Puslapio vaizdai

Index to the Introduction.

A, the Greek copy called A, resembles the Peshito; resembles the Greek text used by chief teachers in century iv.; and that of most of the later Greek copies, 65, 66, 68.

ADULTERESS, the, mentioned John vlii., not in the Peshito, 44.

AKELDAMA, proves that Syriac was the language of Judea, 14.

ALEPH and B, Greek copies, probably made under Arian influence, 65; very corrupt, 64, 67 ; relied on by W. and Hort, 64, 67; and by Revisers of E. V., 62.

AMIRA, G, on the nations which have spoken Syriac, 8.

AMRUS says that Syrians who agree with Nestore, are not from him, 31.

ANCIENT writers,on the origin, purity, and use of the Peshito; Justin Martyr, 19, 20; Melito, 67; Bardesanes, Hegesippus, Aphraates, Ephræm, 30; Ibas, of Edessa, 124 ; Nestorians;-Jesudadas, 34; Ebedjesus, 34, 35. Christians of St. Thomas, in India, 35, 36. Jacobites, so called from a person named Jacob, 35;Bar Hebræus, 38, 39. Maronites;-Sionita, 41; Nairon, 41–5; Stephen Evod Asseman, 45.

APOSTLES, made known the gospel in Coordistan, 4; and on the Malabar coast of India, 6–8.

ARAMÆAN, an eastern name for Syriac, 4, 8.

ASSEMAN, Joseph Simon, a learned Maronite Syrian, on the spread of the gospel from Edessa through Mesopotamia, 9.

ASSEMAN, Joseph Aloys, his History of Nestorian Patriarchs, 34.

ASSEMAN, Stephen Evod, on origin of Peshito, 45.

ASSYRIANS, the, adopted Syriac in the room of Assyriac, 4.

ATONEMENT, the word should be used in the N.C. Scriptures, 74, 75.

BAPTIZED, the corresponding Syriac word means immersed, 77,

BAR HEBRÆUS, on Syriac dialects, 8. Says the Apostolic origin of Peshito is a sure fact, 21, 38, 39.

BEGOTTEN as God, the Word said to be by a new reading in John i. 18, introduced by W. and Hort, and the Revisers, 25, 32, 125.

BELIEVE, the word deceives; substitute, trust, 72–4, 77.

BISHOPS, i.e. overseers, called elders in the Peshito, 24, 77; a fact specially noticed by Dr. Westcott, an Episcopalian, 24.

BOOKS of N. C. Scriptures, the fact that five are not in the Peshito, a proof of its very early origin, 7, 17, 18, 26; also that it is not a translation of the Greek books, 44.

BUCHANAN, Dr. Claudius, his visits to Malabar Christians, 6, 7.

BURGON, Dean, on the fictions invented by W. and Hort, to destroy trust in the Peshito, and the Received Greek Text, 25, 62–64.

CANON, Syriac; lists of Peshito Books of N. C., 22.

CATHOLIC Epistles, the, written in various languages, with autographs by the Apostles, 22, 23.

CERIANI, A. M. of Milan, on Josephus's War, in Syriac, 10.

CHURCH, ought to be assembly, as in Greek and Syriac, 78.

COMMON English Version, a list of words in it, the right meaning of which is not known by some; the meaning is given which they ought to have to agree with the original, 76–83.

COOK, Canon, says the Peshito is more ancient and better attested than any Greek copy, 64; that Greek readings which have its support, claim preference; that it is the most trustworthy witness of the original eastern text, 65; that Aleph and B, Greek copies, were certainly written when Arianism was in power, and probably under Eusebias, an Arian, 65; that the mass of Greek copies, those which many critics reject, represent the testimony of churches, 66; that these agree with the Peshito, with Greek copy A, with the Received Greek text, and the Common E. V.; against W. and Hort, and Revised E. V., 65.

COORDISTAN, the Nestorian Christians there. 4, 5.

COUNCILS, The First of Ephesus, one of lawless violence, 31. The Second of Ephesus, called one of robbers and assassins, 38. Of Chalcedon, 31.

COVENANTS ratified by means of slain animals, 78, 79.

CREEDS of Church of England say, the Word is begotten as God, 25, 26.

CRITICS of Greek text too indifferent to testimony of churches, 23, 54, 55, 62.

