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was brought to him from the Polizei to be filled which is a distinct danger for society in Europe, up; how he had to inform the Government not. may probably be attributed partly to the excesonly of his own Christian name and age, but of sive development of militarism, and partly to the the Christian names and ages of each of his re- perilously wide division of classes. Whether vered parents, of his religious profession, of his Germany, which has for so long been the prolific means of living, of his reasons for coming there, mother of new ideas in theology, in history, in whether he had ever been there before, how long metaphysics, in philology, is in the coming age to he proposed staying there, with sundry other par- be the source of a new political propaganda, is a ticulars, dear to the mind of a German official, question which time only can decide. It is at but hateful to the independence of a freeborn least certain that antagonistic forces of unknown Briton. The way in which a German carries power are at work in the heart of German soabout with him under all circumstances, and ciety; that their antagonism, instead of being probably keeps under his pillow at night, his mitigated, is becoming intensified, and that the “Legitimations-Schein,” and all those precious materials for an explosion, though differently documents attesting his identity, without which compounded, are almost as plentiful in Germany he would consider that he had lost his right to now as they were in France a century ago. exist, is a standing marvel to those who believe How far the religious element contributes to that formalities were made for man, and not man the danger it is impossible for one merely looking for formalities. It must, however, be admitted on the surface to pronounce an opinion. That that there are occasions when this bondage to the Falk laws must have produced great irritaformalities has its compensating advantages. tion in the Catholic part of Germany, and must This present writer set out one hot summer day have created considerable disaffection against the to walk to the colossal statue of Bavaria, outside Imperial Government, can not be doubted. It is, Munich. The road led round the outermost of course, a very difficult thing for a Protestant boundaries of a meadow; but as the said road Government to deal with an empire of which was hot and dusty and the meadow was soft and some of the constituent parts, formerly indepencool, he naturally took the shorter cut across the dent, are strongly Catholic; but in such a case it grass. He was accosted on the farther side by would at least have been safer to err on the side an official, red with anger, who informed him of laxity, and to bear in mind that, while represthat the way across the meadow was “am streng- sion irritates, liberty often disarms opposition. sten verboten," and that he was liable to a fine It is not without some grounds that German of three gulden, which would assuredly have Catholics have raised a cry of persecution; and been inflicted, but unfortunately the official whose to persecute an adversary is to give him an unduty it was to enforce it was gone to his dinner, fair advantage. The penal laws in Ireland might and therefore the majesty of the law could not have served for a salutary warning to Germany. for the moment be vindicated.
It seems likely that the Catholics and Protestants It is obvious that a nation which has been would have found it possible to be Germans first accustomed to accept as part of the natural order and Catholics or Protestants afterward, if the of things a pedantic and minute system of inter- state had abstained from “rattling up sleeping ference in the small details of life, is exposed to a lions "; but, unhappily, it is the fact that on the great danger. When the work of government is Continent rulers, whether professing liberal or in the hands of a bureaucracy, men who under a conservative principles, have not yet attained to more popular government would find a healthy the statesmanlike wisdom of Gallio,* of whom outlet for their activity in political and municipal it is recorded, to his infinite credit, that he "cared action will be thrown back upon themselves, and for none of those things.” Not only in conservawill brood over theories while they leave others to tive Prussia, but also in democratic and radical do the practical work. And in this way a dan- Geneva, the Church of Rome has been treated gerous separation is produced between theoreti- with exceptional harshness. At Geneva, indeed, cal and practical politicians, and the Government by a misapplication of the principle of universal has to reckon, not with a party in opposition, suffrage, a large and costly church recently built who, if they should succeed to their places, would by the Catholics has been handed over to a very carry on the administration of affairs pretty much small body of “Old Catholics," while the very on the same lines, though with more of reform- people who built the church are driven to woring energy or more of conservative caution, but ship where they can ; and the prohibition to with an irreconcilable faction, whose object is to appear in public in any ecclesiastical costume, blow up the existing building in order to clear the ground for an entirely new departure.
