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The impedimenta are carried in this manner: foot, is one of the softest, most elastic, and most A blanket, doubled to a suitable size, is laid upon pleasant couches that can be imagined ; and, as the ground; you take your portage-strap, or the scent of the sap of the Canada balsam is abtump-line as it is sometimes called, which is solutely delicious, it is always sweet and refreshcomposed of strips of webbing or some such ing—which is more than can be said for many material, and is about twelve feet long, a length beds of civilization. of about two feet in the center being made of a Hunger is a good sauce. A man coming in piece of broad, soft leather ; you lay your line on tired and hungry will find more enjoyment in a the blanket so that the leather part projects, and piece of moose-meat and a cup of tea than in fold the edges of the blanket over either portion the most luxurious of banquets. Moreover, it of the strap. You then pile up the articles to be must be remembered that some of the wild meats carried in the center, double the blanket over of North America can not be excelled in flavor them, and by hauling upon the two parts of the and delicacy; nothing, for instance, can be better strap bring the blanket together at either side, so than moose or caribou, mountain sheep or antethat nothing can fall out. You then cut a skew- lope. The “moufle,” or nose of the moose, and er of wood, stick it through the blanket in the his marrow-bones, are dainties which would be center, securely knot the strap at either end, and highly appreciated by the most accomplished epiyour pack is made. You have a compact bun- cures. The meat is good, and no better method dle with the leather portion of the portage-strap of cooking it has yet been discovered than the projecting like a loop, which is passed over the simple one of roasting it before a wood-fire on a head and shoulders, and the pack is carried on pointed stick. Simplicity is a great source of the back by means of the loop which passes comfort, and makes up for many luxuries; and across the chest. If the pack is very heavy, and nothing can be more simple, and at the same the distance long, it is usual to make an addi- time more comfortable, than life in such a birchtional band out of a handkerchief or something bark camp as I have attempted to describe. In of that kind, to attach it to the bundle, and pass summer-time and in the fall, until the weather it across the forehead, so as to take some of the begins to get a little cold, a tent affords all the pressure off the chest. The regular weight of a shelter that the sportsman or the tourist can reHudson's Bay Company's package is eighty quire. But when the leaves are all fallen, when pounds; but any Indian or half-breed will carry the lakes begin to freeze up, and snow covers the double this weight for a considerable distance earth, or may be looked for at any moment, the without distress. A tump-line, therefore, forms nights become too cold to render dwelling in an essential part of the voyageur's outfit when tents any longer desirable. A tent can be used traveling, and it comes in handy also in camp as in winter, and I have dwelt in one in extreme a clothes-line on which to hang one's socks and cold, when the thermometer went down as low as moccasins to dry.

thirty-two degrees below zero. It was rendered A camp such as that I have attempted to de- habitable by a little stove, which made it at the scribe is the best that can be built. An ordinary same time exceedingly disagreeable. A stove camp is constructed in the same way, but with sufficiently small to be portable only contained this difference, that instead of being in the form wood enough to burn for an hour and a half or of a square it is in the shape of a circle, and the so. Consequently some one had to sit up all poles on which the bark is laid are stuck into the night to replenish it. Now, nobody could keep ground instead of into low walls. There is not awake, and the result was that we had to pass half so much room in such a camp as in the for- through the unpleasant ordeal of alternately mer, although the amount of material employed freezing and roasting during the whole night, is in both cases the same. It may be objected The stove was of necessity composed of very that the sleeping arrangements can not be very thin sheet-iron, as lightness was an important luxurious in camp. A good bed is certainly an object, and consequently, when it was filled with excellent thing, but it is very hard to find a better good birch-wood and well under way, it became bed than Nature has provided in the wilderness. red-hot, and rendered the atmosphere in the tent It would appear as if Providence had specially insupportable. In about half an hour or so it designed the Canada-balsam fir for the purpose would cool down a little, and one would drop off of making a soft couch for tired hunters. It is to sleep, only to wake in about an hour's time the only one, so far as I am aware, of the co- shivering, to find everything frozen solid in the niferous trees of North America in which the tent, and the fire nearly out. Such a method of leaves or spiculæ lie perfectly flat. The conse- passing the night is little calculated to insure quence of that excellent arrangement is, that a sound sleep. In the depth of winter it is quite bed made of the short, tender tips of the Canada impossible to warm a tent from the outside, howbalsam, spread evenly to the depth of about a ever large the fire may be. It must be built at

