Puslapio vaizdai

Without perdition, and loss assume all reason
Without revolt: this is, and is not, Cressid!
Within my soul there doth commence a fight'
Of this strange nature, that a thing inseparate3
Divides more wider than the sky and earth;
And yet the spacious breadth of this division
Admits no orifice for a point, as subtle
As Ariachne's broken woof, to enter.
Instance, O instance! strong as Pluto's gates;
Cressid is mine, tied with the bonds of heaven:
Instance, O instance! strong as heaven itself;
The bonds of heaven are slipp'd, dissolv'd, and

And with another knot, five-finger-tied,4
The fractions of her faith, orts of her love,
The fragments, scraps, the bits and greasy reliques
Of her o'er-eaten faith, are bound to Diomed.

Ulyss. May worthy Troilus be half attach'd
With that which here his passion doth express ?
Tro. Ay, Greek; and that shall be divulged well
In characters as red as Mars his heart
Inflam'd with Venus: never did young man fancy'
With so eternal and so fix'd a soul.

Hark, Greek ;-As much as I do Cressid love,
So much by weight hate I her Diomed;
That sleeve is mine, that he'll bear on his helm;
Were it a casque compos'd by Vulcan's skill,
My sword should bite it: not the dreadful spout,
Which shipmen do the hurricano call,a
Constring'd in mass by the almighty sun,
Shall dizzy with more clamour Neptune's ear
In his descent, than shall my prompted sword
Falling on Diomed.

Ther. He'll tickle it for his concupy."

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Cas. The gods are deaf to hot and peevish13 vows; They are polluted offerings, more abhorr'd Than spotted livers in the sacrifice.

And. O! be persuaded: Do not count it holy To hurt by being just: it is as lawful, For we would give much, to use violent thefts, 14 And rob in the behalf of charity.

Cas. It is the purpose that makes strong the vow; But vows to every purpose must not hold;

Tro. O Cressid! O false Cressid! false, false, false! Unarm, sweet Hector.
Let all untruths stand by thy stained name,
And they'll seem glorious.


O, contain yourself;

Your passion draws ears hither.

Enter ENEAS.

Ene. I have been seeking you this hour, my lord: Hector, by this, is arming him in Troy; Ajax, your guard stays to conduct you home.

Tro. Have with you, prince :-My courteous lord, adieu :

Farewell, revolted fair!-and, Diomed,
Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head!10
Ulyss. I'll bring you to the gates.
Tro. Accept distracted thanks.

[Exeunt TROILUS, ENEAS, and ULYSSES. Ther. Would, I could meet that rogue Diomed! I would croak like a raven; I would bode, I would bode. Patroclus will give me any thing for the intelligence of this whore: the parrot will not do more for an almond, than he for a commodious drab. Lechery, lechery; still, wars and lechery; nothing else holds fashion: A burning devil take them! [Exit. a madness in that disquisition, in which a man reasons at once for and against himself upon authority which he knows not to be valid. The words loss and perdi tion, in the subsequent line, are used in their common sense; but they mean the loss or perdition of reason. 1Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting.


2 i. e. the plighted faith of lovers. Troilus considers It inseparable, or at least that it ought never to be bro. ken, though he has unfortunately found that it some

times is.

3 One quarto copy reads Ariachna's; the other Ariathna's; the folio Ariachne's. It is evident Shakspeare intended to make Ariachne a word of four syllables. Our ancestors were not very exact either in writing or pronouncing proper names, even of classical origin. Steevens thinks it not improbable that the poet may have written Ariadne's broken woof,' confounding the two stories in his imagination, or alluding to the clue of thread, by the assistance of which Theseus escaped from the Cretan labyrinth.

4 A knot tied by giving her hand to Diomed. 5 The image is not of the most delicate kind. Her o'er-eaten faith' means her troth plighted to Troilus, of which she was surfeited, and, like one who has o'ereaten himself, had thrown off. So in Twelfth Night :'Their over-greedy love hath surfeited,' &c.

Hect. Hold you still, I say; Mine honour keeps the weather's of my fate: Life every man holds dear; but the dear man1a Holds honour far more precious-dear than life.Enter TROILUS.