CURETON'S, Dr., Syriac fragments; Hermansen, on them, 23. Dr. A. Roberts speaks of Dr. C.'s self-delusion, 24. Dr. Hort assumes them to be the first form of the Peshito, 24. This fiction condemned by Dean Burgon, 25, 63, 64; this, and the untruthful statements of Dr. Tregelles, condemned by Dr. Scrivener, 68, 69.

DELITZSCH, Dr. F. on the language of Palestine, 3.

DESIGN of this work, 71-6. To show that the Peshito contains the best text of the N. C. Scriptures, 71; to show that to trust instead of merely to believe, is needful to salvation, 71-4; to connect the New C. with the old as to atonement; and to substitute words in common daily dise for those which are less so, 74-76.

DIAMPER, the Synod of, in India, 7. DIODATI mistaken as to use of Greek in time of Jesus, 11.

EBEDJESUS, on the Peshito, 34; his account of the Nestorians, 35.

EDESSA, capital of Osrhoene, in Syria, east of Euphrates, 8, 27; its dialect the most elegant Syriac, 8; the gospel preached by Thaddeus with great success there, 27; the ancient Syrian record of this, “The Teaching of Thaddeus,” 27. The Peshito is written in the Edessa dialect, and was prepared for use in that city, 17; "by the care of Thaddeus and other apostles,” 34.

ELDER used in Peshito where bishop is used in Greek, 24, 50, 77.

EPHRÆM of Edessa, the Peshito was old in his time, 30; a remark by him quoted, 31.

ETHERIDGE, Dr. J. W., his History of Syrian churches, 7.

EVIDENCE, internal, that the Peshito is not a mere copy of the Greek text, 4651. Texts quoted by Wichelhaus as proof that the Peshito was not made under Apostolic care, examined, 47–50; Rev. Jer. Jones, on Acu for Ptolemais, and "the profane” for Gentiles, 50, 51.

EXPLANATION of words in Common E. V., 76–83.

GEDDES, Dr. Michael, History of Synod of Diamper, 7.

GOD, a statement that one part of God has been begotten by another, now, for the first time, put into our Scriptures, 25, 94, 125.

GRANT, Dr. Asahel, gives evidence/that the Nestorians and Jews of Coordistan are part of the ten tribes of Israel, 4, 5. Their language is derived from ancient Syriac, 4, 5. Their ancestors received the gospel from some of the Apostles, 4. They still use the Peshito-Syriac Scriptures, which they received very early, and have preserved in great purity, 4.

GREEK language, only a few words of It known to most Jews, 10-15.

GREEK N. C. Scriptures, what the chief critical editors of them,-Mill, Wettstein, Griesbach, Lachmann, Tregelles, Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort, say of the Peshito, 56—8. The failure of these editors to find a sure and reliable Greek text, 58. Admissions of Dr. Schaff and Dr. Scrivener, 53, 54, 58, 67, 68. The Nestorians never referred to the Greek text as better than the Syriac text, 36. General excellence of the RECEIVED Greek Text, 62, 65; on which the Common E. Version is founded, 65, 66. See Aleph.

GWILLIAM, Rev. G. H., his critical edition of the Peshito, 54.

HERMANSEN, Prof. C., on Dr. Careton's Syriac fragments, 23.

HUET, Bishop, on the origin of the Peshito, 18; on evidence which proves an ancient book to be what it is said to be, 19. The Peshito has this evidence, 23, 46.

INQUISITION, The, of Goa, in India ; persecuted the Nestorians of Malabar, 7.

JACOBITES, so called from Jacob Baradæus, 38. Their creed, that Christ had but one nature, 35. 38; that it is right to call Mary the “mother of God," and to say that "God was crucified." 35, 39. Acts xx. 28, and Heb. 11. 9, supposed to have been altered by them to suit their creed, 39. They made a new Syriac version, founded on the Greek text, 40.

JACOB of Edessa, on the origin of the Peshito, 39.

JEROME says that Matthew's gospel was written in Syriac, 17.

JESUDADUS, on the origin of the Peshito N. C., 34.

JONES, Rev. Jeremiah, proofs of the origin of the Peshito in Cent. 1, 19, 20, 50 51.

JOSEPHUS shows how very widely Syriac was known, 9-11; says how few Jews knew Greek well, 15.

JUSTIN Martyr, said, A.D. 150, that the gospels were read in Palestine, which must have been in Syriac, 19, 20.

LIDDON, Dr., Canon of St. Paul's, calls the rejection of "mother of God” heresy, 33.

