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ce than another, and I will show you in that same person one o loves nothing but himself. Beware of those who are homeless choice! You have no hold on a human being whose affections

without a tap-root. The laws recognize this truth in the priviDar

es which they confer upon freeholders; and public opinion acknowmar.

ges it also, in the confidence which it reposes upon those who ve what is called a stake in the country. Vagabond and rogue e convertible terms; and with how much propriety any one may

derstand who knows what are the habits of the wandering classes, inns

ch as gypsies, tinkers, and potters.

• The feeling of local attachment was possessed by Daniel Dove, in its

e highest degree. Spurzheim and the crazyologists would have

und out a bump on his head for its local habitation ;-letting that days uackery pass, it is enough for me to know that he derived this feeling Gestir.

om his birth as a mountaineer, and that he had also a right to it by nheritance, as one whose ancestors had from time immemorial dwelt pon the same estate. Smile not contemptuously at that word, ye vhose domains extend over more square miles than there were quare roods upon his patrimony! To have held that little patrimony

inimpaired, as well as unenlarged, through so many generations, imFar

lies more contentment, more happiness, and a more uniform course which I f steadiness and good conduct, than could be found in the proudest

If your genealogies! The most sacred spot upon earth to him was ther za is father's hearth-stead. Rhine, Rhone, Danube, Thames, or Tyber, deak he mighty Ganges, or the mightier Maranon, even Jordan itself,

ffected his imagination less than the Greta, or Wease, as he was
ont to call it, of his native fields; whose sounds, in his boyhood,
ere the first which he heard at norning, and the last at night; and,
ring so many peaceful and happy years, made, as it were, an
companiment to his solitary musings, as he walked between his
ther's house and his schoolmaster's, to and fro.'—vol. ii.,
The same strain is elsewhere resumed, when Doctor Dove, now
graduate of Leyden, establishes himself in the pretty town of
oncaster, instead of carrying his great talents and acquirements
the market of London.

Ordinary people, whether their lot be cast in town or country, in le metropolis or in a village, will go on in the ordinary way, conOrming their habits to those of the place. It matters nothing more

those who live less in the little world about them, than in a world of their own, with the whole powers of the head, and of the heart too if they have one), intently fixed upon some favourite pursuit :-if hey have a heart, I say, for it sometimes happens that where there is > excellent head, the heart is nothing more than a piece of hard

sh. In this respect, the highest and the meanest intellects are, in a ertain sense, alike self-sufficient; that is, they are so far independent of adventitious aid, that they derive little advantage from society, and suffer nothing from the want of it. But there are others, for whose mental improvement, or at least mental enjoyment, collision and

sympathy,

pp. 15-17.

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great felicity in design, and inimitable lightness in execution.)— . But the Rowlandian, Dixonian, or Ingletonian puppets were large as life; and required for their removal a caravan, (in the use to which that word is now appropriated,) a vehicle of such magnitude and questionable shape, that if Don Quixote had encountered its like upon the highway, he would have regarded it as the most formidable adventure which had ever been presented to his valour. And they went as far beyond our street-puppets in the sphere of their subjects as they exceeded them in size; for in that sphere quicquid agunt homines was included,—and a great deal more.

'In no country, and in no stage of society, has the drama ever existed in a ruder state than that in which this company presented it. The Drolls of Bartholomew fair were hardly so far below the legitimate drama, as they were above that of Rowland Dixon; for the Drolls were written compositions: much ribaldry might be, and no doubt was, interpolated as opportunity allowed or invited; but the main dialogue was prepared. Here, on the contrary, there was no other preparation than that of frequent practice. The stock pieces were founded upon popular stories or ballads—such as Fair Rosamond -Jane Shore--and Bateman who hanged himself for love; with Scriptural subjects for Easter and Whitsun-week, such as the Creation, the Deluge, Susannah and the Elders, and Nebuchadnezzar or the Fall of Pride. These had been handed down from the time of the old mysteries and miracle-plays, having, in the progress of time and change, descended from the monks and clergy, to become the property of such managers as Powel and Rowland Dixon. In what manner they were represented when thus

Fallen, fallen, fallen, fallen,

Fallen from their high estate, may be imagined from a play-bill of Queen Anne's reign, in which one of them is thus advertised :