How now, young man? mean'st thou to fight today?

And. Cassandra, call my father to persuade.
Hect. No, 'faith, young Troilus; doff thy harness,

I am to-day i'the vein of chivalry:
Let grow thy sinews till their knots be strong,
And tempt not yet the brushes of the war.
Unarm thee, go; and doubt thou not, brave boy,
I'll stand to-day, for thee, and me, and Troy.

Tro. Brother, you have a vice of mercy in you, Which better fits a lion, than a man.''

6 Can Troilus really feel, on this occasion, half of what he utters?" A question suitable to the calm Ulysses.

7 Love.

8 And down the shower impetuously doth fall, Like that which men the hurricano call. Drayton. 10 i. e. defend thy head with armour of more than 9 A cant word, formed from concupiscence. common security. So in The History of Prince Arthur, therefore hie thee fast that thou wert gone, and wit thou 1634, c. clviii. :- Do thou thy best, said Sir Gawaine; castle that thou hast upon thy head. It appears that a well we shall soon come after, and breake the strongest kind of close helmet was called a castle. See Titus Andronicus, Act iii. Sc. 1.

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taken from Lydgate, or Chaucer's Nonne's Prestes Tale,
11 The hint for this dream of Andromache might be
v. 15147. My dreams of last night will prove ominous
to the day: forebode ill to it, and show that it will be a
fatal day to Troy. So in the seventh scene of this act :-
the quarrel's most ominous to us.'
12 i. c. earnest, anxious petition.
13 Foolish.
much. In the first line of Andromache's speech she al-
14 i. e. to use violent thefts, because we would give
ludes to a doctrine which Shakspeare has often en-
forced: Do not you think you are acting virtuously
by adhering to an oath, if you have sworn to do amiss.
tage. Estre au dessus du vent is the French proverbial
15 To keep the weather is to keep the wind or advan

16 The dear man is the man of worth.

17 The traditions and stories of the darker ages

Hect. What vice is that, good Troilus? chide me
for it.

Tro, When many times the captive Grecians fall,
Even in the fan and wind of your fair sword,
You bid them rise, and live.'

Hect. O, 'us fair play.


Fool's play, by heaven, Hector.
Hect. How now? how now?
For the love of all the gods,
Let's leave the hermit Pity with our mother;
And when we have our armours buckled on,
The venom'd vengeance ride upon our swords;
Spur them to ruthful work, rein them from ruth.2
Hect. Fye, savage, fye!

Hector, then 'tis wars.
Hect. Troilus, I would not have you fight to-day.
Tro. Who should withhold me?
Not fate, obedience, nor the hand of Mars
Beckoning with fiery truncheon my retire;
Not Priamus and Hecuba on knees,
Their eyes o'ergalled with recourse of tears;4
Nor you, my brother, with your true sword drawn,
Oppos'd to hinder me, should stop my way,
But by my ruin.

Re-enter CASSANDRA, with PRIAM.

Cas. Lay hold upon him, Priam, hold him fast:
He is thy crutch; now if thou lose thy stay,
Thou on him leaming, and all Troy on thee,
Fall all together.


Come, Hector, come, go back: Thy wife hath dream'd; thy mother hath had


Cassandra doth foresee; and I myself
Am like a prophet suddenly enwrapt,
To tell thee-that this day is ominous :
Therefore, come back.


Cas. Farewell.-Yet, soft :-Hector, I take my

Thou dost thyself and all our Troy deceive. [Exit.
Hect. You are amaz'd, my liege, at her exclaim:
Go in, and cheer the town: we'll forth, and fight;
De deeds worth praise, and tell you them at night.
Pri. Farewell; the Gods with safety stand about

[Exeunt severally PRIAM and HECTOR.

