have naturally made no

of this fact has done much to lift mercaneffort to give others an inkling of its pos- tile life to the high estimation which it at sibilities; and thus it is that only at the present enjoys, and as commerce knits the end of the nineteenth century are the world more closely together business purAmericas about to enter into a close and suits will become of greater and greater profitable business alliance. The Spanish- importance, calling into service the highAmerican war has done much to draw at- est abilities of the best of our young men. tention to the commercial possibilities so Only the broadening of opinion regarding long allowed to lie dormant. The fact commercial life which is so distinctive an that Cuba and Porto Rico will be prac- achievement of the present century makes tically under United States control will do this a possibility. much to develop trade in tropical regions. NEW YORK.

OSCAR HERZBERG.

EDITORIAL COMMENT

came

so far

as

The Dreyfus As we go to press news port their trumpery affirmations and

Court-Martial has been received of the gratify their class and racial hatred. close of the Dreyfus trial and of the de- To those familiar with the legal methods cision of the judges. The verdict is of English and American courts it will be guilty, though the court admits extenu- difficult for a moment to suppose that the ating circumstances, but sentences Drey- mass of irrelevant facts, hearsay statefus to ten years' imprisonment. The ments, and arbitrary deductions retailed nadir of injustice and wrong has in this day by day by partisan witnesses for the case been reached: infamy could hardly prosecution could in any degree have have descended to greater depths. That made for the guilt of the accused or the sentence will be acquiesced in by have had any weight with the court as France we can hardly believe, unless she evidence. What shreds of fact is willing to see civil right put under the to light in the trial, in the evidence of heel of an odious military oligarchy, jus- the strutting generals and other adverse tice dethroned and dishonored, and tyranny witnesses,

as they implicated of the most contemptible and menacing Dreyfus, were, under the examination of kind smugly triumph.

his able counsel, M. Labori, torn in pieces For six weeks the re-trial dragged its worthless testimony.

Among this slow length at Rennes, to the humiliation hash of so-called evidence, the, untrustof the French army chiefs and the dis- worthy character of which was revealed credit of French justice. Nothing through- by the interrogating counsel, were the out the entire investigation seriously boasted revelations of the bitterly preconnected Dreyfus with the crime with judiced Mercier and his fellow-generals which he was charged; and though there and the maunderings of the handwritwas a surfeit of testimony for the prose- ing expert, Bertillon. On the other cution, and an infinitude of asseverations hand, the testimony was direct and on the part of the army generals, not an weighty of credible witnesses for the iota of it was of any incriminatory value, accused, who fearlessly asserted the inbut much, on the contrary, that made for nocence of the army chiefs' victim, and Dreyfus's innocence. The six weeks' gave proof that not Dreyfus, but Esterproceedings at Rennes before Colonel hazy, was the culpable party. The aniJouaust, though devoid of anything like mus of the court in curtailing this exculreal evidence, were set round with that patory testimony and in interfering with rigid regard for the buckram proprieties counsel when interrogating witnesses for characteristic of a French court-martial, the prosecution, immensely increased the with its slavish deference to high military difficulties of an effective defence. The rank, however great may be its antics spirit of hostility toward the accused and idiotic its retailing of tattle put also signally manifested in the soberly forward as material for convic- diabolical act — whether suggested by tion. It was upon this tattle—the retailing military malevolence or race fanaticism of which by a pack of old women generals it would be hard to say — which at one Colonel Jouaust never restrained—that the time threatened to deprive Dreyfus of the court dragged out its proceedings and services of his counsel. The shooting of heaped up a case of the Alimsiest character Labori happily, however, miscarried, and against Dreyfus. The animus against the dastardly act only recoiled on those the prisoner, even on the part of the pre- who, if they were not vile enough to insiding officer, shows the extent of the con- stigate it, at least hoped to profit by it. spiracy against him, as well as the The army system of France was, with obsequiousness, even of justice, to mili- Dreyfus, on its trial; yet despite the lack tary figureheads and the set purpose of of incriminating evidence of any real or the army chiefs, at whatever cost, to sup- substantial character, the conspiracy went

was

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