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such a distance that the canvas can not possibly of firs and spruce. Above the ordinary level of catch fire, and hence all heat is dispersed long the forest rose at intervals the ragged, gaunt form before it can reach and warm the interior of the of some ancient and gigantic pine that had estent. It is far better to make a “lean-to" of the caped the notice of the lumberman or had proved canvas, build a large fire, and sleep out in the unworthy of his axe. In front of us and to the open. A “ lean-to” is easily made and scarcely right, acting as a breakwater to our harbor, lay a needs description. The name explains itself. small island covered with hemlock and tamarack You strike two poles, having a fork at the upper trees, the latter leaning over in various and most end, into the ground, slanting back slightly; lay graceful angles, overhanging the water to such an another fir pole horizontally between the two, and extent as sometimes to be almost horizontal with resting in the crotch; then place numerous poles it. Slightly to the left was a shallow spot in the and branches leaning against the horizontal pole, lake marked by a growth of rushes, vividly green and thus form a framework which you cover in at the top, while the lower halves were of a most as well as you can with birch-bark, pine-boughs, brilliant scarlet, affording the precise amount of pieces of canvas, skins, or whatever material is warmth and bright coloring that the picture remost handy. You build an enormous fire in the quired. It is extraordinary how everything seems front, and the camp is complete. A “lean-to' to turn to brilliant colors in the autumn in these must always be constructed with reference to the northern latitudes. The evening was perfectly direction of the wind; it serves to keep off the still; the surface of the lake, unbroken by the wind and a certain amount of snow and rain. smallest ripple, shone like a mirror and reflected In other respects it is, as the Irishman said of the the coast line and trees so accurately that it was imsedan-chair with the bottom out, more for the possible to tell where water ended and land began. honor and glory of the thing than anything else. The love of money and the love of sport are For all practical purposes you are decidedly out the passions that lead men into such scenes as of doors.

these. The lumberman, the salmon-fisher, and Although the scenery of the greater part of the hunter in pursuit of large game, monopolize Canada can not justly be described as grand or the beauties of nature in these Canadian wilds. magnificent, yet there are a weird, melancholy, The moose (Cervus Alces) and caribou (Cervus desolate beauty about her barrens, a soft loveli- rangifer) are the principal large game to be ness in her lakes and forest glades in summer, a found in Canada. The moose is by far the biggorgeousness of color in her autumn woods, and gest of all existing deer. He attains to a height a stern, sad stateliness when winter has draped of quite eighteen hands, and weighs about twelve them all with snow, that can not be surpassed in hundred pounds or more. The moose of Amerany land. I remember, as distinctly as if I had ica is almost if not quite identical with the elk of left it but yesterday, the beauty of the camp from Europe, but it attains a greater size. The horns which I made my first successful expedition especially are much finer than those to be found after moose last calling season. I had been out on the elk in Russia, Prussia, or the Scandinaseveral times unsuccessfully, sometimes getting vian countries. no answer at all; at others, calling a bull close up, The moose has many advantages over other but failing to induce him to show himself; some- deer, but it suffers also from some terrible disadtimes failing on account of a breeze springing up, vantages, which make it an easy prey to its great or of the night becoming too much overcast and and principal destroyer, man. Whereas among cloudy to enable me to see him. My companions most, if not all, the members of the deer tribe had been equally unfortunate. We had spent the the female has but one fawn at a birth, the cow best fortnight of the season in this way, and had moose generally drops two calves—which is much shifted our ground and tried everything in vain. in favor of the race. The moose is blessed with At last we decided on one more attempt, broke an intensely acute sense of smell, with an almost camp, loaded our canoes, and started. We made equally acute sense of hearing, and it is exceeda journey of two days, traversing many lovely ingly wary and difficult of approach. On the lakes, carrying over several portages, and arrived other hand, it is but little fitted to move in deep at our destination about three o'clock in the af- snow, owing to its great weight. Unlike the ternoon. We drew up our canoes at one of the caribou, which has hoofs specially adapted for prettiest spots for a camp I have ever seen. It deep snow, the moose's feet are small compared lay beside a little sheltered, secluded bay at the with the great bulk of the animal. If, therefore, head of a lovely lake some three or four miles in it is once found and started when the snow lies length. The shores near us were covered with deep upon the ground, its destruction is a matter " hard-wood " trees-birch, maple, and beech, in of certainty; it breaks through the snow to solid their glorious autumn colors ; while the more dis- earth at every step, becomes speedily exhausted, tant coasts were clothed with a somber, dark mass and falls an easy prey to men and dogs. Again, a large tract of land is necessary to supply food trary, is about as awkward on the ice as a shod for even one moose. In summer it feeds a good horse, and will not venture out on the frozen surdeal

