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tivism.” In leaping the chasm which separates these and effective way the general conclusions at which two propositions, he leaves the firm ground of exact he has arrived. The reader will have perceived from reasoning upon which he had previously stood, and it that Mr. Froude takes a more favorable view not takes avowedly to constructing “ideal pictures” of only of Cæsar's abilities, but of his character and the functions of the Church in human society, which motives, than has usually been presented by his(also avowedly) do not correspond with the actual torians of the Roman Republic. He holds that facts. His conclusions are not put dogmatically, Cæsar, far from being the destroyer of the liberties and he adroitly evades or ignores the real obstacles of his countrymen, rescued them from that worst of which lie in the way of bridging the chasm ; but, in all tyrannies, the despotism of a corrupt and selfish spite of the discreet veil of tentative speculation aristocracy; and that he preserved and vivified such which is thrown over the subject, the reader will fragments of the ancient constitution as had not hardly escape a feeling of resentment on finding been already wrecked or paralyzed by the violence that he has been reading a Romish tract, when he and anarchy of the fifty years preceding his own acsupposed himself to be reading an impartial discus- cession to power. Had Cæsar been suffered to live sion of some of the weightiest questions which the a few years longer, he thinks that he would have so age offers anew for solution.

strengthened the fabric of government that without What we have written in the foregoing para- any serious impairment of its original form it might graphs refers only to what we may call the sub- have maintained its vitality for several generations ; stance or pith of Mr. Mallock's book, but no esti- but “the murder of Cæsar filled the measure of mate of its quality would be adequate which failed their crimes, and gave the last and necessary imto take account of its manner. Without being ele- pulse to the closing act of the revolution." gant or even always correct, the style of Mr. Mal. Of course, this exaltation of Cæsar involves an lock is in a remarkable degree vigorous, lucid, and equivalent depression of the reputation of his oppleasing; and his firm and tenacious grasp of his ponents, critics, and “murderers.” Most of these argument is only surpassed by the copious apposite- were simply the basest remnants of the old profliness of the knowledge with which he illustrates it. gate aristocracy whom Cæsar's clemency had spared. Apart from the intrinsic importance of the topics Cassius was a high-born ruffian ; Trebonius and Dediscussed, some of his chapters are well worth read- cimus Brutus were favorite and favored officers, ing as mere specimens of trenchant dialectics; and whose treachery had a peculiar element of ingratiin the closest and most intricate chain of reasoning tude ; Marcus Brutus was the only one of the conhe is never either dull or obscure. Perhaps the spirators who had a reputation for honesty, and could worst defect of the book on its literary side is the be conceived, without absurdity, to be animated by a too frequent indulgence by the author of a very disinterested purpose, and he was “a fanatical remarked skill in spinning logical cobwebs—as in the publican, a man of gloomy habits, given to dreams case of the agnostic reductio ad absurdum spoken of and omens, and liable to be easily influenced by apabove. When it comes to mere verbal fencing, the peals to visionary feelings.” Even Cato, whom later Berkeleian proposition that the so-called external opinion has consecrated as Ultimus Romanorum, world has no existence save as reflected in the hu- the last of the Romans—was an egotistical fanatic, man consciousness is absolutely unimpeachable, or whose impracticableness worked far more harm to at least has never been successfully impeached ; but his countrymen than his virtue did them good. But Dr. Johnson's practical commentary upon it, when the brunt of Mr. Froude's attack falls upon Cicero, he stamped his foot upon a stone and said that there whose name and fame are second only to Cæsar's in was sufficient proof of the existence of a stone, com- the annals of his time. It is Cicero's commanding mends itself to the common sense of mankind, and literary power that has dictated nearly all the subsewill always outweigh mere word-catching, however quent opinions about the respective character and adroit. It is from failing to perceive this important conduct of Cæsar and his numerous antagonists ; truth that Mr. Mallock's work sometimes appears to and, if Cicero is an entirely trustworthy and disinbe lacking in seriousness, when, in fact, his feelings terested witness, then there is little more to be done and convictions are enlisted in the matter to an alto. by the historian than to register his judgments. Mr. gether exceptional extent.

