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links, to a point which is west-southwest and distant 32 rods from the chimney in the old Clapp house; thence south 24° 21' east, 224 chains 78 links, to a point opposite the old William Anderson house; thence south 24° 19′ east, 173 chains 7 links, to the great stone at the ancient wading place on Byram River; thence south 17° 45′ west, 12 chains 60 links, to a rock in the river which can be seen at low tide, in which there is a bolt; thence south 27° west, 55 chains 19 links; thence south 7° 20′ east, 13 chains 45 links; thence south 12° 10′ east, 16 chains 13 links; thence south, 2° 40' east, 9 chains 4 links; thence south 28° 25′ east, 9 chains 54 links; thence south 18° 40′ east, 4 chains 77 links thence south 11° 55' west, 6 chains 33 links; thence south 58° 10' west, to where it falls into the sound. (See report of the commissioners to ascertain and settle the boundary line between the States of New York and Connecticut, February 8, 1861, in which will also be found a complete account of this controversy.)
In 1880 commissioners were appointed by Connecticut and New York. Their report was ratified in 1880.
These commissioners reported as follows, viz:
We agree that the boundary on the land constituting the western boundary of Connecticut and the eastern boundary of New York shall be and is as the same was defined by monuments erected by commissioners appointed by the State of New York, and completed in the year 1860, the said boundary line extending from Byram Point, formerly called Lyon's Point, on the south, to the line of the State of Massachusetts on the north.
And we further agree that the boundary on the sound shall be and is as follows: Beginning at a point in the center of the channel, about 600 feet south of the extreme rocks of Byram Point, marked No. 0, on appended United States Coast Survey chart; thence running in a true southeast course 34 statute miles; thence in a straight line (the arc of a great circle) northeasterly to a point 4 statute miles due south of New London Light-House; thence northeasterly to a point marked No. 1, on the annexed United States Coast Survey chart of Fisher's Island Sound, which point is on the longitude east three-quarters north, sailing course down on said map, and is about 1,000 feet northerly from the Hommock or North Dumpling LightHouse; thence following said east three-fourths north sailing course as laid down on said map easterly to a point marked No. 2 on said map; thence southeasterly to a point marked No. 3 on said map; so far as said States are coterminous. (See Revised Statutes of New York, 1881, Vol. I, page 136.)
The above agreement concerning these boundaries between Connecticut and New York was confirmed by the Congress of the United States on February 26, 1881. (See Revised Statutes of United States, 1881.)
(For the history and present location of the eastern boundary of Connecticut, vide Massachusetts, p. 61, and Rhode Island, p. 71. For the northern boundary, vide Massachusetts, p. 65.)
Under the charter of 1662 Connecticut claimed a large western territory. Subsequent to the Revolution, however, in 1786, 1792, 1795, and 1800, she relinquished all title to any land west of her present boundary.
The territory included in the present State of New York was embraced in the French and English grants of 1603 and 1606. The Dutch, however, in 1613 established trading posts on the Hudson River and claimed jurisdiction over the territory between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers, which they called New Netherlands. The government was vested in "The United New Netherland Company," chartered in 1616, and then in "The Dutch West India Company," chartered in 1621.
In 1664 King Charles II of England granted to his brother, the Duke of York, a large territory in America, which included, with other lands, all that tract lying between the west bank of the Connecticut River and the east bank of the Delaware. The Duke of York had previously purchased, in 1663, the grant of Long Island and other islands on the New England coast, made in 1635 to the Earl of Stirling, and in 1664, with an armed fleet, he took possession of New Amsterdam, which was thenceforth called New York. This conquest was confirmed by the treaty of Breda in 1667.
The following is an extract from the grant of 1664 to the Duke of York:
All that parte of the maine land of New England beginning at a certaine place called or knowne by the name of St. Croix next adjoyning to New Scotland in America and from thence extending along the sea coast unto a certain place called Petuaquine or Pemaquid and so up the River thereof to the further head of ye same as it tendeth northwards and extending from thence to the River Kinebequi and so upwards by the shortest course to the River Canada northward and also all that Island or Islands commonly called by the severall name or names of Matowacks or Long Island scituate lying and being towards the west of Cape Codd and ye narrow Higansetts abutting upon the maine land between the two Rivers there called or knowne by the severall names of Conecticutt and Hudsons River togather also with the said river of Hudsons River and all the land from the west side of Conecticutt to ye east side of Delaware Bay and also all those severall Islands called, or knowne by the names of Martin's Vinyard and Nantukes otherwise Nantuckett togather with all ye lands islands soyles harbours mines minerals quarryes woods marshes waters lakes ffishings hawking hunting and ffowling and all other royalltyes proffitts commodityes and hereditaments to the said severale island lands and premisses belonging and appertaining with theire and every of theire appurtenances and all our estate right title interest benefitt advantage claime and demand of in or to the said lands and premises or any part or parcell thereof and the revercon and revercons remainder and remainders togather with the yearly and other ye rents revenues and proffitts of all and singular the said premisses and of every part and parcell thereof to have and to hold all and singular the said lands islands hereditaments and premisses with their and every of their appurtenances.
In July, 1673, the Dutch recaptured New York and held it until it was restored to the English by the treaty of Westminster, in February,
The Duke of York thereupon, to perfect his title, obtained a new
grant in substantially the same terms as that of 1664 (C. and C., p. 1328), of which the following is an extract, viz:
All that part of the mainland of New England, beginning at a certain place called or known by the name of Saint Croix nexe adjoining to New Scotland in America, and from thence extending along the sea-coast into a certain place called Petuaquim or Pemquid, and so up the river thereof to the furthest head of the same as it windeth northward and extending from the river of Kinebequ and so upwards by the shortest course to the river Canada northwards; and all that island or islands commonly called by the several name or names of Matowacks or Long Islands, situate and being toward the west of Cape Cod and the narrow Higansuts abutting upon the mainland between the two rivers there called or known by the several names of Connecticut and Hudson Rivers, together also with the said river called Hudson's River, and all the lands from the west side of Connecticut River to the east side of Delaware Bay; and also all those several islands called or known by the names of Martin Vinyard and Nantukes, otherwise Nantuckett.
By these grants to the Duke of York and the conquest of the Dutch possessions in America it will be seen that New York originally had a claim to a much larger territory than is now included in her limits. The successive changes in her extent may be sketched as follows, viz: In 1664 the Duke of York sold the present State of New Jersey to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.
In 1682 the Duke of York sold to William Penn his title to Delaware and the country on the west bank of the Delaware, which had been originally settled by the Swedes, then conquered by the Dutch, and which had by them been surrendered to the Duke of York.
In 1686 Pemaquid and its dependencies were annexed to the New England government by a royal order, the Duke of York having acceded to the throne of England.
By the charter of 1691 to Massachusetts Bay, all claim to any part of Maine was extinguished, and the islands of Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, and others adjacent (hitherto known as Duke's County, New York), were annexed to Massachusetts Bay.
The territory west of the Connecticut River to within about 20 miles of the Hudson River, now forming a portion of Massachusetts and Connecticut, were, by agreements and concessions made at various periods, surrendered to those States respectively.
In 1781 New York released to the General Government all the lands to which she had claim west of a meridian extending through the west extremity of Lake Ontario, and in 1790 she gave up all claim to the present State of Vermont and consented to her independence.
By these successive reductions New York was left with substantially her present boundaries.
(For the history and settlement of the eastern boundary of New York, vide Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, ante, pp. 52, 68, and 73.)