LIFE, means salvation in Syriac, 82. MALABAR Coast of India; Christianity founded there by Apostles; the Christians of St. Thomas have used the Peshito from very early times, and kept it pure. 6-8.

MARONITES, The, of Labanon, rejected the creed imposed by the Emperors, 40; held that Jesus had but one will, 41. Testimonies of their learned men to the Peshito, 41-5.

MARSH, Bishop, excludes conjecture from Bible-criticism, 26; on evidence existing in the first three Greek gospels, that they were founded on an earlier Syriac copy, 45.

MATTHEW'S gospel written, as all ancient writers say, in Syriac, 17, 21.

MELCHITES, so called because they received the creed imposed by the Emperors:—they were the king's party, 35, 40.

I MOTHER of God," adopted by the Greek and Roman Churches, and by some in the Church of England, 33, 35; also by Jacobites and Melchites, 35. The required use of this expression caused great persecution and slaughter, 33, 35.

NAZAREANS, the Nestorians of Coordistan are so called, 5.

NESTORE denied that Mary was "mother of God.” He therefore was, and is still by many, called a heretic, 31-3, 35.

NESTORIANS, in the Roman Empire, were all deprived of office and banished, 33, 35; their numbers became equal to Greek and Roman Churches combined,33. All of them used the Peshito, 33. They have kept its text pure, 4, 33, 36, 37; their copies agree marvellously with those of Jacobites and Maronites, 37, 68, 69. Their schools, 37.

NEUBAUER, Oxford Prof., on whether Jews knew Greek, 12–14.

NEW Covenant read at Edessa in Cent. i., 29.

OSRHOENE, the kingdom of Abgar; its capital, Edessa 27.

PANTÆNUS, Cent. Ii., found a Syriac copy of Matthew in India, 7, 8.

PASSAGES which are not in the Peshito may have been written by the sacred writers afterwards, 48. Passages for comparing Syriac and Greek texts, 52, 53.

PAUL'S Epistles are referred to by Peter as known to those whose language was probably Syriac, 16, 44.

PAULUS, Prof., mistaken as to use of Greek, 11.

PECULIARITIES, Some, of PeshitoSyriac Text, 70, 71.

PENTECOST, Peter's address probably in Syriac, 11.

PESHITO-SYRIACN.C. Scriptures still used in Coordistan, 4, and in India, 7, 8; by Nestorians, 4, 31, 37; by Jacobites, 39; by Maronites, 41; by Mechites, 37. Kept separate from the other five books because of greater esteem and different origin, 17, 18, 34, 36, 38; when it was made the other five books probably were not written, 18, 20. Kept pure by exceeding care, 4, 8, 18, 36, 37. Called sacred, 36. The general belief in its authority proved by its general use as an authoritative rule, 21, 22, 66, 67. The wonderful agreement of copies from all parts, 37, 66, 68.

PHOTIUS, on versions corrected by the Apostle John, 28, 29.

PROOFS deemed sufficient, attest the origin of Peshito, 19, 21, 46.

REGENERATION, used instead of newbirth, Titus iii. 5, 82.

REVISED English Version of 1881, changes founded on a new Greek text tested by the Peshito; changes CONDEMNED by it given, 85—111; changes APPROVED by it given, 111-123.

ROBERTS, Dr. A., on Jewish use of Greek, 11; on Dr. Cureton's fragments, 23, 24,

SAYCE, Rev. A. H., says Syriac became the language of Assyria, 4.

SCRIVENER, Dr., on the sad state of the Greek text, 53, 54, 67. Says that attempts to restore it to purity have failed, 58, 67, 68. States the likeness of all Syriac copies to one another, 66–9. Defends the Peshito against Dr.Tregelles and Dr. Hort, 69.

SECTS, the Syrian, 31, 35. All their copies of Peshito alike, 37, 66—9.

SEPTUAGINT little known in Palestine in time of Jesus, 13.

SYRIAC language, The, how widely used in the time of Christ, 3-11. The dialect of Edessa, the best of three, 8. The Syriac of Galilee was spoken by the Redeemer, the Greek a translation of WALTON, Bishop, his opinion of the Peshito 59.

what he said, 12; this dialect differed a little from that of Edessa, 17. Proof from Syriac words in the Greek Gospels, 12, 14, 17.

TEN Tribes of Israel, part of them in Coordistan and India, 4-6.

