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mount in the politics of the country. The tone of Many details, of course, enter into Mr. Stickthe narrative is judicial in its impartiality, the au- ney's scheme of constitutional reform ; but its main thor scarcely revealing the tendency of his own sym- features, to which all others are totally subordinate, pathies, and evidently feeling that the contests and are the abolition of political parties and the destrucchanging sway of parties are signs of political health tion of politics as a profession. He thinks that among the people. A series of appendices to the nearly all the evils from which the country has sufvolume contain the Articles of Confederation, the fered or is now suffering have come directly or indi. Constitution, and tables showing the order of admis- rectly from party contests and party government. sion of the States, the popular and electoral votes in He admits, of course, that there will necessarily and Presidential elections from 1789 to 1876, the popula- inevitably be serious differences of opinion among tion of the sections from 1790 to 1860, the Congres- the people about the many vital questions which sional representation of the sections from 1790 to come before government for adjustment, but he de. 1860, and the population and representation of the nies that these either require or justify permanent sections in 1878.

hostile associations, and especially that they require Mr. Stickney's “ A True Republic"* is very dif- the complex machinery of party as we know it. He serent from Mr. Johnston's handbook both in aim holds further that this complex and costly machinery and in method of treatment. Mr. Johnston's object could never have been constructed and would not is to show what the Republic of the United States now hold together for a month but for “the cohesive actually has been and is; Mr. Stickney's to show attraction of public plunder"—in other words, but what it ought to be. Mr. Johnston contents him- for the use of public offices as rewards for winning self with describing how the national Government elections. Make the tenure of office permanent and politics came to be what we now find them; during good behavior (that is, as long as the service Mr. Stickney endeavors to point out the original rendered is honest and efficient), conduct the public defects of the Constitution as a practical instrument business exactly as private business is conducted, of government, the mistakes that have been made in abolish all terms" and "rotation" in office, make working it, and the nature of the reforms that are competency and efficiency the sole condition of apnecessary in order that it may really and fully achieve pointment and promotion, and Mr. Stickney thinks the important purposes set forth in its preamble. It that, while the people will continue to divide and can not be denied that Mr. Stickney's work is of a combine on essential and living questions as they type which the great majority of readers regard with arise, we shall see no more “campaigns " fought by a sort of impatience and distrust. Even as an intel- rival dynasties of party hacks on factitious “issues" lectual exercise, few things are more barren than the and with deceptive "war-cries." construction of political Utopias; and at a time Through the greater part of his argument Mr. when the people seem to be really seeking for purer Stickney easily carries the reader with him ; yet it and more efficient methods of government it is sim- requires but a slight knowledge of political history ply substituting a stone for bread to offer them the to see that he greatly underrates the vitality of those speculations of an idealist or the word-fabrics of a differences of opinion and temperament which lie at logician. Mr. Stickney has not allowed himself to the root of party divisions. Our own history suffices forget this for an instant, and the distinctive merit to prove that he is mistaken in declaring the desire of his work is that from first to last it takes firm to possess the offices to have been the sole originathold upon fact—that its criticism is directed to de- ing cause of our party antagonisms, past and present. fects which are known and admitted, that it appeals The idea of using the government offices as rewards to the experience of the race as recorded in history for political services was scarcely heard of until and not to reasoning from principles, and that the Jackson's Administration, and was not put thoroughremedies it proposes are, if not always self-evident, ly in practice until that of Van Buren ; yet the at least specific and definite. No one can com- spirit of party has seldom run higher than in those plain of Mr. Stickney on the ground that he is a early years of the Union, even Washington com“ doctrinaire.” He confines himself almost too plaining (in a letter to Jefferson) that he was assailed closely to facts and the practical aspects of the va- “in such exaggerated and indecent terms as could rious questions raised—for it is sometimes well to scarcely be applied to a Nero, to a notorious deshow that the lessons which seem to be taught by ex- faulter, or even to a common pickpocket.” The truth perience are also comformable to right reasoning, is, that, as Mr. Johnston points out, the question of and the reforms which he urges are not designed to strict" or "loose" construction of the Constituform an earthly paradise or to inaugurate the mil. tion has always been at the root of legitimate nalennium, but simply to secure an honest and efficient tional party differences in the United States. As working government. Moreover, the results aimed soon as the Constitution was adopted, the Federalat are not such as presuppose a community consisting ists, comprising all those who wanted a "strong" only of “the good,” but are such as may be fairly government, endeavored to have it interpreted looseand reasonably looked for among " the existing peo- ly or broadly, so as to give the Federal Government ple of these United States."

