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Spurzheim at Paris, were prohibited by an order of the government. Spurzheim again visited Great Britian in 1825, where he afterwards spent most of his time until June 20, 1832, when he sailed from Havre, and arrived at New York, August 4. He remained in New-York until the 11th, when he proceeded to New-Haven. On the 16th he left for Hartford, and from that city he went to Boston, where he arrived on the 20th. He gave a course of lectures in Boston, and another at Cainbridge. This was the last labour of Spurzheim in the cause of science. A slow, continued fever, not at first considered dangerous, finally proved fatal, and he died at Boston, Nov. 10, 1832. No man was ever more sincerely lamented. To the honor of my native city, the most distinguished tokens of love and regard were extended to him while living, and the highest testimonials of grateful reverence followed him to the grave. His beautiful monument at Mount Auburn, is but an emblem of the pure affection with which his memory is cherished. The marble may perish, and the place of his burial be forgotten; but the names both of Gall and Spurzheim are immortal. They must always be associated with principles, that will be known and appreciated, while science has a temple or a devotee on the earth.

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PHRENOLOGY.

CHAPTER I.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE HUMAN CONSTITUTION.

PHRENOLOGY is the science of the human mind, founded upon the human constitution.

The human constitution is composed of a vast number of organs, intimately related to each other, and all acting together in the most perfect and beautiful harmony. Notwithstanding the exalted nature of man above all the animated tribes

"That roam the wood,

Or wing the sky, or roll along the flood,"

yet, as an organized being, he is subject to the same laws that regulate the rest of the animal and vegetable creation.

The organs which compose the human constitution are so numerous, and complicated, and the offices that they perform so different, that it would be impossible to form any correct idea of them, without classing together those which perform similar functions, and considering them as distinct and par

tially independent systems. Thus the bones are denominated the

OSEOUS SYSTEM,

and constitute the frame upon which the other organs are supported. But the bones cannot move without the agency of the muscles: these constitute another class of organs, demominated the

MUSCULAR SYSTEM.

Those who are not familiar with anatomical expressions will have a perfect idea of the structure of a muscle, when they are informed that all the lean parts of flesh and fish are entirely composed of muscles, the parallel fibres of which extend from one bone to another, and possessing, as they do, the power of contracting with great force, they are capable of moving the bones from one place to another, as far as the tendons will permit. This principle of the contractility of muscles is of the greatest importance, since every motion of the body, and every sign of life which we are capable of making, is made by the contraction of one or more of the muscles. Not only are the movements of the body, the pulsation of the heart, the circulation of the blood, and the action of the stomach and intestines, dependent upon the construction of the muscles, but also the manifestations of the mind-probably even thought itself-but certainly the signs, the manifestations, the evidences of thought, are dependent upon muscular contraction.

This dependence of the mind upon the muscles, is perfectly illustrated by the case of persons that have been in a trance, who, although conscious of what was going on around them, yet could give no sign of consciousness; and their friends, believing them dead, have proceeded to bury them.

An instance of this kind once happened in England, and after the funeral was over the surgeons obtained the body for dissection; but as soon as the knife penetrated the muscles they resumed their power in obedience to the will, and the individual, to the astonishment of the surgeons, arose again and lived several years afterwards.

The muscles are of different sizes and forms according to their situations and the force which it is necessary for them to exert; but notwithstanding they are absolutely necessary to produce motion, yet they never move themselves; they are excited to action by the agency of some part of the

NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Under this head is included,

FIRST, The nerves of involuntary motion: these stimulate and excite to action all the muscles that are independent of the will, all that are concerned in digestion, circulation and respiration. These functions proceed incessantly, from the very commencement of our animal existence to the last moment of life-whether we are asleep or awake-without our being conscious of it, and without our being able to prevent it by any act of the mind. These nerves do not originate in the brain.

SECOND, The nerves of voluntary motion all originate in the brain, and are under the control of the will. They are the messengers which convey to the muscles the decisions of the mind; they cease to act when separated from the brain, and are evidently mere instruments of communication between the brain and the muscles.

Whenever the mind determines to act, the voluntary nerves receive an influence from the brain, and quick as lightning convey it to the appropriate muscles, which

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