Froude impeaches his credibility by showing that he was one of the most violent of political partisans in

an age when party violence reached heights which HAVING published in a recent number of the have probably never been attained before or since ; “Journal" the last chapter of Mr. Froude's Cæ- that he was utterly destitute of political principle ; sar,"

."* our readers have already had an opportunity that he was a time-server and a trimmer; and that of judging of both the quality and the purport of he never allowed the bauble of consistency” to inthe work. That chapter is perhaps not the most in- happen at the moment to be uppermost. The evi

terfere with any view of his own interests that might teresting or the most characteristic; but it illustrates the author's method, and summarizes in a concise dence is drawn from Cicero's own letters and pub

lished speeches, and the proof is so complete that * Cæsar. A Sketch. By James Anthony Froude, the reader will be apt to consider Mr. Froude's final M. A. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 8vo, pp. verdict too temperate when he describes Cicero “as 550.

a tragic combination of magnificent talents, high asthat vast Northwest which is the arena of the Comlarge proportion of the exercises especially recom

pirations, and a true desire to do right, with an in- the muscles of the performer furnish the only requifirmity of purpose and a latent insincerity of charac- sites. Without being so multifarious or complex as ter which neutralized and could almost make us for- to intimidate beginners, the exercises cover a wide get his nobler qualities.”

range-suggesting special work for the fleshy, the Of the literary skill of Mr. Froude's narrative thin, the old ; for any given set of muscles ; and and its sustained continuity of interest, it would be what exercise to take daily—as (a) “ Daily Work for difficult to speak too highly. He calls his work “a Children," (6) " Daily Exercise for Young Men," sketch,” because “ the materials do not exist for a (c) “Daily Exercise for Women,” (d) “Daily Exerportrait at once authentic and complete"; but there cise for Business Men," and (e) “ Daily Exercise for is no other from which the general reader will get so Consumptives.” Mr. Blaikie particularly urges the vivid an idea of the personality and performances importance of introducing systematic physical trainof Cæsar, of the state of things into which he was ing into all schools for children, devoting an entire born, and of the part which he played in the history chapter to this subject, and suggesting the methods of his country. Moreover, the record is not without by which the best results may be obtained. a lesson for our own times. In his opening para

Of the fifteen chapters or sketches comgraph the author remarks that “ to the student of posing Mr. H. M. Robinson's “Great Fur Land,"* political history, and to the English student above much the larger number have hitherto appeared in all others, the conversion of the Roman Republic the various magazines or newspapers-several of the into a military empire commands a peculiar inter- best of them in this “ Journal.” It will be seen from est,” and many of his pages are evidently written this that the book is neither a systematic treatise with a special view to the present state of affairs in nor a continuous narrative, but rather a series of deEngland and in Europe at large. His general im- tached sketches, each complete in itself, and conplication seems to be that the government of a self- nected with each other only as depicting different ish aristocracy tends to find its natural reaction in phases or aspects of the same general subject. The an anarchical democracy, and that this in turn is subject, it must be confessed, lends itself with pecusure to be followed by a military Cæsar, who is then, liar facility to this method of treatment, and it is in a true and wholesome sense, the “savior of so- probably due quite as much to the method as the ciety."

matter that the book is so extremely readable. A

consecutive and detailed narrative of the travels on An unmistakable indication of the growing popu- be tedious at times; and, on the other hand, a sys

which the work is based could hardly have failed to lar interest in physical culture is afforded by the tematic description of the country and people would multiplication of such works as Mr. Blaikie's “How have brought the author into competition with sevto Get Strong and How to Stay So."* From elabo

eral books which have already secured the public rate and systematic treatises like Mr. Maclaren's to small tracts and magazine articles, the literature of

ear. By adopting the plan of independent sketches the subject has been constantly growing in copious- the more salient, picturesque, and attractive features

Mr. Robinson has been enabled not only to choose ness; but, of all the books hitherto published, we know of none which can be more confidently com

of his subject, but to concentrate upon each sketch mended to the average reader than Mr. Blaikie's. whatever pertinent material he had accumulated by Its aim, as defined by the author, is not to furnish personal observation or study. For this reason his " a profound treatise on gymnastics, and point out work is entirely free from those dull and perfunctory how to eventually reach great performance in this pages which are inserted in most books of travel art, but rather, in a way so plain and untechnical merely to maintain the continuity of the record ; and that even any intelligent boy or girl can readily un

the reader is freed from the usual necessity of piecderstand it, to first give the reader a nudge to take ing together bits from different portions in order better care of his body, and so of his health, and

to find out what the volume contains on any given then to point out one way to do it.” The distinc topic. As to the scope of the book, it may be said tive value of the book lies in the extreme simplicity phases of life in what is commonly known as the

in general terms to deal with the more picturesque and practicality of its suggestions, and (what is per- Hudson Bay Territory. In it the reader will find haps even more important) the small cost which they will involve. The entire apparatus mentioned the best brief account with which we are acquainted by Mr. Blaikie can probably be purchased for twen- of the organization, rules of service, and mode of ty dollars, and the expenditure of five dollars, or

operations of the great Hudson's Bay Company; even less, would provide all that is really indispen- tensely vivid and realistic pictures of the life of the sable for such exercises as are essential to the main. voyageurs, traders, hunters, trappers, and Indians of tenance of health and bodily vigor. Indeed, a very

pany's exploits; and exceedingly animated descripmended by Mr. Blaikie require no apparatus of any

tions of such special episodes and incidents as a kind, consisting simply of "movements " for which