increased power in various matters of national im

portance ; opposed to them were the Anti-Federal*A True Republic. By Albert Stickney. New ists, comprising all who saw in a strong central govYork: Harper & Brothers. 16mo, pp. 271.

ernment an enemy to liberty, and who insisted that garments. We have seen the blood circulating under * Studies of Paris. By Edmondo de Amicis. Trans- their skins; know in what positions they sleep, what lated from the Italian by W. W. C. New York: G. P. they eat, how they dress and undress; we understand Putnam's Sons. 16mo, pp. 276.

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the Constitution should be construed strictly accord- more brilliant is "A Glance at the Exposition," in ing to its terms, and that ingenious interpretations dealing with which the author has a better opporof its provisions should not give the Federal Gov- tunity for displaying the fertility of his imagination ernment any further stretch of power. Precisely and the extent of his knowledge. As a mere dethis conflict has lasted, amid many fluctuations, to scription of the Exhibition, this chapter is well worth our own day, and the succession of parties is com- reading, but perhaps its most valuable feature is the plete from Federalists through Whigs to Republic lesson which it teaches of the way in which such a cans, and from Anti-Federalists through Democratic- show should be viewed by one who goes to it simply Republicans to Democrats.

as a sight-seer, and not for practical instruction. We This mistake, as it seems to us, in one of his doubt very greatly whether the author carried away premises, goes but a little way toward invalidating with him a solitary item of practically useful knowlMr. Stickney's conclusions, and he is undoubtedly edge, or could have enumerated the contents of a right in thinking that the “machine," as it is called, single department; but he gives an incomparably which has done so much to obscure legitimate party graphic and picturesque idea of the fantastically bril. differences, would be irretrievably “smashed" by a liant ensemble, of the curious contrasts of the juxtapermanent tenure of office and appointments solely posed exhibits, and of the way in which the several for competency. It should be said, furthermore, exhibits summarize the life and character of the peothat the interest and instructiveness of Mr. Stick- ples that send them. At the end of the volume is ney's book are not conditioned upon the reader's ac- another general chapter on Paris, in which the aucepting its argument and conclusions in every part. thor leaves off description and analyzes with much Whether one agrees with him or not, the book can subtilty and skill the successive states of feeling hardly fail to prove both suggestive and helpful; and which Paris generates in the mind of the visitor who in these days of political pessimism it is pleasant to stays in the city long enough to throw off the enfind one who, after a sufficiently discouraging survey chantment which comes from the mere novelty and of popular mistakes and follies, can write as a con- splendor of its spectacles. cluding and culminating conviction : "If these views Besides these descriptive chapters the volume are sound, men will be convinced by them. If they contains two papers which may be classed as literary are not sound, no one will heed them. That is the or critical--one on Victor Hugo, and the other on only question we have to examine-whether these Emile Zola, the novelist. The chapter on Zola narviews here urged are sound. If they are, the peo- rates circumstantially the incidents of a visit paid to ple will put them in practice.”

him by the author, and is composed largely of personal and biographical details; but it also contains

in brief space quite the best analysis of Zola's qualiIn our review a year ago of De Amicis's “Con- ties and characteristics as a writer that we have stantinople,” we remarked that that book sufficed to

To appreciate this criticism at its full value place its author in the very foremost rank of descrip- it must be read entire, but a few passages almost tive writers; and the impression then received is compel quotation: confirmed and deepened by the recently published