upon the stems and roots of water-lilies, but face of a lake if he can help it. His feet are its staple food consists of the tender shoots of rather small and pointed, and allow him to sink the moose-wood, ground-maple, alder, birch, pop- and founder helplessly in the deep snows of midlar, and other deciduous trees. It is fond of winter and early spring. ground-hemlock, and will also occasionally browse There are several ways in which the moose is upon the sapin or Canada balsam, and even hunted; some legitimate and some decidedly ilupon spruce, though that is very rare, and I have legitimate. First of all there is moose-calling. known them when hard pressed to gnaw bark off which to my mind is the most interesting of all the trees. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are woodland sports. It commences about the benearly “settled up.” More and more land is ginning of September, and lasts for about six cleared and brought under cultivation every day; weeks, and consists in imitating the cry of the more and more forest cut down year by year; female moose, and thereby calling up the male. and the moose-supporting portion of the country This may sound easy enough to do, especially as is becoming very limited in extent. On the other the bull at this season of the year loses all his hand, the moose is an animal which could easily caution, or the greater part of it. But the pasbe preserved if only reasonable laws could be en- time is surrounded by so many difficulties that it forced. It adapts itself wonderfully to civiliza- is really the most precarious of all the methods of tion. A young moose will become as tame as a pursuing or endeavoring to outwit the moose ; domestic cow in a short time. Moose become and it is at the same time the most exciting. I accustomed to the ordinary noises of a settled will endeavor to describe the method by giving a country with such facility that they may some- slight sketch of the death of a moose in New times be found feeding within a few hundred Brunswick woods last year. yards of a road. A railway does not appear to It was early in October. We had pitched our disturb them at all. I have shot moose within tents—for at that season of the year the hunter sound of the barking of dogs and the cackling of dwells in tents—upon a beautiful hard-wood geese of a farmhouse, in places where the ani- ridge, bright with the painted foliage of birch mals must have been constantly hearing men and maple. The weather had been bad for callshouting, dogs barking, and all the noises of a ing, and no one had gone out, though we knew settlement. Their sense of hearing is developed there were moose in the neighborhood. We had in a wonderful degree, and they appear to be pos- cut a great store of firewood, gathered bushels sessed of some marvelous power of discriminat- of cranberries, dug a well in the swamp close by, ing between innocent sounds and noises which and attended to the thousand and one little comindicate danger. On a windy day, when the for- forts that experience teaches one to provide in est is full of noises-trees cracking, branches the woods, and had absolutely nothing to do. snapping, and twigs breaking—the moose will The day was intensely hot and sultry, and if any take no notice of all these natural sounds; but if one had approached the camp about noon he a man breaks a twig, or, treading on a dry stick, would have deemed it deserted. All hands had snaps it on the ground, the moose will distinguish hung their blankets over the tents by way of prothat sound from the hundred voices of the storm, tection from the sun, and had gone to sleep. and be off in a second.

About one o'clock I awoke, and sauntered out Why it is that the moose has developed no of the tent to stretch my limbs, and take a look peculiarity with regard to his feet, adapting him at the sky. I was particularly anxious about the especially to the country in which he dwells, weather, for I was tired of idleness, and had dewhile the caribou that shares the woods and bar- termined to go out if the evening offered a tolerrens with him has done so in a remarkable de- ably fair promise of a fine night. To get a betgree, I will leave philosophers to decide. In the ter view of the heavens I climbed to my accuscaribou the hoofs are very broad and round, and tomed lookout in a comfortable fork near the split up very high, so that when the animal treads summit of a neighboring pine, and noted with upon the soft surface of the snow the hoofs disgust certain little black shreds of clouds rising spreading out form a natural kind of snow-shoe, slowly above the horizon. To aid my indecision and prevent its sinking deep. The frog becomes I consulted my dear old friend John Williams, absorbed toward winter, so that the whole weight the Indian, who after the manner of his kind of the animal rests upon the hoof, the edges of stoutly refused to give any definite opinion on which are as sharp as a knife, and give the ani- the subject. All that I could get out of him was: mals so secure a foothold that they can run with- “Well, dunno; mebbe fine, mebbe wind get up; out fear or danger on the slippery surface of guess pretty calm, perhaps, in morning. Supsmooth glare ice. Now, the moose, on the con- pose we go and try, or p'raps mebbe wait till