* The Great Fur Land, or Sketches of Life in the * How to Get Strong and How to Stay So. By Wil- Hudson's Bay Territory. · By H. M. Robinson. Illusliam Blaikie. New York: Harper & Brothers. iomo, trated. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Izmo, pp. pp. 296.

348.

injourney by dog-sledge, canoe-life, a voyage with the good literary composition, defining and explaining voyageurs, the great fall hunts, life in a Hudson Bay the elements of what is called style, and pointing Company's fort, a winter camp, a half-breed ball, out the mistakes which are most commonly made. and the like. The more general description is en. The teaching is mainly by illustrative examples-the livened by the introduction of illustrative incidents only way in which such teaching can be rendered from the author's personal experiences, while as a really practical and effective-and the few general background to the whole there is a wonderful series rules laid down are such as every writer would do of pictures of that "kingdom of desolation " over well to keep in mind. The chapter on “Punctuawhich the Frost-king has extended his seldom-dis- tion” is particularly good, and the author's style is puted sway. Readers of the “Journal" are already itself an excellent lesson in the art of composition. acquainted with Mr. Robinson's remarkably vivid .... For a bit of clever fooling, hovering often and animated style; but the sketches taken together along the perilous edge of downright nonsense, but are much more effective than any one or two of them sometimes attaining the heights (or depths) of gentaken separately, and after reading them all the uine humor, Mr. Stockton's “Rudder Grange”* is reader will be apt to agree with the author as to a very successful performance. The reader is half "the supreme picturesqueness of the Fur Land.” the time in doubt whether he is laughing at or with

.... We infer from “Maid, Wife, or Widow?"* the author ; but, unless he is a very serious-minded that Mrs. Alexander has recently resided for a period person indeed, he will be apt to be kept laughing more or less prolonged in Germany, and, like a thrifty-which is the essential thing. Moreover, he will toiler in the fields of literature, has determined to hardly lay the book aside without having become utilize the impressions there received. The scene convinced that the author is capable of much better of the story is laid in the little Saxon village of Berg- work—that it is a waste of power to apply so keen felde, and the local color, which would otherwise be perception of character, so dramatic a faculty for rather vague, is intensified by connecting the inci- portraying it, and such versatility of literary resource, dents with the Prusso-Austrian war of 1866, in which to the construction of mere drollery. Good burSaxony played so inglorious a part. For so thor- lesque is, of course, a very good thing, and in itself oughly English a mind as Mrs. Alexander's, the ex- implies a high degree of skill; but in order to satisfy periment of portraying foreigners in a foreign land it should not deal with subjects and characters in a was at best a very dubious one, and viewed from this way to make us half regret that they are burlesqued. standpoint the attempt is more successful than would This Mr. Stockton does, we think, and we should be naturally have been expected. Judged, however, by glad to meet Euphemia and her spouse under such her previous stories, written under more congenial conditions that we shall not be compelled to laugh and familiar conditions, the result is not so satisfac- at them. tory. The character of the heroine is very charm

In his “Old Creole Days” + Mr. George ingly drawn, and the love-passages between her and W. Cable has discovered (or invented) an entirely the Rittmeister von Steinhausen are in a high de- new literary lode, so to speak, and moreover has gree graceful and touching ; but the foundations of shown a very decided capacity for extracting its the story are too fragile for the superstructure, and treasures. The Louisiana creoles of the beginning short as it is—it is a novelette rather than a novel- of the century are less salient and picturesque in the effort on the part of the reader to maintain the their personalities than Bret Harte's California Arproper interest in its development is like an attempt gonauts, and less humorously stimulating than Mr. to stay the appetite with whipped syllabub. In fact Leland's Pennsylvania Dutch ; but they had a certhere is just sufficient substance in the book for a tain foreign and romantic charm which still lingers magazine story of the customary length; and, in pad- about their memory, and which Mr. Cable has ding it out into a volume, the author conveys an im- portrayed with a vividness that may possibly list pression of being engaged in the self-assumed task them permanently into literature. The seven short of making a tale of bricks without having accumu- stories or sketches which he has collected in the lated the necessary quantity of straw. Nevertheless, present volume—and which, we trust, are but the portions of the story are very pretty and pleasing. forerunners of more carefully matured work—are of