Tro. They are at it; hark! Proud Diomed, be

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Pan. A whoreson ptisic, a whoreson rascally ptisic so troubles me, and the foolish fortune of this girl; and what one thing, what another, that I shall leave you one o' these days: And I have a rheum in mine eyes too; and such an ache in my bones, that, unless a man were cursed, I cannot tell what to think on't.-What says she there? Tro. Words, words, mere words, no matter from the heart; [Tearing the Letter. The effect doth operate another way.Go, wind, to wind, there turn and change together. My love with words and errors still she feeds;

But edifies another with her deeds.

[Exeunt severally. SCENE IV. Between Troy and the Grecian Camp. Alarums: Excursions. Enter THERSITES. Ther. Now they are clapper-clawing one another. I'll go look on. That dissembling abominable varlet, Diomed, has got that same scurvy doting foolish young knave's sleeve of Troy there, in his helm ; I would fain see them meet; that that same young Aye, but thou shalt not go. Trojan ass, that loves the whore there, might send

Eneas is afield; And I do stand engag'd to many Greeks, Even in the faith of valour, to appear This morning to them.


Hect. I must not break my faith.
You know me dutiful; therefore, dear sir,
Let me not shame respect; but give me leave
To take that course by your consent and voice,
Which you do here forbid me, royal Priam.
Cas. O, Priam, yield not to him.
Do not, dear father.
Hect. Andromache, I am offended with you:
Upon the love you bear me, get you in.

Tro. This foolish, dreaming, superstitious girl,
Makes all these bodements.
O farewell, dear Hector.
Look, how thou diest! look, how thy eye turns


Look, how thy wounds do bleed at many vents!
Hark how Troy roars! how Hecuba cries out!
How poor Andromache shrills her dolours forth!
Behold! destruction, frenzy, and amazement,
Like witless antics, one another meet,
And all cry-Hector! Hector's dead! O Hector!
Tro. Away!-Away!

abounded with examples of the lion's generosity. Upon
the supposition that these acts of clemency were true,
Troilus reasons not improperly, that to spare against
reason, by mere instinct and pity, became rather a
generous beast than a wise man. We find it recorded
in Pliny's Natural History, c. 16, that the lion alone of
all wild beasts is gentle to those that humble themselves
before him, and will not touch any such upon their sub.
mission, but spareth what creature soever lieth pros-
trate before him.' Hence Spenser's Una, attended by a
lion; and Perceval's lion, in Mort de Arthur, b. xiv. c. 6.
1 Shakspeare seems not to have studied the Homeric
character of Hector; whose disposition was by no
means inclined to clemency, as we learn from Andro-
mache's speech in the 24th Iliad.

2 Ruthful is rueful, woful; and ruth is mercy. The words are opposed to each other.

3 Antiquity acknowledges no such sign of command as a truncheon. The spirit of the passage, however, s such as might atone for a greater impropriety.


that Greekish whoremasterly villain, with the sleeve, back to the dissembling luxurious drab, on a sleeveless errand. O' the other side, The policy of those crafty swearing rascals,10-that stale old mouseeaten dry cheese, Nestor; and that same dog-fox, They set me up, in policy, that mongrel cur, Ajax, Ulysses, is not proved worth a blackberry:against that dog of as bad a kind, Achilles: and and will not arm to-day: whereupon the Grecians now is the cur Ajax prouder than the cur Achilles, begin to proclaim barbarism, and policy grows into an ill opinion. Soft! here comes sleeve, and t'other.

! 1

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Cours'd one another down his innocent nose.' 5 i. e. disgrace the respect I owe you, by acting in op position to your commands.

6 The interposition and clamorous sorrow of Cassandra, are copied from Lydgate.

7 So in Spenser's Epithalamium :

'Hark how the minstrels gin to shrill aloud Their merry music,' &c.

9 The foto reads distraction.

9 That is, under the influence of a malediction, such as mischievous beings have been supposed to pronounce upon those who offended them.

10 Theobald proposes to read sneering rascals ;' which Mason thinks more suitable to the characters of Ulysses and Nestor than swearing.

