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creeds in public life. A statesman cannot perhaps look further in dealing with a mixed population of different creeds. These were the arguments for the Queen's Colleges, with which Larcom was much concerned. The public mind has ceased to regard the system with much enthusiasm, or even favour; but those who best understand the difficulties of Ireland, and the impossibility, if it could be wished, of anything like proselytism by force, or fraud, or even honest exertion, will be best able to measure the temptation which the hopes and prospects excited by these colleges held forth. It was not, as a rule, amongst the higher grades of the Roman Catholic clergy that Larcom found his difficulties. He worked with them wherever it was possible. The Phoenix conspiracy was very generally denounced from the altar; the Fenian movement was very generally discouraged by the priests. In short, while the central Irish Government was strong and English policy consistent, so long as the various sections of Irish society perceived the hopelessness of overthrowing the existing settlement as they found it established through the course of many generations, so long as the men of each class felt that they were receiving substantial justice under exactly the same laws as their English neighbours, and subject to exactly the same conditions of success or failure,-the divergency of the different lines of interest was restrained, and attempts to disturb the existing relations between parties, nationalities, and creeds were looked upon as foreign and intrusive. There was much yet to be done to remove abuses and promote progress. So also there was much to be done in England. The United Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland was to be the organ for effecting such changes.
We cannot tell whether Larcom's inbred and ingrained distrust of Irish Ultramontanism, regarded in its ancient aspect of a disloyal creed, would have suffered him, had he lived longer, to recommend that full scope should be given to its energies, and so to admit that the neutralising and humanising methods of his day, running parallel with those of an earlier day, had failed. Nor can any one assert with confidence that the measures of self-government which he contemplated would have come speedily and safely within the range of possibility had English policy not taken a new departure. That new departure coincided with the very year of his retirement from public life, and we are only concerned here with the forty years which preceded it. This period was an advance on the long and tranquil period which
we have connected with the names of Walpole and Chesterfield; but though different, in consequence of all that had taken place in the interval, they are capable of receiving a summary description applicable alike to both. Mistakes were made of course, and students of history only too well understand how these were brought about; but over and above the differences of creed and race-the permanent conditions of the problem--there were two grievous evils with which every Irish Government had to contend-the poverty of the poor and the absenteeism of the rich. In both of these periods statesmen were agreed that the only remedies were to be found in the active promotion of a general improvement in trade and agriculture, the stimulation of Irish industries, the steady attraction of English capital to Ireland, and the gradual formation of a higher and better public opinion. The fundamental condition for this progressive, but necessarily slow, improvement was a firm government, ensuring order amongst a discordant population, a government impartially administered, consistently maintained through all changes of administration, and guided by an active sympathy with the desires of the people, which were to be consulted just as far as, but no farther than, they were not in conflict with the public weal.
Whether the state of Ireland has so changed during the last few years, whether recent party struggles have so demoralised the Irish that measures of an exceptional kind are now required, is the question on which the Imperial Government is called upon to make up its mind. If it turns out that such exceptional measures are necessary, the lessons conveyed by the comprehensive survey of the past on which we have ventured may be of some use; for they indicate with precision the only conditions on which any new policy can be successfully worked.
ART. VI.-1. Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, described by ADOLF MICHAELIS. Translated from the German by C. A. M. FENNELL, M.A. Cambridge: 1882.
2. Geschichte der griechischen Plastik. Von J. OVERBECK. Leipzig: 1857.
3. Geschichte der griechischen Plastik. Von J. OVERBECK. Dritte umgearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage. Leipzig: 1881.
4. Essays on the Art of Pheidias. By CHARLES WALDSTEIN, M.A., &c. Cambridge University Press: 1885.
NEVER was there a more apposite index of the progress
made in the archæology of classic sculpture in less than a single generation than the third edition of Herr Overbeck's History of Greek Plastic Art,' 1881, as compared with the first of 1857. But while we congratulate him on the great recent discoveries at Mycenæ, Olympia, and elsewhere, and on the industry and general discernment with which he has incorporated their chief sculpturesque results, we feel at the same time that we are far from having heard the last word on the subject. The earlier chapters are to a great extent rewritten, and the first, especially in the treatment of Egyptian affinities, much compressed, the Mycenaean discoveries of Dr. Schliemann falling into the Homeric period. Similar is the retrenchment of the notices of the Homeric and Hesiodic shieldpieces, in which long quotations (translated) are dropped to make way for many references to Mycenæan illustration. But, more than this, we note that in the third edition the register of the extension and improvement of Art' is considerably altered. Its limits, which were from Ol. 60 to 80, are now from Ol. 65 to 80; and the sepulchral effigy of Aristion, by Aristocles, classed previously in Book II. ch. iii. with the Selinuntian metopes and the Tenean Apollo, is grouped in Book II. ch. v. of the third edition with the Corcyrean Lion and the Calf-bearing' Hermes, and discussed after instead of before the Tyrannicide group and the Æginetan pediment.†
* With this lion the author compares the monument to Leana, the heroine of the Tyrannicide (see pp. 144 and 117). He should have compared the miniature one found at Mycena, probably a replica of a similar monumental lion ('Mycéne,' p. 445), and have made some reference to that on Leonidas' tomb (Herod. vii. 225).
