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wings, those rustlings of elytra, join in a monstrous hum, which fills the forest and mounts to the sky; while in the clear tropical night great trees, like centres of illumination, shone under millions of fireflies.'

In contemplating the insect world the most accomplished naturalist is soon taught how narrow is the limit of human knowledge, and how delicate is the balance of the productive powers of nature. The self-satisfied empiric who is confident that he has explained away the old-fashioned ideas of creative power and wisdom by his theories of self-guided evolution is struck dumb by the relics of a butterfly treasured up for the long ages that have elapsed since the deposit of the Carboniferous strata. The theory of natural selection proves a ridiculous failure when its advocate is asked to explain the transformations of the winged insect. The most accepted physiological laws as to animal reproduction are laughed to scorn by that fission of the individual which is carried to so remarkable an extent in the voracious and prolific race of the aphides. We are indeed forcibly reminded of the modesty which so well became the brilliant genius of Newton when we see broad provinces struck with poverty by the gauzy wing of an almost microscopic fly; and an economic loss, amounting to more than a hundred and twenty millions sterling, occasioned by the importation of a few eggs-perhaps of a single egg-of the American phylloxera.

ART. III.-The Architectural History of the University of Cambridge, and of the Colleges of Cambridge and Eton. By the late ROBERT WILLIS, M.A., F.R.S., Jacksonian Professor and sometime Fellow of Caius College; with additions by JOHN WILLIS CLARK, M.A., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. In four volumes. 4to. Cambridge University Press: 1886.

MR. CLARK, the editor and chief compiler of a work that thus claims a double authorship, acknowledges in fitting terms (Preface, p. xxxii) the 'splendid liberality' of the Syndics of the University Press' in publishing, after some considerable delay, these magnificent volumes, and also the pains and anxiety of the working staff to produce them in the best possible manner.' Extensive, and necessarily costly, as the result of such varied research has proved to be, the admirable plan and arrangement, not to say the very

full index of 100 pages, really leave nothing to be desired.. There is not a chapter in the work that can be called dull; information of the most novel kind is everywhere to be found, and that conveyed in the most interesting way, and in a style commendable for its unaffected simplicity of expression. It is a big book, but not made bigger than it need have been by either fine writing or superfluous 'padding.'

The first two volumes give the topographical and architectural history of the seventeen colleges of the University, together with a minutely detailed description of Eton College, modern and ancient. The third volume contains a similar history of the University buildings, such as the Schools, the Senate House, the Library, Printing Press, Museums, &c. It also includes separate essays, all of which are of special interest and importance, on the 'Component Parts of the College.' Thus we have the Hall, the Combination-room (or parlour), the Lodge, the Library, the Chapel, the Students' Chambers, separately treated, and the same features as they exist at Oxford brought into comparison, dates, where known, being invariably added. Throughout the work beautiful and well-drawn illustrations are profusely interspersed. The fourth volume is entirely devoted to maps and plans. These show most laborious research, and are beautifully executed in distinctive colours, generally with an overlying duplicate, printed on transparent cloth, to show the modern in close contact with the ancient plan. The third volume concludes with a glossary of mediæval terms, an addition rendered desirable by the frequent citation of conveyances, contracts, college orders and accounts, of early date.

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It is not, however, only the history of the foundation and building of the colleges, but the relation of the collegiate to the monastic system, that has been made the subject of enquiry. The general plan and disposition of a college,' it is observed, has so remarkable an analogy with that of a monastery, that we might naturally assume that the former had been copied from the latter upon the first invention of a college.' The conclusion arrived at is that it is impossible to maintain any theory of direct derivation of a college from a monastery,' and that at Cambridge at least, where the influence of Wykeham had been scarcely felt, the baronial hall rather than any conventual buildings suggested the arrangement of the parts of a college.

Of course there are many points connected with the rise

and progress of the Universities, as the centres of the higher education in this country, which are even more interesting and important than the history of the buildings, and of these points the authors have not been unmindful. On one other point-the continued popularity and usefulness of these ancient institutions at the present day, while the older and formerly richer and more influential religious houses have passed away, and left only ruins for their records-as the authors are entirely silent, we offer a few brief remarks, at the risk of their being regarded as needlessly apologetic.

It is sometimes charged against the Universities, (1) that they encourage, or do not discourage, idleness; (2) that they are too luxurious; (3) that the standard of learning has never been really high, nor the number of really learned men in them great; (4) that the endowment of many hundreds of sinecure fellowships, besides a large staff of well-paid professors and other officers is out of joint, so to say, with the spirit of the age.

