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by actual examination and survey the respective fountains of the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers. This survey was made in 1736.
The report of the commissioners was referred to the council for plantation affairs in 1738, who reported their decision in 1745, as follows, viz:
* * * The said boundary ought to begin at the first spring of the south branch of the river Rappahannock, and that the said boundary be from thence drawn in a straight line northwest to the place in the Alleghany Mountains where that part of the Potomac River, which is now called Cohongoroota, first rises.
* * *
This report was confirmed by the King, and commissioners were appointed to run and mark the dividing line accordingly.
The line was run in 1746. On the 17th day of October, 1746, they planted the Fairfax stone at the spot which had been described and marked by the preceding commissioners as the true head spring of the Potomac River, and which, notwithstanding much controversy, has continued to be regarded, from that period to the present time, as the southern point of the western boundary between Virginia and Maryland. (Vide Faulkner's Report to Governor of Virginia, 1832. For full details, vide Byrd Papers, 1866, Vol. II, p. 83 et seq. Also Hening's Va. Statutes.)
This tract of country was held by Lord Fairfax and his descendants many years, but subsequent to the Revolution the quitrents, charges, etc., were abolished, and it became in all respects subject to the jurisdiction of Virginia.
(For the history of the settlement of the boundary lines between Virginia and Maryland, vide Maryland, p. 89.)
(For a history of the boundary between Virginia and Pennsylvania, vide Pennsylvania, p. 85.)
Kentucky formed originally a part of the county of Fincastle, Virginia. In the year 1776 this county was divided into three counties, the westernmost of which was called Kentucky County, and its eastern boundary was declared to be as follows, viz:
A line beginning on the Ohio, at the mouth of Great Sandy Creek, and running up the same and the main or northeasterly branch thereof to the Great Laurel Ridge or Cumberland Mountains; thence south westerly along the said mountain to the line of North Carolina. (See Hening's Statutes, Virginia, vol. 9, p. 257.)
Kentucky having been admitted into the Union June 1, 1792, commissioners were appointed in 1798 by Virginia and Kentucky to fix the boundary. In 1799-1800 the commissioners' report was made and ratified by the States. It was as follows, viz:
To begin at the point where the Carolina, now Tennessee, line crosses the top of the Cumberland Mountains, near Cumberland Gap, thence northeastwardly along the top or highest part of the said Cumberland Mountain, keeping between the headwaters of Cumberland and Kentucky rivers, on the west side thereof, and the headwaters of Powell's and Guest's rivers, and the Pond Fork of Sandy, on the east side thereof, continuing along the said top, or highest part of said mountain, crossing the road
leading over the same at the Little Paint Gap, where by some it is called the Hollow Mountain and where it terminates at the West Fork of Sandy, commonly called Russell's Fork, thence with a line to be run north 45° east till it intersects the other great principal branch of Sandy, commonly called the northeastwardly branch, thence down the said northeastwardly branch to its junction with the main west branch and down Main Sandy to its confluence with the Ohio. (See Shepard's Virginia, vol. 2, p. 234.)
It will be seen that the latter part of this line is the present line between West Virginia and Kentucky.
(For the history of the settlement of the boundaries between Virginia and North Carolina, vide North Carolina, vide p. 100.).
In 1779 Virginia and North Carolina appointed commissioners to run the boundary line between the two States west of the Allegheny Mountains, on the parallel of 36° 30'. The commissioners were unable to agree on the location of the parallel; they therefore ran two parallel lines two miles apart, the northern known as Henderson's, and claimed by North Carolina, the southern known as Walker's line, and claimed by Virginia. In the year 1789 North Carolina ceded to the United States all territory west of her present boundaries, and Tennessee being formed from said ceded territory, this. question became one between Virginia and Tennessee.
Commissioners having been appointed by Virginia and Tennessee to establish the boundary, their report was adopted in 1803, and was as follows, viz:
A due west line equally distant from both Walker's and Henderson's, beginning on the summit of the mountain generally known as White Top Mountain, where the northeast corner of Tennessee terminates, to the top of the Cumberland Mountain, where the southwestern corner of Virginia terminates.
In 1871 Virginia passed an act to appoint commissioners to adjust this line.
Tennessee the following year, in a very emphatic manner, passed a resolution refusing to reopen a question regarding a boundary which she considered "fixed and established beyond dispute forever." (See acts of Tennessee, 1872.)
Up to 1783 Virginia exercised jurisdiction over a large tract of country northwest of the Ohio River. But by a deed executed March 1, 1784, she ceded to the United States all territory lying northwest of the Ohio River, thus making her western boundary the west bank of the Ohio River.
On the 31st of December, 1862, the State of Virginia was divided, and 48 counties, composing the western part of the State, were made the new State of West Virginia. By an act of Congress in 1866, consent was given to the transfer of two additional counties from Virginia to West Virginia.
In 1873 and 1877 commissioners were appointed by each State to determine the true boundaries between the two States, and the General
Fork Holston River
BOUNDARY BETWEEN VIRGINIA, TENNESSEE, AND NORTH CAROLINA.
Government was asked to detail officers of engineers to act with said commissioners in surveying and fixing the line.
Until their reportis at hand the boundary can only be found by following the old county lines. In view of the expectation of such report at an early day, it has not been thought best to go into an examination of the old county lines.
This State was set off from Virginia on December 31, 1862. It was originally formed of those counties of Virginia which had refused to join in the secession movement. It was admitted to the Union as a separate State June 19, 1863. It originally contained the following counties: Barbour, Boone, Braxton, Brooke, Cabell, Calhoun, Clay, Doddridge, Fayette, Gilmer, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Hancock, Hardy, Harrison, Jackson, Kanawha, Lewis, Logan, Marion, Marshall, Mason, McDowell, Mercer, Monongalia, Monroe, Morgan, Nicholas, Ohio, Pendleton, Pleasants, Pocahontas, Preston, Putnam, Raleigh, Randolph, Ritchie, Roane, Taylor, Tucker, Tyler, Upshur, Wayne, Webster, Wetzel, Wirt, Wood, Wyoming.
In 1866 it was enlarged by the two counties of Berkeley and Jefferson, transferred from Virginia. Its boundary with Virginia is made
up of boundary lines of the border counties above enumerated, and can be defined only by reference to the laws by which these counties were created. In the constitution of 1872, after a recapitulation of the counties which were transferred from Virginia to West Virginia, is found the following clause defining the boundaries upon the south and west.
The State of West Virginia includes the bed, bank, and shores of the Ohio River and so much of the Big Sandy River as was formerly included in the Commonwealth of Virginia, and all territorial rights and property in and jurisdiction over the same heretofore reserved by and vested in the Commonwealth of Virginia are vested in and shall hereafter be exercised by the State of West Virginia, and such parts of the said beds, banks, and shores as lie opposite and adjoining the several counties of this State shall form parts of said several counties respectively.
(For a history of the boundaries of West Virginia, vide Pennsylvania, p. 86; Maryland, p. 89; Virginia, p. 96.)
In the year 1663 the "first charter of Carolina" was granted, which, two years later, in 1665, was enlarged by the "second charter of Carolina."
The following extracts from these two charters define the boundaries:
Charter of Carolina, 1663.
* All that territory or tract of ground, scituate, lying and being within our dominions of America,extending from the north end of the island called Lucke Island,