You feel the same pleasure (in reading Zola's novels) “Studies of Paris.”* This latter work is the result that you would have in hearing a very blunt man talk, of a visit to Paris during the Exposition of 1878, and, even if he were brutal ; a man who expresses, as Othello if much less elaborate than the “Constantinople,” says, his worst ideas in his worst language, who describes furnishes even more striking evidence of the author's what he sees, repeats what he hears, says what he thinks, versatility of talent. For conveying a vivid and ' and tells what he is, without any regard for any one's realistic idea of the impression made by Paris upon feelings, and just as if he were talking to himself—à la the mind of the newly arrived stranger, we doubt if

bonne heure! From the very first lines you know with

whom you are dealing. The delicate persons retire anything more effective has even been written than

that is an understood matter; he does not conceal or the opening chapter of the volume, entitled “The embellish anything, either sentiments, thoughts, converFirst Day in Paris." The reader is enabled not sations, acts, or places. . . . In the moral order, he unmerely to divine but to see the varied and splendid veils in his characters those deepest feelings which are spectacle of the most spectacular city in the world; generally profound secrets, and are tremblingly whispered and, with all its apparent confusion and infinite mul- through the window of the confessional. In the material tiplicity of details, the whole composition forms an order, he makes us perceive every odor, every flavor, and harmonious and proportioned picture which will be every contact. In language, he scarcely refrains from a long time in fading from the reader's imagination. Stealthily seek in the dictionary. ... Among the myr

those few unpronounceable words which wicked boys Indeed, it is no exaggeration to say that the great iads of characters in novels whom we remember, his majority of persons would get from a perusal of this remain crowded on one side, and are the largest and chapter a far better conception of what the sights of

most tangible of all. We have not only seen them pass Paris really are than they would from an actual visit and heard them talk, but have jostled against them, felt to the city. Equally vivid and realistic, and still their breath, and perceived the odor of their flesh and

the differences between their temperaments and ours,

seen.

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their most secret appetites, the most passionate anger of gance of homage is about equally discreditable to their language; their gestures, grimaces, the spots on him who offers and to him who invites and accepts their linen, the dirt in their nails, etc. And, like the it; and this is entirely apart from the question characters, he impresses upon our minds the places, be whether the Continental or the English estimate of cause he looks at everything with the keen glance which Victor Hugo is the correct one. embraces all, and which nothing escapes.

In a room already drawn and painted, the light is moved, and he interrupts the story to tell us where it glides, upon what That Mr. Mallock's “Is Life worth Living ?” it breaks in the new direction, the ray of the flame, and should provoke controversy was naturally to be exhow the legs of a chair and the hinges of a door gleam in a dark corner. From the description of a shop, he pected, and probably the readers who were most immakes us understand that it has just struck twelve, or pressed by the power of its dialectics are the very lacks nearly an hour of sunset. He notes all the shadows,

ones who would be most pleased with an adequate all the spots on the sun, all the shades of color which and equally skillful rejoinder to it.

To answer it, succeed each other from hour to hour upon the wall; however, in such a way as to break the force of its and presents everything with such a marvelous distinct- impression, might well have been constituted the ness that, five years after reading, we remember the ap- work of some one of the able and influential writers pearance the

holste presented about five o'clock in whom Science has at her command, and it is greatly the evening, when the curtains had been drawn, and the effect the appearance produced upon the mind of a per- who is apparently so little capable of appreciating

to be regretted that the task was assumed by one son who was seated in the corner of that particular room. He never forgets anything, and gives life to everything, what the occasion demanded of him as the author of and there is nothing before which his omnipotent pencil “The Value of Life.”* This book is put forth stops, neither soiled linen, the appearance of drunken avowedly as “A Reply to ‘Is Life worth Living'?” men, dirty flesh, or decayed bodies.