Now it is, perhaps, true that the greater number even of those who have taken high degrees, and been rewarded by fellowships, prove, in after life, rather well-informed than learned,' in the German sense of the word. But it is also true that the advantages of a University education are at least as much ethical and social as purely intellectual. There is a general standard of honour and truthfulness, a fairness of dealing, and a willingness to give credit to sincerity under all diversities of thought, with other social virtues which are imbibed at the Universities and carried into society at large. In a nation so divided in sentiment and so largely devoted to trade and commerce, these virtues are of more real value to the community at large than a higher standard of learning. The action then of the Universities on the nation appears to be this: They provide prizes in a lottery so numerous, so honourable, and so rich, that a large number of youths of all classes are tempted to compete for them, and thus even the mass of those who go unrewarded gain the advantage of a few years' residence in a centre where narrowmindedness is almost impossible. Again, in an age of great wealth and great luxury, the Universities, if they are to attract the sons of the rich, cannot follow a hard and fast line of mediæval simplicity. They must move with the age; they cannot go backwards. Time was, we are told (iii. p. 351), when 'in the wealthiest lodge in the University (King's, in 1451) there was only one chair, and the tables were supported on 'trestles, and those who used them sat on forms and stools.'

The splendid hospitality of the colleges, so often called their 'luxury,' confers a real social benefit in bringing all classes of minds, both young and old, into constant and amicable and courteous intercourse. No places in the world are more kindly in their sympathy or more truly considerate of feelings than the cultured society of the college hall and the combination-room. We might add with truth that there is no place where cultured men so readily and so freely interchange ideas as at the dinner table.

These considerations form the best answer that can be given to the objections raised on the score of exaggerated and nationally useless wealth. It is a safer and better answer than the questionable position that 'private' property and vested interests are inviolable rights. Indeed, on no other plea can we defend the practice, now gradually becoming obsolete, of allowing non-residents, perhaps making large professional incomes, to retain life-fellowships.

We must commence our remarks by explaining the share which Professor Willis had not only in the work before us, but in raising architectural research into the dignity of a science. His lamented death took place in 1875. For all that he did, and it was much, though of a different kind, he deserves to be enshrined among the eminent designers and builders of the Cambridge colleges, of whom a brief but interesting biography is given in the tenth chapter of this publication, such as Ralph Symons, Thomas and Robert Grumbold, Christopher Wren, Nicolas Hawkesmoore, James Gibbs, James Burrough, James Essex, all eminent for skill in classic design, whatever the one-idea Gothicists' may now think of the works they have left. And here let us briefly say, in high praise of both Mr. Clark and Professor Willis, that they show an equal appreciation of the beautiful in the Tudor, the Italian, the Jacobean or Renaissance; they saw clearly that Cambridge is rich in varied and graceful designs, which are too often turned away from contemptuously as debased.' On the curious oscillations of cultured academic taste between classic and mediæval designs, we shall have more to say as we proceed.

On Mr. John Willis Clark, late Fellow of Trinity College,

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* I am of opinion that the arbitrary resumption by the State of the property of the colleges would be just as unconstitutional as would be the resumption by the State of the properties of the Duke of Bedford and the Duke of Cleveland' (Dr. Phelps, Master of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, writing in 1873).

and nephew of the late Professor Willis, the task of editing his unfinished papers had devolved since the death of the author. The history' was left indeed in shape, but not nearly completed in its details. At no college was the 'work quite finished; if the history of the buildings was complete, that of the site would be unfinished, or vice versá (Pref. p. xxii). Consequently, Mr. Clark had to take up and work out the whole subject anew; making use everywhere of the college records and early maps and plans that have survived from the end of the sixteenth century. I 'came to the conclusion,' he says, that in order to produce the work in a way which should be worthy alike of the author and of the University, it would be necessary to go 'back to the point from which he had himself started, and 'investigate the whole subject afresh.'

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Eleven years spent in so wide and difficult an enquiry, long as the time may seem, indicate energy rather than remissness. In such hands no failure was possible. Numerous and excellent as are the illustrated and antiquarian works on Cambridge and its University, from Baker's History' to Cooper's 'Annals,' including the now rare and curious maps of Richard Lyne in 1574, and of John Hamond in 1592, and Loggan's bird's-eye' views of the colleges from drawings made about 1688, this large and splendid work far surpasses, as it makes frequent and ample use of, them all.

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Professor Willis, to whom the design of the work and so large a part of the execution of it are due, was singularly qualified for the architectural department of the enquiry, and in the deciphering of fabric-rolls and mediæval documents bearing on construction he had acquired considerable experience by his studies of the cathedrals. He possessed a special faculty and tact for observation, skill as a draughtsman, and the gift of drawing safe conclusions from small evidences; while in practical knowledge of detail, especially of mouldings (or moldings' as he preferred to spell it) he was absolutely without a rival. Those who had the privilege of accompanying him in his explorations, either in the University or in his visits to the several cathedrals on which he delivered lectures, will bear testimony to the originality of his method, as an interpreter of Gothic art. The analysis of a Gothic building and its various alterations and additions became, in his hands, a new science. He may be said to have found the key, and first to have unlocked the treasure-store.

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