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mechanical engineering in preparation for Car Co.; one at Portland, Me., at the electrical engineering, has arranged a United States Searchlight Department; curriculum embracing the most liberal and one at Spokane, Wash. ; another at Grand advanced educational ideas. Chemistry Rapids,—all holding responsible positions. is recognized as an extensive factor, the One colored student is instructor of mathvarious laboratories being finely equipped ematics at Tuskegee Normal School, with all modern appliances. The scientific Ala., and the list grows continually, demengineer appreciates the value of this onstrating the thoroughness of the work. training, as it enables him to apply his As in similar colleges, the glee clubs knowledge in varied pursuits, embracing and musical organizations Aourish, vieing the principles he has acquired.

with the literary societies and athletic Professor V. C. Alderson, formerly chief teams, all of which rank well. of mathematics and at present dean of Great lights shed their refulgence upon the Technical College, has formulated a the students and the community, such as system of higher mathematics which is of Archbishop Ireland, William Stead, and inestimable value, familiarizing the stu- many others in touch with the great probdent with principles sound and practical. lems of life in art, letters, church, and The work of the electrical engineer em- state, thus assisting to higher knowledge bodies exact scientific measurements and the current ideas of the day. determinations, hence, under Professor Wealth has been most magnificently Alderson's efficient supervision, the stu- and judiciously lavished upon the commudent gains self-confidence, ultimately ex- nity in the vicinity of Thirty-Third Street pounding his original ideas to the gratifi- and Armour Avenue, but wealth of intelcation of his instructor.

lect crowns all. Professor Freeman, associate professor Famed as preacher, author, poet, art of electrical engineering, dwelt upon the critic, philosopher, and friend, Dr. Gunactual practice the students enjoy with saulus possesses that critical judgment the exquisitely fine measuring apparatus and appreciation essential to such an enand other facilities. Throughout the coun- terprise. Remarkably versatile, a keen try, representatives from this college are student of human nature, of liberal tenscattered; two in the United States Mints dencies, truly humane, he has opened a at New Orleans and Philadelphia; one at world of beauty to many in a district the Anaconda Mining and Hydraulic where caste and class were opposed to Power Co.; one with the Pullman Palace the "masses.” Philip D. Armour discov

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ered an able ally to assist in developing original ideas that it must overwhelm him this practical institution.

with its magnitude should he pause to The magic of Mr. Armour's name in consider it. connection with business reveals the high To inculcate sound principles through esteem bestowed upon him as a successful precept and example is a noble privilege, but ever humane individual.

His career but to furnish the facilities to train manhas been a varied one, but the principles hood in order to develop and perpetuate of health, perseverance, and ambition them is a divine inspiration, worthy the were fostered by those qualities that as- prophets of old. sure success — honesty, integrity, and en- We take pride in our nation most justly, ergy. Tireless as ever, the noble founder but the grandeur, the supreme grandeur of the Armour Institute of Technology of purpose that actuates men who have is as democratic as in those early days toiled from obscurity unassisted, to place when dreams of successful attainment within the reach of other toilers ways fitted through his active brain. As an and means to make the ladder of success example of courage, determination, and less rugged, bears repetition. It shines stick-to-it-iveness, Mr. Armour ranks pre- as did the Star of Bethlehem in the clear ëminent. He has builded better than he cold atmosphere of a winter's night, leadknew, as the influence of his power and ing on to beauty, to truth, to divinity. breadth of thought is so in excess of his Chicago.

GISELLE D'UNGER.

D

URING the 16th and 17th centuries the mission buildings were erected and 647
Jesuits were engaged in converting savages were converted.

the heathen in various remote parts The first mission was founded at San of the world under the auspices of the king Diego. A list of the missions and the of Spain, who magnanimously agreed to dates of the erection of the buildings will their spiritual conquests providing they show the activity of these Franciscan and paid their own expenses and, as opportu- Dominican friars, for these were the days nity offered, took possession of everything of religious fervor, before the priests in sight in the king's name. About 1697 waxed fat and the imparting of spiritual they besought permission to evangelize teaching to the natives became a persouthern California, and, provided with functory occupation: San Antonio de Adua, money by the pious contributions of the San Gabriel, and San Fernando, 1771; San Spanish people, Father Tierra landed in Luis Obispo, 1772; San Luis Rey de the Bay of San Dionysio,” Alta Califor- Francia, San Juan Capistrano, 1776; Santa nia, and proceeded with ten Spanish sol- Clara, 1777; San Buenaventura, 1782; La diers to the conversion of the natives, first Purissiina, 1787; La Soledad and Santa feeding them on boiled maize and then Cruz, 1791; San Juan Bautista, San José, preaching to them the gospel of the Cross. San Miguel, 1797; San Luis Rey, 1798; Rebellion occurred when the maize ran Santa Ynez, 1802; San Rafael, 1817; and short, but history states that ten Span- San Francisco Solano, 1823. ish soldiers defied five hundred naked The enthusiasm of these evangelists savages.