and its author, though refusing to disclose himself, Among all these, in all these places, the air of which is evidently a Positivist, not in the general sense in we breathe and in which we see and touch everything, which Mr. Mallock uses the term, but in the more moves a varied crowd of women, corrupt to the marrow, restricted one in which it is commonly understood. foul-mouthed shopkeepers, cunning bankers, knavish It is divided into three sections, in the first of which, priests, prostitutes, dandies, ruffians, and filth of every after some desultory remarks not very relevant to kind and shape (among which sometimes appears, like a rara avis, a good man); and between them they all do the subject, the author gives what he calls a suma little of everything, from the crime of incest (circulat- mary of Mr. Mallock's argument–a summary of ing between the penal code and the hospital, and the which we are compelled to say that it is not only not pawn-shops and tavern), through all the passions and a fair or adequate summary, but that the reader will brutish tastes, sunk in the mire up to the chin, in a thick not obtain from it even a faint idea of what Mr. and heavy atmosphere, hardly freshened from time to Mallock's argument really is. This would be bad time by the breath of a lovely affection, and stirred alter- enough if it merely signified the incompetency of nately by plebeian sickness and the heart-rending cries of the author, for he who can not even state an arguthe famished and dying. Yet, despite this, he is a moral ment correctly, can hardly be expected to controvert writer ; one can affirm this resolutely—Emile Zola is one it; but one has to read but a very few pages to be of the most moral novelists of France, and it is really convinced that the author had no intention or desire astonishing that any one can doubt this. He makes us perceive the smell of vice, not the perfume ; his nude to make a fair summary, and that the object of his figures are those of the anatomical table, which do not book is not so much to refute Mr. Mallock as to disinspire the slightest immoral thought; there is not one credit him. This purpose is still more evident in of his books, not even the crudest, that does not leave in the second section, which is almost entirely devoted the soul, pure, firm, and immutable, aversion or scorn for to showing that Mr. Mallock is a Catholic propagandthe base passions of which he treats. He is not, like ist in disguise, that if not actually a Jesuit he posDumas fils, bound by an unconquerable sympathy to his sesses three out of the four distinctive characteristics hideous women, to whom he says “Infamous creatures ! ” in a loud voice, and “Dear ones" just above his breath. of Jesuits, that he wants to subject the world again Brutally, pitilessly, and without hypocrisy, he exposes to the blight of ecclesiastical despotism, that he is a vice, nude, and holds it up to ridicule, standing so far perverter of the truth and not a seeker after it, and off from it that he does not graze it with his garments. that he “prostrates himself at the feet of a tinsel and Forced by his hand, it is Vice itself that says, “Detest plaster Madonna." The entire effort of the author me and pass by !" His novels, he himself says, are in this portion of his book is to stir up the smolderreally "moral in action.” The scandal which comes ing fires of Protestant antagonism to Papal pretenfrom them is only for the eyes and ears. And as he sions, and to direct against Mr. Mallock whatever holds back, as a man, from the mire mixed by his pen, so completely does he, as a writer, keep aloof from the may remain of the odium theologicum an effort

which would be explicable if not excusable in an characters which he has created.-(Page 180.)

avowedly Protestant writer, but which is in the highThe chapter on Victor Hugo also describes a

est degree discreditable to one who does not hesipersonal visit, and gives many interesting personal tate to let it be seen later that he holds Protestantdetails; but, in spite of numerous passages of acute ism and Catholicism in about equal scorn. and penetrating criticism, it is so fulsome in its adu

* The Value of Life. A Reply to Mr. Mallock's lation and so rhapsodical in style that the reader Essay " Is Life worth Living ?" New York: G. P. will hardly go through it patiently. Such extrava. Putnam's Sons. 12mo, pp. 253.

It is only in the third and concluding section of than critical, though the author has not lost sight of the work that the author really attempts to grapple the fact that his task is not merely to tell what Burke with his opponent's arguments. Here he makes did and how he lived, but to interpret his character some undeniably strong points, and in several in. and define the nature, quality, and value of his stances convicts Mr. Mallock of inadequate knowl. work. And, indeed, it is this latter part of his task edge of subjects which he treats as if he were per- which Mr. Morley has performed most satisfactorily. fectly familiar with them ; but even here the argu- Viewed as a succession of external incidents, Burke's ment is so confused, so incoherent, and occasionally life was singularly uneventful; but his character and so obscure, that the most attentive reader finds it his works pique the curiosity and baffle the judgdifficult to follow it, and almost impossible to esti. ment as well as arouse the keenest admiration and mate its cumulative force. One thing among many interest. His combination of calm judgment and others which the author might have learned from Mr. the broadest philosophic ideas with an impetuosity Mallock is the art of orderly arrangement and clear of feeling and a violence of temper which at times and precise expression. Whatever may be Mr. Mal- seemed like insanity has been regarded simply as lock's other faults, no reader has the slightest diffi- one of those inexplicable freaks which Nature someculty in following his argument and catching his times perpetrates compounding a genius; and the meaning, while in even the best portions of “The difficulty of explaining why one who stood forth as Value of Life” the reader is inclined to doubt the champion and advocate of liberty during the whether the worth of the ore is sufficient to repay American Revolution should, when the French Revothe labor of extracting it.