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to-morrow.” Finally I decided to go out; for, ence of hunting with which I am acquainted. It although if there is the slightest wind it is im- is true that the weather is not especially cold at possible to call, yet any wise and prudent man, that time of year, but there are sharp frosts occaunless there are unmistakable signs of a storm sionally at night, and the moose-caller can not brewing, will take the chance; for the calling make a fire by which to warm himself, for the season is short and soon over.

smell of smoke is carried a long way by the slightI have said that an absolutely calm night is est current of air. Neither dare he run about to required for calling, and for this reason : the warm his feet, or flap his hands against his sides, moose is so wary that in coming up to the call or keep up the circulation by taking exercise of he will invariably make a circle down-wind in any kind, for fear of making a noise. He is sure order to get scent of the animal which is calling to have got wet through with perspiration on his him. Therefore, if there is a breath of wind way to the calling-place, which of course makes astir, the moose will get scent of the man before him more sensitive to cold. the man has a chance of seeing the moose. A So I and the Indian shouldered our packs, and calm night is the first thing necessary. Second- started for the barren, following an old logging ly, you must have a moonlight night. No moose road. Perhaps I ought to explain a little what is will come up in the daytime. You can begin meant by a “ logging road” and a “barren.” A to call about an hour before sunset, and moose logging road is a path cut through the forest in will answer up to say two hours after sunrise. winter, when the snow is on the ground and the There is very little time, therefore, unless there lakes are frozen, along which the trunks of trees is bright moonlight. In the third place I need or logs are hauled by horses or oxen to the wascarcely observe that to call moose successfully ter. A logging road is a most pernicious thing. you must find a place near camp where there are Never follow one if you are lost in the woods, for moose to call, and where there are not only one end is sure to lead to a lake or a river, which moose, but bull-moose; not only bull-moose, but is decidedly inconvenient until the ice has formed; bulls that have not already provided themselves and in the other direction it will seduce you deep with consorts; for, if a real cow begins calling, into the inner recesses of the forest, and then the rough imitation in the shape of a man has a come to a sudden termination at some moss-covvery poor chance of success, and may as well ered, decayed pine-stump, which is discouraging. give it up as a bad job. Fourthly, you must A “barren,” as the term indicates, is a piece of find a spot that is convenient for calling—that is waste land; but, as all hunting-grounds are to say, a piece of dry ground, for no human be- waste, that definition would scarcely be sufficient ing can lie out all night in the wet, particularly to describe what a • barren” is. It means in in the month of October, when it freezes hard Nova Scotia and New Brunswick an open marshy toward morning. You must have dry ground space in the forest, sometimes so soft as to be well sheltered with trees or shrubs of some kind, almost impassable, at other times composed of and a tolerably open space around it for some good solid hard peat. The surface is occasionaldistance-open enough for you to see the bull ly rough and tussocky, like a great deal of councoming up when he is yet at a little distance, but try in Scotland. not a large extent of open ground, for no moose In Newfoundland there are barrens of many will venture out far on an entirely bare, exposed miles in extent, high, and, comparatively speakplain. He is disinclined to leave the friendly ing, dry plateaus; but the barrens in the provshelter of the trees. A perfect spot, therefore, inces I am speaking of vary from a little open is not easily found. Such are some of the diffi- space of a few acres to a plain of five or six miles culties which attend moose-calling, and render it in length or breadth. There has been a good a most precarious pastime. Four conditions are deal of discussion as to the origin of these “barnecessary, and all four must be combined at one rens.” It appears to me that they must have and the same time.

been originally lakes which have become dry by Having once determined to go out, prepara- the gradual elevation of the land, and through tions do not take long. You have only to roll up the natural processes by which shallow waters a blanket and overcoat, take some tea, sugar, salt, become choked up and filled with vegetable and biscuit, a kettle, two tin pannikins, and a débris. They have all the appearance of dry small axe, with, I need scarcely say, rifle and am- lakes. They are about the size of the numerous munition. The outfit is simple ; but the hunter sheets of water that are so frequent in the counshould look to everything himself, for an Indian try. The forest surrounds them completely, prewould leave his head behind if it were loose. A cisely in the same way as it does a lake, following good thick blanket is very necessary, for moose- all the lines and curvatures of the bays and incalling involves more hardship and more suffering dentations of its shores ; and every elevated spot from cold than any other branch of the noble sci- of dry solid ground is covered with trees exactly