.... One of the most skillfully prepared and very unequal merit; but they possess one quality in most useful of the excellent series of “ Literature common-that of achieving very striking effects with Primers " is the recently published“ Primer of Eng. very slender and apparently commonplace means. lish Composition," + by John Nichol, Professor of Nothing could be more unpromising at first glance English Language and Literature in the University than the personalities whom he introduces upon the of Glasgow. It deals in a brief but admirably lu- stage; but, before many pages are perused, the reader minous manner with all the principal requisites to will find himself aroused to something more than usually disappointed. The weak side of all the son of the anecdotes, epigrams, and literary estimates stories is the construction or plot, the author having interpolated by the author into his more technical an over-fondness for surprises and sensational dénot. expositions. The personal traits, oddities, and ecments, and not being willing to lead up to them by centricities of Couture are part of the gossip of those gradual steps which can alone give them some Parisian ateliers, and the more picturesque and salient semblance of naturalness and congruity. As a con- of these are very amusingly revealed in the “Consequence, the story moves forward by jerks and jumps, versations.” Even for those who care nothing for and some of the transformations have the air of tricks art on its practical side, the book is quite worth of legerdemain. The details and incidents, how- reading for its half-unconscious disclosures of an ever, are worked up with a realism which is very original and piquant personality. It is perfectly cerstriking, and yet with a lightness and neatness of tain that no one but a Frenchman could write exact. touch which mark the genuine artist. One would ly such a book; it is eminently probable that no fain believe that the book is rather the promise of Frenchman but Couture could have written it. future achievement on the part of the author than the .... The Messrs. Harper & Brothers have is. best of which he is capable ; but, even as it is, it is sued their Standard Library Edition of Hume's “ Hisno mere echo of other voices, but a contribution to tory of England "* in six handsome volumes, uniform American literature which has a distinct and native in size and style with Macaulay's “England” (preflavor. Of the stories comprised in the volume, one viously mentioned), but bound in a rich shade of (“Posson Jone'”) appeared in this JOURNAL, and red. The issue is from new stereotype plates, the the others in “Scribner's Magazine.”

curiosity about them—to a genuine interest and sym

pathy. It is a pity that this interest is in the end * Maid, Wife, or Widow ? By Mrs. Alexander. Leisure Hour Series. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 16mo, pp. 267.

* Rudder Grange. By Frank R. Stockton. New + Literature Primers. Edited by J. R. Green, M. A. York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 16mo, pp. 270. English Composition. By John Nichol, M. A., LL. D. Old Creole Days. By George W. Cable. New York: New York: D. Appleton & Co. 18mo, pp. 128. Charles Scribner's Sons. I6mo, pp. 229.

printing is excellent, and nothing could be more Mr. Green's “History of the English tasteful and attractive than the general appearance People”* grows more detailed and elaborate as it of the volumes. The first volume is prefaced with advances. The third volume is one of the largest of Hume's quaint story of his own life, and the last the series, but it only covers the years from 1603 to contains a copious index of one hundred and seventy1688. These years, however, were among the most five pages. This work has been followed by edi. eventful and important in English history, including tions in similar style of Motley's “ History of the the rise of Puritanism into a political force, the civil United Netherlands ” + and " The Life and Death of war between the Cavaliers and the Roundheads, the John of Barneveld,” | the former in four the latter in overthrow and execution of Charles I., the protec- two volumes, which are uniform with “The Rise torate of Cromwell, the Restoration, and the Revo- of the Dutch Republic,” published a few months lution of 1688. Seldom has a period so short had ago. These editions are in every way admirable, events of such moment and interest crowded into it, the type is clear and large, the paper choice, the and no one will wish that Mr. Green's picturesque, binding in that style of vellum cloth so much af. vivid, and luminous narrative were a page shorter fected by book-collectors. Messrs. Appleton & Co. than it is. The volume is very handsomely printed, have also just issued, in form to match, an edition in and contains a map of America in 1640, a map of six volumes of “The Spectator, with Prefaces HisMarston Moor, another of Naseby Fight, and a map torical and Biographical by Alexander Chalmers.' of Europe with France as it was under Louis XIV. The issue of these éditions de luxe of standard au

Couture's “Conversations on Art Meth- thors is gratifying evidence that under all the preods " is, as Mr. Swain Gifford remarks in his intro- vailing mania for cheapness there is a taste for highduction to the American edition, essentially a paint. er literature in artistic and worthy guise. er's book ; that is, it is not designed to entertain or enlighten connoisseurs or amateurs, but to afford

