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at pleasure' (p. 322). That their origin was monastic, like the cells and carrells,' or compartments between the bookstands in libraries, is alleged in p. 326.
The hall arrangements were in many respects very primitive. A lavatory, with towels on hooks for the use of the high table, is recorded in some college accounts; but we are startled at reading of a decree of the Vice-Chancellor and Heads, made in 1571, that if any undergraduate presume to bathe in a river, pond, or any other water within the county of Cambridge, he shall receive
a severe flogging in public in the common hall in the presence of the fellows, scholars, and all other members of his college; and further, if the delinquent be a bachelor of arts, he is to have his feet tied, to be set in the stocks for a whole day in the common hall of his college, and to pay a fine of ten shillings towards the commons of all the members of the college before he is let out' (p. 364).
The crime of bathing seems to have stood on the same footing as that of stealing or rioting. Another custom, of reading portions of Scripture in hall during meals, was evidently borrowed from the monasteries.'
The arrangement of three doors, leading to the buttery, 'kitchen, and pantry respectively, which Professor Willis calls "The triple arcade," was the normal arrangement of a mediæval manor-house, and was copied in most of the 'older colleges at Cambridge.' It may, however, have come from the almost universal design of the entrance to a monastic chapter-house, consisting of three archways, of which the two lateral lead into cellars or storehouses, or shallow vaulted recesses, the exact object of which has not been ascertained.
Chapter VII., The Library,' is an essay of special interest. Before the general use of printing, some four centuries ago, the store of MS. books even in the most literary communities was of course small. The earliest custom seems to have been to keep them in chests, and the authors might have remarked that this was the Roman practice under the Empire. So Juvenal, iii. 206:—
Jamque vetus Græcos servabat cista libellos,
Probably the curious iron-clamped church chests still occasionally to be met with, sometimes of great antiquity (as at Wimborne Minster, where there is also one of the few remaining libraries of chained books) were used for containing such books and deeds as belonged to the fabric. In
later times a library became one of the essential buildings.
'The positions of college libraries offer the very curious facts that the great majority of those which were built up to the beginning of the sixteenth century stand with their lateral walls facing east and west; those which were built after this to the end of the Commonwealth, including fourteen examples, face, without exception, north and south' (p. 414).
There can be little doubt that, in days of early rising, the advantages of the morning sun were made available by the eastern position.
When more spacious repositories had been provided for books and MSS., they were kept in cupboards, presses, or 'stalls,' care being taken and various regulations passed for the security of the collection, till at length the ingenious idea occurred of fastening each book to an iron bar by a chain and sliding ring. This practice is fully explained and illustrated from existing examples in pp. 420-39, with curious drawings of the chain-links and the fastenings of the bar along which they were allowed so to slide as to rest on desks at a convenient height from the reader. Beautiful examples of ornamental book-cases in the various colleges are engraved pp. 452-69, from which it appears that no little art and genius in designing were generally expended upon them.
The portraits and busts of founders and benefactors often formed part of the ornament of a library. It might have been added that the media Minerva' of Juven. iii. 219, and the 'patrona virgo,' also meaning Minerva as the presiding genius of a library, in Catullus i. 9, illustrate the origin of this custom.
The Master's Lodge, like the Abbot's or Prior's house in a monastery, was a separate establishment, but maintained, of course, at the cost of the college. The favourite mediæval arrangement of the Master's Lodging at Cambridge was to place it at the high-table end of the hall in continuation of the latter,' and sometimes a window high in the wall gave a view of the interior of the hall from the lodge. A curious feature of a college lodge was a 'gallery,' often so mentioned in the old records, or corridor.
The known examples before the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth are at the following colleges: Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi, King's, Queens', Catharine Hall, Christ's, St. John's, Magdalene, Trinity. In all these lodges, galleries were erected in conformity with VOL. CLXIV. NO. CCCXXXVI.
the domestic architecture of the period, when the gallery was a necessary feature of a gentleman's mansion' (p. 339).
We can remember one also at Emmanuel, as part of the Master's Lodge, which has since been removed to another site. Generally, they were used as picture galleries for the portraits of deceased masters and other college worthies. The only two now remaining, and they are very interesting examples, are those at St. John's and Queens'.
Our authors are of opinion that that remarkable feature ' of Cambridge Lodges, the Gallery, which appears to have 'been unknown at Oxford, proceeded naturally from the 'cloister of the earlier buildings.' Both were places for indoor exercise, or for walking under cover in the college gardens, composed probably of posts and trellis, on which vines were trained. But we rather doubt the monastic origin of the gallery.' Such promenades came from classical times, where the porticus' or piazza was used for peripatetic lectures, and the 'cryptoporticus' of a Roman villa, often mentioned in Pliny's Letters, was practically the Gallery' of the college. In vol. ii. these appurtenances are described in the old college arrangements of St. John's and Trinity, and much is said about them in connexion with the early plans of other colleges.
