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the noun haimonutho, which is derived from the verb aman, to trust, “It expresses much more fully than the pistis of the Greeks, the true idea of faith; for it denotes that state in which . the reliance of the heart is placed on that which is most firm and certain.” (On Peshito, p. 329.)
A FEW PASSAGES WITH THE WORD TO TRUST SUBSTITUTED FOR TO BELIEVE, will show how correctly and how clearly the way of salvation is thus described; and how fully the wrong or imperfect idea which the word believe conveys, is thus removed. No one can say that this result is one of slight importance; for nothing can possibly be more harmful than that an English word should be used to describe the way of salvation, which may lead some to believe that a sound creed is meant, instead of a change of heart, and which is the cause to others of ceaseless difficulty, when trying to find out the true meaning of Scripture, or when trying to prove to others that the belief which has salvation, is not what is commonly called belief, but something quite different from it. The following passages are selected from those in which the Greek word pisteuo is used with in, with on, with a dative case, and without in, on, or a dative
PISTEVO followed by IN. Matt. xvii. 6, “Whoso shall make stumble one of these little ones who trust in me." John üi. 15, “So must the Son of man be lifted up, that everyone who trusts in him may not perish, but have eternal life.” John vi. 40, “ And this is the will of him who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and trusts in him, shall have eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.”
PISTEUO followed by on. Acts xi. 17, “Since, therefore, God gave the same gift to them as he gave to us, who have trusted on the Lord Jesus, the Anointed,” etc. Rom. iv. 24, “It was written also because of us, (that trust was reckoned to Abraham), of us who trust on him who raised up Jesus our Lord from among the dead." PISTEVO followed by A DATIVE CASE.
John v. 24, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that he who hears my word, and trusts on him who sent me, has eternal life.” John viii. 31, “ Jesus said to those Jews who had trusted on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed.”
PISTEUO WITHOUT IN, ON, OR A DATIVE CASE. Mark xyi. 16, “He who shall trust, and be immersed, shall be saved; he who shall be trustless, shall be condemned.” Acts xviii. 8, of the Corinthians heard, trusted, and were immersed.
Another wish has been, TO CONNECT BY LIKENESS OF WORDS, what is said of ATONEMENT in the New Covenant, with what is said of it in the Old. The importance of this is evident from the fact that what was written in the Older Scriptures, was written in part for our benefit. (1 Cor. x. 11); and that what was said to be effected
1 by the old sacrifices, which could not take away sins, is of special use to teach us what was really accomplished by the sacrifice of Christ, which could take away sins. This use of the older Scriptures is partly destroyed by the carelessness of translators, when they destroy that likeness of words by which God has linked the Older Scriptures with the New. The English word used about fifty times in the Old Covenant writings, to describe the efficacy of slain offerings, is the word ATONEMENT. But in our New Cov. version that word is used but once, and then wrongly; for it represents in Romans v. 11, a Greek word which means reconciliation; and reconciliation is the result of atonement, not atonement itself. Atonement is the cause of forgiveness or reconciliation. In the Revised Version, the word atonement is not, I think, used at all. There are four passages in which the Syriac and Greek words used to describe the efficacy of the sacrifice offered by Jesus, are of the same meaning as the Hebrew word which is represented by the English word atonement, in the 0. C. Scriptures. They are Rom. ü. 25; Heb, ü. 17; 1 John ii. 2; iv. 10.
In. Rom. iü. 25, the word propitiation is used both in the common and in the revised version. If the word atonement be used, the English word has the same relation to the English word used in the Old Covenant, which the Syriac and Greek words have to the Hebrew word. The passage then reads thus. “Whom God appointed beforehand [to be] an atonement, by means of faith in his blood.”
In HEBREWS ii. 17, the common version has, “ to make reconciliation.” The revised version has, “ to make propitiation.". If the word atonement be used, the passage reads thus, “That he might become a merciful and faithful High Priest in things relating to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people.”
In 1'John ü. 2, both English versions have “propitiation.” If atonement be substituted, the meaning is, “And he is the atonement for our sins."
In 1 JOHN iv. 10, both English versions have propitiation. If atonement be used instead, the words mean, God loved
and sent his Son to be an atonement for our sins."
The English reader, on meeting with the word atonement in these four passages, is reminded of the word atonement in the older Scriptures, and there he finds that when it is said that an atonement was made for any sin, the words often follow, “and it shall be forgiven him.” (Šee Lev. iv. and v.)
Another passage in which the word atonement should occur, is Heb. ix. 5, “ The cherubim of glory overshadowing the place of atonement."
Another wish has been to use words, the meaning of which is known to the unlearned by their own DAILY USE OF THEM, instead of words which are less known, or which are but partly understood
by those who do not know Latin and Greek. There are many Latin-English words in the Common version. Those who have never learned Latin, have scarcely any clear idea of what some of these mean. These words are little better to them than words translated out of one foreign language into another.