* When will our preachers learn that Gallio, instead The
of an awful example of a careless Christian, is, in fact, present spread of socialism in Germany, which
an admirable instance of a magistrate "indifferently has evidently alarmed the ruling classes, and ministering justice”?
intended to annoy the Roman ecclesiastics, by which Christianity has to offer—hope for the inthe grotesque literalness of a gendarme, led to dividual, hope for the race, a great act of selfthe arrest of a Protestant pastor one Sunday sacrifice requiring self-sacrifice in return, selfmorning on his way from his house to the church. reverence springing from a sense of a high and
In Geneva, indeed, it is certain that this rough divine calling, the consciousness of the divine handling of the Catholics is the work, not of Fatherhood resulting in a claim of universal Protestants, but of persons hostile to Christianity brotherhood, an unswerving faith in the final and altogether. In Germany, however, the recent complete victory of good over evil, and, above all, effusive confession of faith on the part of the love to God and to our fellow-men as the mainChancellor, and the well-known religious senti- spring of life—these motives are considerably ments of the Emperor, forbid us to interpret so. superior to any mere “honesty is the best polYet it might have been supposed that the present icy" principle. Nor are indications wanting state of religion in Germany would have been a among the upper class in Germany of that sense sufficient reason against attempting to depress or of hopelessness and vacancy in life which comes persecute any form of Christian belief. Indeed, of mere negation. Ach, ich bin lebensmüde" so far as outward indications go, Catholicism is was the exclamation of a young man of apparthe only form of religion that has any real hold ently good social position, who in England might upon the people. In the Rhineland and in South probably have been doing good service to his felGermany the churches are still crowded with de- low-men in some of those positions which with vout worshipers, whereas in Protestant Prussia * us are open to men who have time and money to the very profession of Christianity has well-nigh bestow on public objects, but who seemed utterdied out. And this appears to constitute a farly without an object or a motive in life.“ Posimore serious and more threatening religious tivism” has at least this recommendation, that difficulty than the supposed intrigues of the if it denies Christianity it asserts the religion of Jesuits or the claim of universal allegiance on humanity; whereas the mere blank negation of the part of the Roman Pontiff. For when a all religion which seems to be the present mental great nation is divided into two sections, the one attitude of the cultivated classes in Germany can without any religion or wish for religion, the result in no high or noble activity, no moral heroother holding to the most rigidly dogmatic and ism, nothing but the old story, “Let us eat and authoritative form of Christianity, and when these drink, for to-morrow we die.” And among the two sections are not closely connected with each working classes, it is certain that no system has other by a thousand ties of daily intercourse, of yet been discovered capable of raising the tone neighborhood, of business, of kindred, as, for in- of society, of promoting temperance, self-respect, stance, the various religious denominations of domestic purity, thrift, and unselfishness, except Englishmen are connected, but are separated by Christianity. It may be very well admitted by almost as sharp a line as were formerly the slave- the most earnest apologists of the Christian faith, owning and the free States of America, it needs that it has been weighted with much adventitious no political foresight to perceive that a time may matter that does not belong to its essence; that come when religious questions will bring an in- Catholics and Protestants have been too apt to tolerable strain upon German unity. And, fur- make the word of God of none effect through ther than this, it is a very grave and difficult prob- their traditions"; that religion has been made too lem, what is likely to be the effect on the national much a matter of the intellect and of the imagicharacter of that absence of religion which is so nation, too little of the heart and the life; that striking a feature in the cultured classes of Ger- people have been too much in the habit of inquirmany. For a time the restraints of a public opin- ing about a man's religious “persuasion " rather ion formed under the influence of Christianity, than about his religious life; and it is possible and the sense of responsibility in the first gen- that the decay of Christian profession in Gereration of those who have abandoned dogmatic many and in France, and in a far less degree in beliefs, may probably serve to maintain the stan= England, has been owing to the form under dard of morality; but it is a thing hardly to be which the advocates of religion have insisted on hoped for that in a second generation an equally presenting it. But, if so, it would be well if all high standard should be preserved, either by the religious teachers would imitate the courageous abstract idea of virtue or the positive law of the wisdom of an English bishop, who is reported state. Assuredly the motives to right conduct lately to have said, “If you can not join us with *“Who that knows modern Germany will call it a if they insist on an acceptance of the supernatu
the miracles, join us without the miracles "; for Christian land, either in the sense Rome gives to the term, or in the meaning Luther attached to it?” –(“Let-ral as a condition of adopting Christianity as a ters on the State of Religion in Germany," reprinted rule of life, assuredly a return of the mass of the from the “ Times," 1870.)