We have said so much on the relative claims of Italian and Gothic, chiefly as characteristic of changing fashion and tastes, but partly as dictated by economy or convenience, that we must pass briefly over chapter x. of part iii. on 'The Style of Collegiate Buildings,' thoughtful and sensibly written as it is. The following strikes us as worth quoting:
'To call the Renaissance a revival of classical architecture is perhaps too strong an expression, for, during the centuries which elapsed between the extinction of that architecture and the decadence of mediaval architecture, a total change had taken place in domestic and social habits, and great improvements had been made in the mechanism of structure, in the art of preparing materials, and in decoration, especially by the introduction of glass. As the temples of the Pagans were unfitted by their structure for the Christian ritual, so their palaces and houses were equally unsuited to the public and private life of the fifteenth century; and the Renaissance is nothing more than a compromise between the desire to reproduce the forms of classical architecture which classical literature had brought into favour, and the necessity of retaining the structural arrangements which were too intimately connected with the building arts, and the habits and customs of society, to be abandoned.'
The decline of the feudal system, and of the custom of
living, for security's sake, in moated houses-low, damp, dark, and inconvenient, as well as unhealthy-led to the Elizabethan and Jacobean mansion, with its imposing gateway, its gabled and turreted walls, and numerous mullioned often projecting square or semicircular bay windows. The defiant stronghold and the gloomy prison of the Edwardian castle now became, with more cultured and literary tastes, a hospitable château and a mansion directed to social conveniences rather than to personal security. And as the colleges followed in the main the arrangements of the manor house or baronial hall, so the Renaissance offered a pleasing relief from the somewhat gloomy aspect of the older college courts, as existing at Queens', Jesus, and St. John's. The introduction of foreign artists, and the greater intercourse with Italy and the Continent generally, assisted in establishing the Renaissance as a recognised style during the reign of Henry VIII.
Our authors add:
'The mode in which the new decorative forms were introduced, by the gradual and increasing application of them, in successive buildings, to the accustomed mechanical arrangements of the structures, is exhibited in the two English universities with peculiar distinctness. They each present a group of numerous buildings exhibiting every phase of the transition, for the most part of known date, and, further, executed by architects mentioned by name, whose influence can be traced in successive works' (p. 526).
The earliest, and by far the most beautiful, of the Italianising works at Cambridge is the incomparable design of the rood screen in King's chapel-a design we have already spoken of as possibly a masterpiece of Pietro Torrigiano.
We have sometimes felt doubtful, in quoting from this work, whether the words were those of Professor Willis or of Mr. Clark, the distribution of the bracketed portions being not always quite clear. But where such high praise is due, the two names may be allowed to share it in common, and Mr. Clark will readily forgive us if we have not been very accurate in the distinction.
ART. IV.-1. Aurora: their Characters and Spectra. By J. RAND CAPRON, F.R.A.S. London: 1879.
2. Das Polarlicht. Von HERMANN FRITZ. Leipzig: 1881. 3. Verzeichniss beobachteter Polarlichter. Zusammengestellt
von HERMANN FRITZ. Wien: 1873.
4. Under the Rays of the Aurora Borealis. By SOPHUS TROMHOLT. Edited by CARL SIEWERS. London: 1885.
5. Observations of International Polar Expeditions: Fort Rae. By Captain HENRY P. DAWSON, R.A. Published by the Royal Society. London: 1886.
OUR UR earth, there is no doubt, is to some extent a selfluminous body. It is not wholly dependent for its light-supplies upon sunshine, direct or reflected. Thin remnants, possibly of an ancient clothing of fire, still partially kindle round it. Moreover, these terrestrial flame-processes vary both in intensity and distribution. Nor altogether without method. They wax and wane in accordance with a highly complex law of periodicity, the disentanglement of which from apparently boundless confusion, and its reference to wider cosmical changes, are amongst the most characteristic discoveries of our time.
Under the designation Aurora Borealis' Gassendi included, in 1621, the luminous appearances vaguely and variously described by ancient and mediæval writers as 'chasmata,' 'trabes,' 'faces,' capra saltans,' 'draco volans," The bestowal of the name was in itself no slight help towards a better understanding of the phenomenon. No longer a mere portent, it assumed thenceforward the character of a scientific problem. Curiosity on the subject largely superseded fear. Above all, some degree of distinctness was introduced into ideas about it, and accounts of its apparitions grew less bewildered; the older records often leaving it profoundly uncertain whether they refer to auroral arches and streamers, to comets, brilliant meteors, or even to conspicuous manifestations of the Zodiacal Light.
In general, however, we are safe in giving an auroral interpretation to the chronicled spectral battles, when
'Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds,
In ranks, and squadrons, and right form of war,'
such as were widely seen during the disastrous Cimbrian campaign of 113 B.C.; again at Rome,
'A little ere the mightiest Julius fell';