Words which do not express their meaning clearly, may also be made strongholds of error. They permit a false meaning to be given them, and become a storehouse of untruth. Thus the word church, which ought always to mean, as the Greek word does, an assembly, is constantly applied to bodies which never assemble.
In the next section a list of words is given which, though well understood by very many, are wanting in clearness to a large number of people. Their meaning is given in words more familiar to most.
The desire has been to use the English language ACCORDING TO ITS USE IN DAILY LIFE. In the Greek and Syriac texts, the words used are those which were used about the things of this life. And to use in any translation of them forms of speech, which differ from those in common use, is to distort and disfigure God's word, instead of giving its true likeness. How absurd and unseemly it is to prefer to call a person which, instead of who, as the revised version does; and to suppose that "she runneth,” is a more holy expression than “she runs.
XII. WORDS IN THE COMMON VERSION NOT WELL UNDERSTOOD
BY SOME, IN WORDS MORE FAMILIAR.
Acceptance of persons, wrong regard for persons.
To adjure, to command to answer on oath. Ado, outcry. Adversary, foe. Adversity, affliction, distress.
Advocate, pleader. Allegory, description of one thing by another. Alms, gifts. Anathema, a setting aside under condemnation. Angel, [heavenly] messenger.
Apostle, chief messenger. Apparel, clothes, clothing. Appease, quiet. Appertains, belongs or relates to. Array, dress.
Archangel, chief [heavenly] messenger. At hand, has come near. Audience, to give; to listen to. Austere, harsh.
Avenge, punish for injury. Babble, prate, talk foolishly. Backbite, slander. Baptism, immersion. Baptize, immerse. (1.) Barbarians, people of foreign race and language. Beguile, deceive.
Behoved him, it was due that he; or he was bound. Believe, the Greek and Syriac words often mean to trust. (2.) Believer, he who trusts, one trusting. Betroth, engage to be married. Bewray, betray. Bishop, overseer. (3.). Blaspheme, speak evil of, revile. Born of water and of the Spirit. John iii. 5. Christians are not born of the Spirit, but begotten by him; nor are they begotten by means of water, but by means of God's word. 1 Peter i. 23. The Greek
word used in John üii. 5, is gennaomai, which sometimes is applied to birth of a mother, and then means to be born, as in Matt. ii. 1, “when Jesus was born in Bethlehem;" and sometimes to origin from a father, when it means begotten, as in Matt. i. 2, “ Abraham begat Isaac." In John iii. 5, this word must of necessity be used in both of these senses. It must mean born, as to water, which does not beget; and begotten, as to the Holy Spirit, of whom no one is born. So that the correct English translation must be, “ Be born of water, and begotten by the Spirit.” By and by, immediately.
Note 1. The Syriac word used where the Greek word means
was baptized,” is amad. Wichelhaus says, “It means, was immersed, and admirably expresses what baptism properly is; it explains what the Apostles teach, that we are immersed, and buried with Christ,” (p. 308.) He says also of Heb. vi. 4, where the Greek has,
were once enlightened, “The Syriac has 'they descended to immersion,' from which it appears, first, that the recently baptized were said to be enlightened; and next, that those who were baptized descended into a bath.” (p. 332.) He says also, It appears from the Syriac words of 1 Peter iii. 21, meaning, when ye profess God with a pure conscience,' that a profession of God was made in baptism.” (p. 332.)
Note 2. Wichelhaus remarks, that the Syriac word haimonutho, which is used where the Greek has pistis, expresses “much more fully than " this Greek word does, “the true idea of faith ; it denotes that state of mind, in which ; • . . the heart places trust in what is most firm and certain.” (p. 329.) John xiv. 1, is an illustration of the manner in which the Syriac sometimes gives a meaning which is without ambiguity, when the meaning of the Greek is uncertain. A Greek word is twice used, which in each case may either be a statement or a command. In the common version it is once translated as a statement, once as a command:“Ye believe in God, believe also in me" The Syriac has, " Trust in God, trust also in me,” which commends itself as being probably the true meaning
Note 3. Wichelhaus says, “To all men who love truth, it is sufficiently evident that in the letters of Paul, the office of bishop does not differ from the office of elder. This is proved most clearly by the Syriac, in which [the Greek words for] both bishop and elder are translated by the Syriac word koshisho, elder.
By this testimony of the Syriac, those are refuted who say, persuading themselves I know not how, that (modern) episcopacy was instituted by John. It is most certain that in the time of the Syriac tr 18lator there was no episcopal authority in the church.” (p. 331.)
Candlestick, Heb. ix. 2, lamp-stand. Carnal, fleshly. Carriages, Acts xxi. 15, baggage. Centurion, captain of a hundred foot-men.
Chambering, Rom. xiii. 13, deeds of bed-lust. Charger, Matt. xiv. 8, dish. Charity, love. Chasten, punish.
Christ, the Anointed. Church, (both in Syriac and Greek),
Note 4. The Syriac word, as well as the Greek word, for what
Deacon, servant. Dearth, famine. Dedicate a covenant),
Note 5. See the custom in Gen. xv. 9–18. Wichelhaus says,