people in Germany to religious profession is a
thing not to be hoped for. To accept the super- nineteenth century what the prophets and the natural, indeed, in the highest sense, is an essen- Baptist were to the Jews, and the preaching friars tial condition of any religious faith, for Christian to the middle ages. Evils sooner or later bring morality is, in the strictest sense of the word, about their own remedy; and if the future is for supernatural; but it is probable that the Founder Christianity, under whatever change of form, it of Christianity would not have rejected any who is certain that sooner or later her beneficent influwere weary and heavy-laden, and were willing to ence will go forth with renewed force, conquerlearn duty and conduct of him.
ing and to conquer. Meanwhile, for Germany Unhappily, however, there is much reason to and for every other civilized land, the main thing fear that, although this estrangement from Chris- is to aim at the highest ; that all men should ask tianity may have originated in a recoil from over- as though Christianity were true, and should dogmatism, there is now a strong element of re- resolutely and perseveringly cultivate "whatso, volt against its ethical requirements. And if this ever things are true, whatsoever things are honis so, if either avowedly or unconsciously large est, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things masses of men reject the Christian code as set- are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report," ting before them an ideal which they can not in the firm faith that right thinking must come bring themselves to aim at, then it remains for of right doing, and that to him that orders his the Christian Church to put forth a new power, conversation aright will ultimately be shown the to develop some resource which shall be to the highest truth.
R. E. B., in Fraser's Magazine,
OUT OF THE DEPTHS. .
"APTAIN ABIJAH BAKER had been to years of wedded life, to have her “old man ” born on the Cape ; there he found his wife; there years of life. When they were first married she his children were born; there stood the house he made several voyages with her husband, but the had built, to which he always returned for a few invariable sea-sickness which persecuted her on days at the end of each voyage ; and thither he shipboard, and the growing demands of her chilhad come at last after forty years of wandering dren, obliged her to remain at home to worry on the ocean to pass the remainder of his days, for him on stormy nights, and realize the truth on a moderate but snug competence wrenched of the French proverb, “Femme de marin, femme from the mad sea-waves, until he should once de chagrin." more launch his bark on the voyage from which Her daughter Mary, now a girl of twenty, had no traveler returns. His boy had also taken early tended to assuage her solitude while husband and to the water, and was now skipper of the fish- son were battling with winds and waves thouing schooner Gentle Annie. He was engaged sands of miles away. Mrs. Baker was one of to Lucy May, the lady who taught the district those women of tact and character who, while school, and after one or two more successful not at all lacking in independence and spirit, had trips to the Banks the wedding was to come off. the penetration to perceive that in the family as
Captain Baker was a noble specimen of the on the quarter-deck, there can be only one capmariners they used to turn out on Cape Cod. tain, even when the mate knows more than the Nearly six feet tall, broad-chested and broad- captain about navigation, and that even for her shouldered, he still walked erect as in his youth; own comfort merely, and to retain her influence and the keen, honest, fearless look of his blue over him, it was better to yield to and coöperate eyes from under their roofing of shaggy gray in the life-plans of her husband than to thwart eyebrows was as undimmed as when he first trod them by direct opposition. A thoroughly practhe quarter-deck. But if sometimes their glance tical New England woman, generally undemonwas stern and uncompromising, there lurked in strative but faithful in her affections, portly and them also unfathomed possibilities of good-na- warm-hearted, Mrs. Baker accepted with serene tured mirth, and not rarely an expression which content the prospect of having Abijah with her showed that under a bluff exterior he carried a as never before during all their married years, warm, true heart.
with their son and daughter-in-law settled near Mrs. Baker still survived, after twenty-six them, and possibly divers grandchildren toddling
in the spring sunshine before the grandparental and leave ye, but then what's a man to do here door.