"" At Crawley's Booth, over against the Crown Tavern in Smithfield, during the time of Bartholomew Fair, will be presented a little Opera, called the Old Creation of the World, yet newly revived ; with the addition of Noah's flood. Also, several fountains playing water during the time of the play. The last scene does present Noah and his family coming out of the Ark, with all the beasts two and two, and all the fowls of the air seen in a prospect sitting upon trees. Likewise over the ark is seen the Sun rising in a most glorious manner. Moreover, a multitude of Angels will be seen in a double rank, which presents a double prospect, one for the Sun, the other for a palace, where will be seen six Angels ringing of bells. Likewise, machines descend from above, double and treble, with Dives rising out of Hell, and Lazarus seen in Abraham's bosom ; besides several figures dancing jigs, sarabands and country dances, to the admiration of the spectators; with the merry conceits of Squire Punch and Sir John Spendall."

I have not found it anywhere stated at what time these irreverent representations were discontinued in England, nor whether (which is

not

not unlikely) they were put an end to by the interference of the ma. gistrates. The Autos Sacramentales, which form the most characteristic department of the Spanish drama, were prohibited at Madrid in 1763, at the instance of the Conde de Teba, then Archbishop of Toledo, chiefly because of the profaneness of the actors, and the indecency of the places in which they were represented : it seems, therefore, that if they had been performed by clerks, and within consecrated precincts, he would not have objected to them. The religious dramas, though they are not less extraordinary and far more reprehensible, because in many instances nothing can be more pernicious than their direct tendency, were not included in the same prohibition ;

the

same marks of external reverence not being required for saints and images, as for the great object of Romish idolatry. These probably will long continue to delight the Spanish people. But facts of the same kind may be met with nearer home. So recently as the year 1816, the Sacrifice of Isaac was represented on the stage at Paris : Samson was the subject of the ballet ; the unshorn son of Manoah delighted the spectators by dancing a solo with the gates of Gaza on his back; Dalilah clipped him during the intervals of a jig; and the Philistines surrounded and captured him in a country dance !

• That Punch made his appearance in the puppet-show of the Deluge, most persons know ; his exclamation of " hazy weather, master Noah," having been preserved by tradition. In all of these wooden dramas, whether sacred or profane, Punch indeed bore a part, and that part is well described in the verses entitled Pupe gesticulantes, which may be found among

the Selecta Poemata Anglorum. 5" Ecce tamen subitò, et medio discrimine rerum,

Ridiculus vultu procedit Homuncio, tergum
Cui riget in gibbum, immensusque protruditur alvus :
Punchius huic nomen, nec erat petulantior unquam
Ullus; quinetiam media inter seria semper
Importunus adest, lepidusque et garrulus usque
Perstat, permiscetque jocos, atque omnia turbat.
Sæpe puellarum densa ad subsellia sese
Convertens,-sedet en ! pulchras mea, dixit, amica
Illic inter eas ! Oculo simul improbus uno
Connivens, aliquam illarum quasi noverat, ipsam
Quæque pudens se signari pudefacta rubescit;
Totaque subridet juvenumque virumque corona.
Cum vero ambiguis obscænus turpia dictis

Innuit, effuso testantur gaudia risu." 'In one particular only this description is unlike the Punch of the Ingleton Company. He was not an homuncio, but a full-grown personage, who had succeeded, with little alteration either of attributes or appearance, to the Vice of the old Mysteries, and served like the Clown of our own early stage, and the Gracioso of the Spaniards, to scatter mirth over the serious part of the performance, or turn it into ridicule. The wife was an appendage of later times, when it was not

thought

thought good for Punch to be alone; and when, as these performances had fallen into lower hands, the quarrels between such a pair afforded a standing subject equally adapted to the capacity of the interlocutor and of his audience.

A tragic part was assigned to Punch in one of Rowland Dixon's pieces, and that one of the most popular, being the celebrated tragedy of Jane Shore. The beadle in this piece, after proclaiming, in obvious and opprobrious rhyme, the offence which has drawn upon Mistress Shore this public punishment, prohibited all persons from relieving her, on pain of death; and turned her out, according to the common story, to die of hunger in the streets. The only person who ventured to disobey this prohibition was Punch the baker; and the reader may judge of the dialogue of these pieces by this baker's words, when he stole behind ber, and nudging her furtively while he spake, offered her a loaf, saying, “ Tak it, Jenny, tak it!” for which act, so little consonant with his general character, Punch died, a martyr to humanity, by the hangman's hands.