lution confronted him, have become its deadliest foe, To the faults for which the author is alone re- has been so great that most biographers have solved sponsible the printer has added a copious and inge- the problem by assuming that the death of his son nious assortment of typographical errors, some of had broken down the thin partitions which are supwhich are so remarkable that one is compelled to posed to divide great wit from madness. Mr. Morwonder, first, how they could have been made by the ley is the first who has been able to harmonize the compositor, and, second, how they could have been apparent contradictions, and to make plain the essenoverlooked by the proof-reader. Some fatality, in- tial consistency of Burke's character and conduct; deed, seems to have attended the production of the and he does this by no strained ingenuity of analybook; and we may say of it in conclusion that no- sis, but in accordance with our profoundest knowlthing would more contribute to deepen the already edge of human nature, and by the aid of a more

a profound impression made by Mr. Mallock's essay searching and sympathetic study of Burke's writings than the idea that this is the only reply" that can and speeches than has hitherto been undertaken. be made to it.

The attempt to quote a characteristic passage

from the volume is apt to be baffled by the numbers If we were asked to select from recent literature especially worthy of reproduction because it is per

which clamor for admission, but here is one which is its very best example of the way in which to study a great man and interpret him to the people, we should haps the frankest admission that has yet come from without hesitation name the monograph on Burke

a leading English writer of what our own statesmen which Mr. Morley has contributed to the series of

and historians have always claimed : “ English Men of Letters.”* In it are combined It is, however, almost demonstrably certain that the breadth of information, keenness of insight, and no- vindication of the supremacy of popular interests over bility of feeling, with something that is less knowl- all other considerations would have been bootless toil, edge than wisdom; and the whole finds expression and that the great constitutional struggle of 1760 to 1783 in a style so weighty, opulent, and appropriate, and but for the failure of the war against the insurgent colo

[in England) would have ended otherwise than it did, yet so unobtrusive, that the reader will hardly be- nies, and the final establishment of American indepencome aware how much of the charm of the book

dence. It was this portentous transaction which finally aside from its instructiveness, comes from the au- routed the arbitrary and despotic pretensions of the thor's mastery as “an artist in words." Even before House of Commons over the people, and which put an writing this monograph Mr. Morley had vindicated end to the hopes entertained by the sovereign of making his right to deal with its subject. A dozen years ago his will supreme in the Chambers. Fox might well talk he published a study on Burke which has ever since of an early Loyalist victory in the war as the terrible been a guide and a landmark for students; and his Brentford, in Middlesex, was continued at Boston, in

news from Long Island. The struggle which began at article on Burke in the new edition of the “Ency- Massachusetts. The scene had changed, but the conclopædia Britannica” has been selected by compe- Alicting principles were the same.

The War of Indetent judges as the best of its kind that has appeared pendence was virtually a second English civil war. The thus far in that vast omnium gatherum.

ruin of the American cause would have been also the His first essay was, as he says, “almost entirely ruin of the constitutional cause in England ; and a pacritical, and in no sense a narrative”; the present triotic Englishman may revere the memory of Patrick volume differs from it in being biographical rather Henry and George Washington not less justly than the

patriotic American. Burke's attitude in this great con* English Men of Letters. Edmund Burke. By test is that part of his history about the majestic and John Morley. New York: Harper & Brothers. Izmo, noble wisdom of which there can be least dispute.—(P. Pp. 214.

59.)

The absence of an index, which has been all vividness of interest the descriptions of the battles along the greatest defect of the series, is particularly in the Shipka Pass, of the terrible repulse of the felt in the case of this volume, which contains so Russians at Plevna on September 11, 1877, of the many passages to which one would like to be able capture of Osman Pasha's army, of the passage of readily to reser.

the Balkans in winter by Gourko's column, of the battles near Philippopolis, which shattered Suleiman

Pasha's army and drove it into the Rhodope MounSHORTLY after the outbreak of the recent war

tains, and, lastly, of the advance on Constantinople. between Russia and Turkey, Lieutenant F. V.