TESTIMONY of critics who esteem the Peshito, to the excellence of its text;Bishop Walton and J. Martini, 59. J.D. Michaelis,Jeremiah Jones, and J. Wichelhaus, 60. Dr. Ezra Stiles and Dr. James Murdock, 61. Dean Burgon, 61–4. Canon Cook, 64-6. Dr. Scrivener, 66—9.

THADDEUS, the wonderful success of his mission to Edessa, 27–9. The Peshito said by Jesudadus to be due in part to his care, 34.

THEODORE of Mopsnostia on Heb. 11. 9, 39.

THOMAS the Apostle made known the gospel in Coordistan, 4, and in India, 7. The Christians of St. Thomas are so called after him, 7.

WESTCOTT and Hort, Drs., make conjectures adverse to the Peshito, 23–25. Dean Burgon's severe censure of these critics, 25, 63, 64. Dr. Sorivener's reply to them, 68, 69.

WESTCOTT, Dr., in his work on the Canon of N. C. Scriptures, admits that the belief of Syrians in the Peshito as an “Eastern Original" is not "destitute of all plausibility," 21; that it is deemed by them authoritative, 22; that its testimony is of great worth, 22.

WICHELHAUS, J. Prof., says that the Peshito resembles the autographs of the Apostles, 46. He tries to prove that it has not apostolic authority; his reasoning examined, 47-50.

WRIGHT, Dr. W., of Cambridge University, on Syriac manuscripts in the British Museum, 22.


Of the Peshito-Syriac and the Receibed Greek Texts.

The Peshito-Syriac Text.

HEBREWS I. 1-11.


I. 1. God, in all kinds of parts, and in all kinds of ways, spoke with our fathers by the prophets from of old; 2, and in these the last days, he has spoken with as by his Son, whom he has made inheritor of everything, and by whom he made the worlds; 3, who himself is the brightness of his glory, and the image of what he is, and who upholds everything by the might of his word; and who by means of himself effected the purging away of our sins, and sat down at the right hand of (God's] Greatness in the high [heavens); 4, and he in everything is greater than angels, (a) in proportion as the name which he has inherited excels theirs.

5. For to whom from among the angels did God ever say,-Thou art my son, I to-day have begotten thee?-And again, -I will be to him for Father, and he shall be to me for Son ?-6. Again too, when introducing the first-born into the world, he said, -Let all the angels of God worship him.

7. In reference to angels also, he said this,-Who made his angels spirit; and his servants, burning fire.

8. But in reference to the Son he said, -Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; a righteous sceptre [is] the sceptre of thy kingdom. 9. Thou hast loved justness, and hast hated wickedness; for this reason God, thy God, has anointed thee with the oil of joy, more than she has) thy associates. 10. And again,Thou from the beginning hast laid the foundations of the earth; and the heavens are the work of thy hands; 11, they shall pass away, but thou art firm; and they all as garments shall grow old;

The Greek Text.

HEBREWS I. 1-12.

HEBREWS. I. 1. God, who of old, by the many parts (of his word), and in many ways, spoke to (our) fathers by the prophets, 2, has, in these last of the days, spoken to us by (his] Son, whom he has made inheritor of all things, by means of whom he also made the worlds ; 3, who, being the forth-shining of chis) glory, and the stamped-image of what he himself is, and upholding all things by the word of his might; when he had by means of himself effected the purging away of our sins, sat down at the right hand of (God's] Greatness in the high [heavens); 4, having become greater than the angels (a) in such high degree as he has inherited a name which excels theirs.

5. For to whom of the angels did he ever say,-Thou art my son, I to-day have begotten thee? And again,-I will be to him for Father, and he shall be to me for Son? 6. And again, when he introduces the first-born into the inhabited (earth), he says,-And let all the angels of God worship him.

7. And in reference to the angels he says,-Who makes his angels spirits, and his chief servants, a flame of fire.

8. But in reference to the Son,-Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; a sceptre of righteousness [is] the sceptre of thy kingdom. 9. Thou hast loved justness; and hated lawlessness. For this reason God, thy God, has anointed thee with the oil of great joy, more than {he bas]those in fellowship with thee. 10. And, -Thou, O Lord, at the beginning, didst found the earth, and the heavens are works of thy hands; 11, they shall perish, but thou continuest; and they all, as a garment, shall grow old, 12, and

(a) Ver. 4. Both the Syriac word, and the Greek word, represented by the English word “angel," mean "messenger,” that is, “a messenger (of God].” The word fiangel" is the Greek word for "messenger" in an English form.

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