See vol. i. p. 98 of 1st ed., and p. 150 of 3rd ed.
The western pediment of the Æginetan Temple of Pallas, brought home by the Crown Prince of Bavaria in 1812, has since been completed and re-arranged by the successive study of H. Prachow and K. Lange in 1871-76. Each angle as before is occupied by a recumbent figure, arrow-wounded; but the next figure at either wing is now the archer, and the entire group is now considered to have contained, including the central Pallas, fourteen figures, but small portions of two only are presented to the eye, the rest being partly concealed by other more prominent ones. The date is approximately fixed at Ol. 60-70, at which time the centre of artistic activity was found at Egina.
But when we come to the golden period of sculpture the change is not so much a re-arrangement as a revolution. The Otricoli bust' of Zeus in the Vatican Museum, which formed the pièce de résistance of the discussion on the Zeus of Pheidias in the first edition, is dismissed from view with discrediting remarks in the third *; and the only subsidiary pieces are some figures from Eleian coins, believed to represent the Zeus. To turn to the Parthenon pediments, a pair of figures in the eastern one, named Aglauros and Herse' in the first edition, are doubtfully designated 'Moira' in the third, while Herr Waldstein has, as we shall see, his own separate view as to their personality. In the 'silver period,' as we may call it, or second blossom-time (Blüthezeit) of Art,' as Overbeck has it, we find in vol. ii. ch. i. and ii., the elder Cephisodotus and Scopas occupying an inverted order, while the discussion of Praxiteles has, of course, been largely remoulded from the new resources opened at Olympia. We may notice in passing Fig. 102, facing the title-page, as about the most successful reproduction in engraving of an ancient statue, that of Hermes with the child Dionysus, which this age has seen. Dr. Waldstein devotes several pages to this highly interesting monument (Appendix II.). He says we can hardly term it a group. . . . Our whole interest and attention are arrested by the
Compare vol. i. p. 208 of 1st ed. with vol. i. p. 257 of 3rd ed., especially the words 'Ausser aller Frage aber sollte sein . . . dass 'die erhaltenen Statuen der Statue in Olympia noch ungleich ferner 'stehn, am fernsten der in der That schlechte Verospische Zeus im 'Vatican, den man bis in die Neuzeit als das beste Mittel zur Vergegen'wärtigung des Phidias'schen Werkes betrachtet hat.' We sincerely commend the hearty honesty of this admission, but a distinct reference to the 1st ed., as given above, would have enhanced its value. Still, the whole shows how far we are yet from finality on this question.
Hermes, and the infant Dionysos appears only to exist in our mind as a means to account for the expression of individual character and emotion in the Hermes, and how exquisite and plastically perfect is the expression of this emotion. The Hermes, youthful, and yet with a paternal tenderness and strength toned down to gentleness; while a breath of sweet melancholy, pleasing in its sad rhythm, rests over the whole composition. The head combines in its features all the characteristics of a youthful Hermes, and of the typically Attic youth. . . . But like a great sculptor who has thoroughly conceived the true province in his art and its means of expression, it is not only the head which Praxiteles has formed to express his feelings, his thoughts, his creative mood, however beautiful we know his heads to have been; we feel his power in the manner in which the head rests upon the neck, and the neck upon the shoulders, and the limbs join on to the body; in short, in the plastic rhythm of the whole figure as well as in the peculiar modelling of every sinew and muscle and in each smallest part of the surface.
The delicacy with which, in the engraving of Herr Overbeck's work, the muscular surfaces flow into each other under the areas of light and shade aptly illustrates the above extract, and has, we think, not been surpassed in modern art. Very different is the merit of the outline engravings, taking Fig. 138 as a specimen, facing p. 318, in which two such well-known statues as the Diane Chasseresse and the Apollo Belvidere have their facial features in effect distorted, and the fine lines of their limbs most imperfectly conveyed. And here we pause upon the last question which our space allows us to discuss in detail-the correction (?) of the motive' and 'attribute' of the latter statue from a diminutive bronze, supposed to be from near Janina, found in 1792, and now in the possession of Count Stroganoff. In the Belvidere statue, the left hand, which doubtless bore the attribute,' is unhappily the missing part. Montorsoli, in the fifteenth century, restored it as grasping the middle of a bow, and supposed the god to be watching the flight of his arrow or the result of his shot. This sooms adequately to explain the pose, especially the gradually drooping fall of the right hand, as newly released from the string. The expressiveness of the fingers tells the tale completely. But the bronze statuette holds in the left a bag or folded skin with the Gorgon's head figured upon it, and this accordingly is now assigned to the Apollo Belvidere in lieu of the bow. But the statue and the statuette are, when closely examined, full of discordant features. The former is ine more beautifully balanced on the right leg, the hip overlenging so as to be nearly vertical with the extremity of the