Lieutenant Greene writes in a clear, direct, and Greene, of the Corps of Engineers, was selected by soldierly style, with few attempts at literary ornaour War Department to go to the seat of war for the mentation, and with no straining after effects. His purpose of observing the military operations from sole aim is evidently to make his meaning clearly the Russian side, and, the better to accomplish this understood, and in this he very rarely fails. Miliobject, was assigned to duty as Military Attaché to tary students, in particular, are to be congratulated the United States Legation at St. Petersburg. Proceeding to St. Petersburg, he readily obtained per- archives.

on having the report disinterred from the public mission to join the Army of the Danube, whose headquarters he reached on the 5th of August, 1877, and with which he remained throughout the campaign,

WHETHER “ Haworth's " * is a better or a worse and until peace was definitively concluded by the novel than “That Lass o' Lowrie's” is a question treaty of Berlin, in July, 1878. Returning then to with which criticism, properly speaking, has nothing his post at the legation in St. Petersburg, he collect- to do, but it is a question which is certain to be asked, ed the official war reports, and gathered materials the more particularly as the scene and circumstances for an authoritative description of the Russian mili- of the two stories are very similar, and the same tary system; and, finally, supplementing the infor- class of people is dealt with in both. We may say, mation thus obtained with his own experiences and therefore, that, to our mind, “ Haworth’s” is in cerobservations during the campaign, made his official tain respects a marked improvement upon the earlier report to the War Department on the conduct of the story, while in others it is as distinctly inferior. Some war. By permission of the Department he now pub- one has acutely said that a novel is in general pleaslishes this report in a volume entitled “ The Russian ing or otherwise in exact proportion to the attracArmy and its Campaigns in Turkey in 1877–1878";* tiveness of its leading female character; and it is the text, which makes a large book, being accom- when judged by this standard that “ Haworth's" is panied by an atlas, separately bound and containing most defective. There was something very fascitwenty-six plates, most of them colored, and all very nating about the robust womanhood and the fine handsomely engraved.

nobility of character of the lass of Lowrie's, but Defining the scope of the work in his preface, Miss Ffrench, who fills the same relative place in the Lieutenant Greene says: “This report aims to give, later story, is decidedly repellent, besides being not first, a concise but accurate description of the Rus- very intelligible, while Christian Murdoch is merely sian Army ; second, a narrative of the course of the a skeleton, which the author has not taken the pains campaigns in Europe and Asia Minor; and, third, a to clothe with flesh and blood. The male characbrief discussion of the use of temporary field forti- ters are about equally well drawn in both stories, fications in connection with the modern breech-load. but the contrasts and divergences of type are more ing musket.” That portion of the volume describ- dramatic and more adroitly managed in “Haworth's" ing the campaign in Bulgaria is much more extensive than in its predecessor. The minor characters are than either of the other divisions, and is also de- also about equally good (and they are very good) in cidedly more interesting. The author makes very both, though the humor of Mr. Briarly in “Haslight literary use of his personal observations, his worth's” is both coarser and far less genuine and work being, as he says, a strictly military report ad- amusing than that of "Owd Sammy Crowther.” dressed to his military superiors ; but the advantage The features in which “ Haworth's” is superior to of having been actually on the ground is very great “That Lass o' Lowrie's " are those which pertain to even when the technical details of a battle are to be what we may call the structure of the story. The described, and it is doubtless owing to his presence author has made a distinct advance in the artistic with the army during the Bulgarian campaign that quality of her work, and in “Haworth’s” the plot the portion of his work describing that campaign is is better imagined, the incidents are more skillfully so much more vivid and real than any other portion. varied and interlinked, the part of the several char. The account of the operations in Asia Minor is an acters is more clearly defined, and the interest of the intelligent and instructive compilation from the Rus- story is more continuous and sustained. There is sian official reports ; but, though it is carefully and also a gain of self-confidence on the part of the auclearly written, there is nothing in it that equals in thor, and the strokes are laid on with the vigor and

rapidity and precision which come from the con* The Russian Army and its Campaigns in Turkey in 1877-1878. By F. V. Greene, First Lieutenant in the * Haworth's. By Frances Hodgson-Burnett. New Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. New York : D. Apple York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 12mo, illustrated, pp. ton & Co. 8vo, pp. 471. Atlas with 26 Plates.

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