• Dr. Dove used to say he doubted whether Garrick and Mrs. Cibber could have affected him more in middle life than he had been moved by Punch the baker and this wooden Jane Shore in his boyhood. For rude as were these performances (and nothing could possibly be ruder), the effect on infant minds was prodigious, from the accompanying sense of wonder, an emotion which of all others is at that time of life the most delightful. Here was miracle in any quantity to be seen for two-pence, and believed in for nothing. No matter how confined the theatre, how coarse and inartificial the scenery, or how miserable the properties; the mind supplied all that was wanting.'-vol. i., pp. 213-223.

The main drift of this book, in what we may call its sane parts, is to strengthen and revive the genuine old English feelings and tastes. The author writes no party politics, but his serious passages have generally something of this conservative tendency. Himself obviously one who has mostly resided in the country, he would fain do something towards counteracting the prevalent passion for London--the town itself—the villas in its neighbourhood—(so often crowded with gaieties while the venerable ancestral hall stands desolate)—the metropolitan modes of life, and modes of 1hought, or rather of thoughtlessness, and the grand cant of the day, that cosmopolitan liberality which hardly condescends to hold one soil or one people as more justly entitled to affection and sympathy than another. He says, for instance

• Whatever strengthens our local attachments is favourable both to individual and national character. Our home-our birth-place-our native land ;-think, for a while, what the virtues are which arise out of the feelings connected with these words; and if thou hast any intellectual eyes, thou wilt then perceive the connexion between topography and patriotism. Show me a man who cares no more for one

place

place than another, and I will show you in that same person one who loves nothing but himself. Beware of those who are homeless by choice! You have no hold on a human being whose affections are without a tap-root. The laws recognize this truth in the privileges which they confer upon freeholders; and public opinion acknowledges it also, in the confidence which it reposes upon those who have what is called a stake in the country. Vagabond and rogue are convertible terms; and with how much propriety any one may understand who knows what are the habits of the wandering classes, such as gypsies, tinkers, and potters.

• The feeling of local attachment was possessed by Daniel Dove, in the highest degree. Spurzheim and the crazyologists would have found out a bump on his head for its local habitation ;-letting that quackery pass, it is enough for me to know that he derived this feeling from his birth as a mountaineer, and that he had also a right to it by inheritance, as one whose ancestors had from time immemorial dwelt u pon the same estate. Smile not contemptuously at that word, ye whose domains extend over more square miles than there were square roods upon his patrimony! To have held that little patrimony unimpaired, as well as unenlarged, through so many generations, implies more contentment, more happiness, and a more uniform course of steadiness and good conduct, than could be found in the proudest of your genealogies! The most sacred spot upon earth to him was his father's hearth-stead. Rhine, Rhone, Danube, Thames, or Tyber, the mighty Ganges, or the mightier Maranon, even Jordan itself, affected his imagination less than the Greta, or Wease, as he was wont to call it, of his native fields; whose sounds, in his boyhood, were the first which he heard at morning, and the last at night; and, during so many peaceful and happy years, made, as it were, an accompaniment to his solitary musings, as he walked between his father's house and his schoolmaster's, to and fro.'—vol. ii., pp. 15-17.

The same strain is elsewhere resumed, when Doctor Dove, now a graduate of Leyden, establishes himself in the pretty town of Doncaster, instead of carrying his great talents and acquirements to the market of London.

• Ordinary people, whether their lot be cast in town or country, in the metropolis or in a village, will go on in the ordinary way, conforming their habits to those of the place. It matters nothing more to those who live less in the little world about them, than in a world of their own, with the whole powers of the head, and of the heart too (if they have one), intently fixed upon some favourite pursuit :if they have a heart, I say, for it sometimes happens that where there is an excellent head, the heart is nothing more than a piece of hard flesh. In this respect, the highest and the meanest intellects are, in a certain sense, alike self-sufficient; that is, they are so far independent of adventitious aid, that they derive little advantage from society, and suffer nothing from the want of it. But there are others, for whose mental improvement, or at least mental enjoyment, collision and

sympathy,

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