* The History of England, from the Invasion of Jupractical help and encouragement to professional ar

lius Cæsar to the Revolution in 1688. By David Hume, tists and art students. Of its value in this respect, Esq. A New Edition, with the Author's Latest CorrecMr. Gifford's enthusiastic testimony is more trust- tions and Improvements. New York: Harper & Brothworthy, of course, than any that could be offered by èrs. In six vols. 8vo. a lay critic; but the book becomes literature by rea- + History of the United Netherlands, from the Death

of William the Silent to the Twelve Years' War-160g. * History of the English People. By John Richard By John Lothrop Motley, D. C. L., LL.D. In four volGreen, M. A. Book VII. Puritan England. Book VIII. umes. 8vo. With Portraits. New York: Harper & The Revolution. New York: Harper & Brothers. 8vo, Brothers. PP. 451.

1 The Life and Death of Jolın of Barneveld, Advocate + Conversations on Art Methods. By Thomas Cou- of Holland, with a view of the Primary Causes and ture. Translated from the French by S. E. Stewart. Movements of the Thirty Years' War. By John Lothrop With an Introduction by Robert Swain Gifford. New Motley, D. C. L., LL.D. In two vols. 8vo. With IlYork : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 16mo, pp. 252.

lustrations. New York: Harper & Brothers.

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posed for Wolfgang's benefit. She turns at the CHAPTER V.

mention of her name, and gives him-not a HEINE'S LOVE-SONGS.

straightforward look; Miss Vivash never opens

any attack with the point-blank artillery of those “ HEAVEN bless and save us the masz pale eyes of hers-she gives him a downward

ter!” exclaims Ange, in a disappointed bend of the white throat, a lowering of the lids, aside. “Mr. Wolfgang, your humble servant, a smile furtive, momentary, but sweet, “luscious You are unaware, sir, doubtless, that you rang to the taste," as the dictionaries define the word, at the visitors' bell? But for the lateness of the exceedingly. Mamselle Ange, with her most hous, we should have believed it to be a message marked air of patronage, desires Hans to set from the Residenz.”

another wineglass. “I apologize for my own identity," says Wolf- Yes, indeed, Mr. Wolfgang, you shall taste gang, with good humor, and giving a quick look our Affenthaler ; I will take no refusal. You are at the faces round the table. “My business at looking warm after your journey—I know what Leipsic Fair having ended unexpectedly soon,” third-class traveling must be—and of course the he adds, “I took the liberty of visiting Schloss Affenthaler of Schloss Egmont is not tischwein, Egmont on my road home.-Fräulein Jeanne, I poor vinegar-stuff, such as they serve you in the have brought you a new lesson-book.”

Freiburg eating-houses." He deposits a little paper-covered volume be- She turns, with a Lord Burleigh signal to Hans, side the girl's plate-Heine's “ Love-Songs ” (the who discreetly fills the master's glass half full. hardest lesson of Jeanne's life may, perchance, Wolfgang, with the air of a connoisseur, holds the be learned between the lines of those pages); wine up to the light, then sets it down untasted. then, uninvited, draws up one of the coroneted * The Affenthaler has lost its color," he reSchloss Egmont chairs, and seats himself at the marks, a little absently. “It should have been opposite end of the table to Mamselle Ange. drunk years ago. These wines of the Margra

“Quite a relief to one's eyes,” cries Lady vinate have no old age.” Pamela, in her hearty voice.

“ That empty

"Mr. Wolfgang-sir!” cries out Ange, her ghosts' place has been calling out, loudly, for an very cap-ribbons standing on end at this outoccupant—but five is the most impracticable of spoken heresy, “I understand you to give an numbers !"

opinion that our Affenthaler" She glances with kindly welcome at the mas- “Is no longer in its freshest bloom of mater's handsome, high-bred face; and Ange, un- turity. Precisely so. If you will let me counsel thawing, goes through a tardy ceremony of intro- you, Mamselle Ange, try rather the Johannisburg. duction : "Our very worthy friend and instructor, Even in Freiburg,” says Wolfgang, with unHerr Wolfgang, from Freiburg. Lady Pamela ruffled bonhomie, even at our poor tables in Lawless—Miss Vivash.”

the Freiburg guest houses, the Rhine wines laid Up to this instant, Beauty's sleek head, at its in by the late Count von Egmont are renowned.” best three quarters angle, has been studiously Ange's soul is too shaken by such audacity

VOL. VII.-19

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