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as are the little islands that so thickly stud the animal he is approaching. The smallest hoarsesurfaces of the Nova Scotian lakes. Most of the ness, the slightest wrong vibration, the least unlakes in the country are shallow, and in many of natural sound, will then prove fatal. The Indian them the process by which they become filled up will kneel on the ground, putting the broad end can be seen at work. The ground rises conside of the horn close to the earth so as to deaden erably in the center of these barrens, which is, I the sound, and, with an agonized expression of believe, the case with all bogs and peat-mosses. countenance, will imitate with such marvelous I have never measured any of their areas, neither fidelity the wailing, anxious, supplicating cry of have I attempted to estimate the extent of the the cow, that the bull, unable to resist, rushes curvature of the surface; but on a barren where out from the friendly cover of the trees, and exI hunted last year, of about two miles across, the poses himself to death. Or it may be that the ground rose so much in the center that when most accomplished caller fails to induce the susstanding at one edge we could see the upper half picious animal to show himself; the more ignoble of the pine-trees which grew at the other. The passion of jealousy must then be aroused. The rise appeared to be quite gradual, and the effect Indian will grunt like an enraged bull, break dead was as if one stood on an exceedingly small branches from the trees, thrash his birch-bark globe, the natural curvature of which hid the op- horn against the bushes, thus making a noise exposite trees.

actly like a moose fighting the bushes with his To return to our calling. We got out upon antlers. The bull can not bear the idea of a the barren, or rather upon a deep bay or inden- rival, and, casting his prudence to the winds, not tation of a large barren, about four o'clock in the unfrequently falls a victim to jealousy and rage. afternoon, and made our way to a little wooded The hunter calls through his horn, first genisland which afforded us shelter and dry ground, tly, in case there should be a bull very near. He and which was within easy shot of one side of then waits a quarter of an hour or so, and, if he the bay, and so situated with regard to the other gets no answer, calls again a little louder, waiting that a moose coming from that direction would at least a quarter of an hour-or half an hour, not hesitate to approach it. The first thing to be some Indians say, is best-after each attempt. done is to make a lair for one's self—a little bed. The cry of the cow is a long-drawn-out melYou pick out a nice, sheltered, soft spot, chop ancholy sound, impossible to describe by words. down a few sapin-branches with your knife, The answer of the bull-moose, on the contragather a quantity of dry grass or bracken, and ry, is a rather short, guttural grunt, and resemmake as comfortable a bed as the circumstances bles at a great distance the sound made by an of the case will permit.

axe chopping wood, or that which a man makes Having made these little preparations, I sat when pulling hard at a refractory clay pipe. You down and smoked my pipe while the Indian continue calling at intervals until you hear an climbed up a neighboring pine-tree to “call.” answer, when your tactics depend upon the way The only object of ascending a tree is that the in which the animal acts. Great acuteness of sound

may be carried farther into the recesses of the sense of hearing is necessary, because the a forest. The instrument wherewith the caller bull will occasionally come up without answering endeavors to imitate the cry of a cow consists of at all; and the first indication of his presence a cone-shaped tube made out of a sheet of birch- consists of the slight noise he makes in advancbark rolled up. This horn is about eighteen ing. Sometimes a bull will come up with the inches in length and three or four in diameter at most extreme caution; at others he will come the broadest end, the narrow end being just large tearing up through the woods, as hard as he can enough to fit the mouth. The “caller " uses it go, making a noise like a steam-engine, and rushlike a speaking-trumpet, groaning and roaring ing through the forest apparently without the through it, imitating as well as he can the cry of slightest fear. the cow moose. Few white men can call really On the particular occasion which I am recallwell, but some Indians by long practice can imi- ing, it was a most lovely evening. It wanted but tate the animal with wonderful success. Fortu- about half an hour to sundown, and all was pernately, however, no two moose appear to have fectly still. There was not the slightest sound precisely the same voice, but make all kinds of of anything moving in the forest except that of strange and diabolical noises, so that even a the unfrequent flight of a moose-bird close by. novice in the art may not despair of himself call. And so I sat watching that most glorious transing up a bull. The real difficulty—the time when formation scene—the change of day into night; you require a perfect mastery of the art—is when saw the great sun sink slowly down behind the the bull is close by, suspicious and listening with pine-trees; saw the few clouds that hovered moevery fiber of its intensely accurate ear to detect tionless above me blaze into the color of bright, any sound that may reveal the true nature of the burnished gold ; saw the whole atmosphere be

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