if he hain't got no trade ashore to keep him But Fate seemed to have otherwise deter- busy? And I feel just as spry as when I first took mined, or at least awhile longer deferred good command of the Wild Rover. I don't mean to Mrs. Baker's entrance into possession of these go to sea again for good, but let me just go one castles in Spain. It is a hard thing for a man more v’yge, and I'll get over this hankering for still in active possession of his powers suddenly it. Anyway, I didn't really mean to go again, to abdicate the throne and retire into peaceful but when I went into Clark & Allen's office t'othinaction. When he is oppressed by the storms er day they said to me: “Captain, you are just the of life he looks longingly forward to a tranquil man for us. Captain Tressle has just fallen and rest under his own vine and fig-tree. But the broken a leg and two ribs ; 'tain't no kind of use strongest muscles condemned to inaction become for him to try to go this v'yge, and the Jennie flabby and weak, the keenest blade hanging un- Lane will be ready to go to sea next week. You used on a wall is eaten with rust, and the brain, are part owner, and now you've had a long vaceasing its wonted habits of action, softens and cation on shore, here's a good chance for you to decays, and senility comes on apace. Many men, get your sea-legs on again. It did seem kind o' instinctively conscious of this tendency after they providential like, and, after turning the matter have tried rest for a time, chafe once more for a over, I told them that I would go." field whereon to exercise their powers, and spring “I am afraid you are making a mistake, Abiback to the arena to begin life anew, but so heav- jah. I won't say nothing for myself,” and the ily handicapped by age or the more recent habits poor woman put the corner of her apron to her of lethargy, that they learn when it is too late eye—it was only a momentary weakness—" but the mistake they made in so soon quitting their I mistrust things won't go all right.” life-pursuits.
“So you've said before when I've been a-goIt was not long before Captain Baker began in' to sail, but nothin' ever came of it. So, cheer to realize the truth of these observations. To up, mother; and, if you've got a good cup of that spend the remainder of his days hoeing potato- last tea I brought, 'twon't come amiss." hills and turning his melons and squashes to the The Lord knows! We don't always know sun on the sere soil of the Cape, or oscillating our own minds, or what's good for us. But if between his house and the village store, with an you must go, Abijah-and now you've given your occasional trip to Boston, was rather too placid word, it can't be helped—I must look over your and monotonous a change for a man who had things, and, if there's anything you need, I'll listened all his days to the creaking of tackle- send for Mehitabel Wheeler to come right over blocks and the thunderous and frantic flapping of and help me do the sewing." topsails in Atlantic squalls—a man, too, in whose The Captain, relieved that he had got over veins still leaped a manly vigor, in whose heart the difficulty of breaking unpleasant news to his still throbbed an honest ambition. The growing wife so easily, and that she took it so kindly, had uneasiness of her husband, the restlessness and to give her a kiss, while she, between smiles and annoyed discontent so unusual in his frank and tears, said : “Oh, yes; that's just the way; you generous nature, were not unperceived by Mrs. are always ready enough with your kiss if I'll Baker ; she foresaw the inevitable result, but only let you have your own way,” but she was kept her own counsels. But when he returned proud enough of the old sea-captain for all that. one day from Boston with a sober but brisk And so the matter was settled. In a fortand determined air, she was prepared to hear night Captain Baker was once more crossing the him say: “ Well, mother”-he always called her Atlantic, the topsails of the Jennie Lane swelling mother—" I don't s'pose you'll like it very well, with the exuberant force of a westerly gale which and it comes kind of hard for me to tell ye, but rapidly bore him away from his quiet home and I'm going on a v'yge to Smyrny; I sail next disconsolate wife. In ten days they sighted week."
Fayal, and, after a splendid run of thirty-six “I mistrusted somethin' of the sort when you days, the Jennie Lane had passed from the New went to Boston ; I knew 'twan't for nothin' you World into the Old World, from the nineteenth were going up there so often. But what on airth century into the past ages, from the orthodox possesses ye to go to sea again, Abijah ? Here tones of the bell of Park Street Church to the you are, everything just as cozy as can be, and theistic chant of the muezzin of Islam, and disI ain't seen much of ye since we stood up afore charged the rum of Medford and the prints of the minister twenty-seven years ago come next Manchester upon the wharves of Smyrna. October; and here's Johnnie going to be married In another month she was ready to turn her maybe next Thanksgiving."