may be seen in the illustrations of this The opportune arrival of Father Uzarte article, for even the ruins of their buildin 1700, with a good supply of provisions ings are magnificent, though they indicate and merchandise, saved the country for a glory that has departed. They are the the king. Up to 1745 little of interest hap- largest and grandest relics upon the Amerpened except occasional massacres of the ican continent and form one of the atgood fathers and the annual arrival of tractions of the world-famed State of galleons from Spain, bound for Panama, California. Only three of the missions, via the Philippines, and bringing supplies however, are in a state of preservation,for the patient friars. Toward 1750 the those at Santa Barbara, San Buenaventura, missions began to dwindle in spiritual and San Gabriel. A society is organized power and influence, and in 1767 the king in southern California expressly for the of Spain issued a decree expelling the fra- purpose of preserving these ruins from ternity from his dominions. Franciscan destruction. monks from Mexico then entered the field, The mission buildings were provided took possession of the property of the with work-rooms, furnished rooms » for Jesuits, and subordinated the latter, or, in travellers, storehouses, hospitals, and accordance with the king's wish, banished school-rooms; and each establishment was them.

decorated with fountains and surrounded Father Juniperi Serra, at the head of with gardens and groves suitable for this newly arrived sect, instilled fresh en- meditation, after the manner of the older ergy into the Missions, and began the monastic institutions of Europe. Girls erection of those magnificent buildings were taken from the surrounding districts the ruins of which still remain to decorate and immured in apartments at the misand sanctify the mesas of southern Cali- sions until they were old enough to be fornia. Another holy Order — the Domin- married, their behavior and education beicans — received permission from the king ing carefully watched by old squaws long to assist in the conversion of the Indians, destitute of the gaiety of youth. For the and, sooner than share dominion with the protection of the missions military posts newcomers, the Franciscans eventually were established at San Diego, Monterey, moved north.

Santa Barbara, and San Francisco. None From the time of the first white settle- of the officers or soldiers were allowed to ment at San Diego, in 1769, to 1800, – a marry without the consent of the king of period of thirty years,—some eighteen Spain, and the influence of the fathers

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was willingly exerted to keep the men single.

The San Luis Rey mission at one time controlled eighteen thousand Indians. And yet, to show the improvement of the savage in morality after 143 years of tuition, we quote the following from «Two Years before the Mast,” by R. H. Dana, Jr., wholingered in South California about 1840:

«Of the poor Indians very little care is taken. The priests, indeed, at the missions, are said to keep them very strictly, and some rules are

from the missions amounted to $100,000. One of the old padres was indeed alleged to have returned to Spain with at least that amount in his trunk, the product of unremunerated compulsory labor.

But a cloud in the west arose. The fall of Spanish rule in Mexico in 1822 destroyed Spanish influence on the. American continent. The powers of the Franciscan fathers were soon curtailed by a Mexican Congress; and in 1826, just after the last mission building had been completed, the

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usually made by the alcaldes to punish their misconduct; but it all amounts to but little.»

The Indians, however, were instructed in the arts of blacksmithing, farming, tanning, weaving, and soap-making. Yet, as a modern writer says:

“All the precautions and teachings of the fathers were unavailing to raise the native Californian above a docile, half-idiotic wretch, who, destitute of ambition, hoped or thought of nothing beyond a supply of food to fill his evercraving stomach.)

And the same writer observes regarding the fathers:

“With the increase of flocks and luscious vines they grew lusty of body, easy of gait, docile in temper, mechanical in prayer, and moderate in zeal.”

Thus they dragged along in luxury until about 1825, when the annual production

freedom of all the Indians was declared. These poor wretches, not equal to the franchise and its opportunities, returned to naked savagery again, unfit to carry either their own or the white man's burden. The writer just quoted says:

«So soon as the influence, care, and precaution of his masters were withdrawn he relapsed into his native bestiality, forsook the cornfield and the loom, and returned to scour the shores for dead whales on which to gorge himself, and to roam upon the arid plains to fatten upon acorns and grasshopper pie.”

In 1833 the property of the missions was confiscated by the Mexican government, and while this was subsequently revoked, the old saints had lost their grip” on account of the debilitating effects of unwonted luxury.

« 111 fares the land, to hastening ills a prey,
Where wealth accumulates and men decay."

Injurious Mexican legislation continued rapid extermination of arrow-shooting until 1845, when many of the grand old rebels before the repeating artillery of missions were sold at auction. Some of the American forces in the Philippines. them were rented by the government, Quien sabe? It has been said that death one third of the revenues going to the is preferable to slavery. Where are now fathers, one third to educational pur- the Indians that once peopled the mesas poses, and one third to the support of the of California under the rule of the SpanIndians. The luxurious prelates returned ish fathers ? Ali, save three thousand to Mexico or Spain, and in a very short descendants, have gone the way of death. time the imperial power of mighty Rome No, not quite all, for in some remote valin California, the pious, drowsy priests, ley an ancient relict is occasionally found, and the believing though unwashed neo- who claims to be a hundred years old, phytes, were only things of the past. and his appearance generally tends to To-day nothing remains of this priestly confirm this statement. Until recently autocracy and crude slavery but a collec- the custom prevailed among them of tion of old ruins and some miscellaneous destroying the dwelling and belongings bric-à-brac in private and public museums. of every deceased member of the tribe; Southern California, under the rule of this contributed to their poverty. A remSpain for fifty years, and that of Mexico nant of a once populous race now lives in for twenty-four years, made no visible San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverimprovement, and was almost as desolate side counties; its members are employed and unknown as at the time when Cor- in making baskets and shearing sheep; tez, two centuries before, essayed to ex- occasionally some of them wander into plore it.

Los Angeles selling home-made bows and

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