bowsprit again toward Long Wharf and the land “Well, you see it's just here : I hate to go of the setting sun. Her hold was packed with
bales of wool and rags. The hatches were bat- rounded. Most fortunately, the weather contened down, the topsails were hoisted and sheet- tinued clear, and they had a leading wind, and ed home and back to the mast; the crew, with a thus escaped the ice unharmed. And now,
ho long song, had got the anchor a-trip; the pas- for the Grand Banks and for home! Captain sengers, a missionary with his wife and four chil- Baker had been impatient all the voyage to reach dren, were busy arranging their quarters in the the Banks, hoping to see his son there; the Gensmall cabin; the Greek pilot was on board ; and tle Annie was generally on fishing-grounds about the setting sun was tingeing the mountain-crags that time, and the Captain was especially anxious of Anatolia with roseate hues, and gilding the for clear weather, so that he might not only see red roofs, crescent-tipped minarets, and crum- his boy's schooner, but might also thus avoid the bling Roman ramparts of Smyrna, when Captain danger of running her down in the fog, a peril Baker and the consignee came off to the ship, of the Banks which neither fog-horns nor whishaving paid their last visit to the consul and the tles nor the utmost vigilance can altogether dishealth officers of the port.
pel. It was a great relief, therefore, when on a “ Mr. Partridge, you can make sail on her and fine, clear morning, with a good offing, Captain cast off ; let me know when all is ready,” said Baker saw a fleet of fishermen at anchor ahead the Captain to the mate as he went below for the or dodging about after fish. With eagerness he last consultation with the consignee. As the scanned them all, recognizing one and another in breeze was light, the top-gallant sails and royals turn; but it was with ill-concealed disappointwere sheeted home, and when she was adrift ment that he failed to see the Gentle Annie anyMr. Partridge called the Captain.
where in sight.
Hailing one of the schooners As the bark fell off gracefully on the star- which was from the Cape, he inquired for her board tack, the two brass pieces were fired; whereabout, and was informed that she had Captain Baker was a strict disciplinarian; he started for home some days previous, having got kept his vessel trim as a yacht, and in entering a full fare of fish. or leaving port aimed at a man-of-war style as Well,” said Captain Baker, “I'm right glad far as is possible in a merchant-ship.
to hear John's got a full fare so early in the seaGood-by, Captain Baker,” said the con- son; he'll be coming out again afore long, and, signee, as he stepped into his boat; a pleasant if he gets another good catch, then there'll be a and quick voyage to you! When shall we look wedding, and you can count me in as one of for you again ?"
those present. I don't know anybody who de"Oh, this is my last v'yge! I ain't goin' to serves a good wife more than our John, and that's sea any more ; I promised Mrs. Baker to stay at just what he's a-going to have." home after this v'yge.”
After the Grand Banks are passed, going to “So you said the last time you were here. the westward, it always seems as if one could We'll see you back again before long."
almost see the ridge-pole of the old homestead “No, I say good-by to Smyrny now, for good and the well-sweep rising by it, especially if a and all. But I expect to see you in Boston some driving northeaster makes the lads in the foretime."
castle sing, “ The girls at home have got hold of Everything looked propitious for a prosperous the tow-rope.” And that was just the wind voyage home; but, being the summer season, which now swept the Jennie Lane along like a the occasional gales and squalls they encoun- mad race-horse, scudding over the foaming crests tered were alternated by light, baffling winds and on a bee-line for Boston Light. Captain Baker long calms, always more or less irritating to the always carried sail hard, and he could do this ruling mind which paces the quarter-deck, but safely because he never lost his head, and could affording a good opportunity for scraping the take in canvas in a squall with perfect coolness. masts, setting up and slushing the rigging, and The bark now staggered under a press of sail painting the ship from truck to water-line. In rarely seen in such weather except on Yankee this way the Jennie Lane was made to look as if ships, and when commanded by such men as she were “intended to be put under a glass case," Captain Abijah Baker. When the canvas blew while Captain Baker talked theology with the away, all hands were sent aloft to bend and set missionary, and kept an eye on the barometer or on another sail on the yard. the offing for a breeze. On the 4th of July the “By George! but if this isn't glorious !” exbark was suddenly surrounded by field-ice and claimed the hale old sea-dog. “If Johnnie don't bergs of enormous size; the air, from almost look out, we'll get into Boston Bay before he tropical heat, became wintry cold, and the gleam sights the Highland Light!” of the sun and the moon on the glittering mass- But the nearer they came to the coast the es, while it displayed their splendor also revealed thicker the weather became-not exactly a fog. the extent of the perils by which they were sur- but a dripping Scotch mist and rain that effectu