11 To set up the authority of ignorance, and to declare that they will be governed by policy no longer.

Ther. Hold thy whore, Grecian!-now for thy | Is arming, weeping, cursing, vowing vengeance: whore, Trojan!-now the sleeve, now the sleeve! Patroclus' wounds have rous'd his drowsy blood, [Exeunt TROILUS and DIOMEDES, fighting. Together with his mangled myrmidons, That noseless, handless, hack'd and chipp'd, come Enter HECTOR. to him,

Hect. What art thou, Greek? art thou for Hec- Crying on Hector. Ajax hath lost a friend,

tor's match?

Art thou of blood, and honour ?1

Ther. No, no:-I am a rascal; a scurvy railing knave; a very filthy rogue.

Hect. I do believe thee :-Live.
Ther. God-a-mercy, that thou wilt believe me;
But a plague break thy neck, for frighting me!
What's become of the wenching rogues? I think,
they have swallowed one another: I would laugh
at that niracle. Yet, in a sort, lechery eats itself.
I'll seek them.

SCENE V. The same. Enter DIOMEDES and a

Dio. Go, go, my servant, take thou Troilus'

Present the fair steed to my lady Cressid:
Fellow, commend my service to her beauty;
Tell her, I have chastis'd the amorous Trojan,
And am her knight by proof.

I go, my lord.
[Exit Servant.


Agam. Renew, renew! The fierce Polydamas
Hath beat down Menon: bastard Margarelon
Hath Doreus prisoner:

And stands colossus-wise, waving his beam,'
Upon the pashed corses of the kings
Epistrophus and Cedius: Polixenes is slain;
Amphimachus, and Thoas, deadly hurt;
Patroclus ta'en, or slain; and Palamedes
Sore hurt and bruised: the dreadful Sagittary
Appals our numbers; haste we, Diomed,
To reinforcement, or we perish all.


Nest. Go, bear Patroclus' body to Achilles;
And bid the snail-pac'd Ajax arm for shame.-
There is a thousand Hectors in the field:
Now here he fights on Galathe his horse,
And there lacks work; anon, he's there afoot,
And there they fly, or die, like scaled sculls
Before the belching whale; then is he yonder,
And there the strawy Greeks, ripe for his edge,
Fall down before him, like the mower's swath:
Here, there, and every where, he leaves and takes;
Dexterity so obeying appetite,

That what he will, he does; and does so much,
That proof is call'd impossibility.


And foams at mouth, and he is arm'd, and at it,
Roaring for Troilus; who hath done to-day
Mad and fantastic execution;
Engaging and redeeming of himself,
With such a careless force, and forceless care,
As if that luck, in very spite of cunning,
Bade him win all.

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Ere that correction :-Troilus, I say! what, Troilus!

Tro. O, traitor Diomed!-turn thy false face,
thou traitor,

And pay thy life thou owest me for my horse!
Dio. Ha! art thou there?

Ajax. I'll fight with him alone: stand, Diomed.
Dio. He is my prize, I will not look upon.
Tro. Come both, you cogging' Greeks; have at
you both.
[Exeunt, fighting.

Hect. Yea, Troilus! O, well fought, my young-
est brother!


Achil. Now do I see thee; Ha!-Have at thee,

Hect. Pause, if thou wilt.

Achil. I do disdain thy courtesy, proud Trojan.
Be happy, that my arms are out of use:

Ulyss. O, courage, courage, princes! great My rest and negligence befriend thee now,

1 This is an idea taken from the ancient books of romantic chivalry, and even from the usage of the poet's age; as is the following one in the speech of Diomedes: And am her knight by proof,'

It appears from Segar's Honour, Military and Civil, folio, 1602, that a person of superior birth might not be chalJenged by an inferior, or if challenged might refuse combat. We learn from Melvil's Memoirs, p. 165, ed. 1735, 'the laird of Grange offered to fight Bothwell, who answered that he was neither earl nor lord, but a baron; and so was not his equal. The like answer made he to Tullibardine. Then my Lord Lindsay offered to fight him, which he could not well refuse; but his heart fail. ed him, and he grew cold on the business.' These punctiling are well ridiculed in Albumazar, Act iv. Sc. 7. 2 This circumstance is taken from Lydgate, as is the introduction of a bastard son of Priam under the name of Margarelon. The latter is also in the Old History of the Destruction of Troy.

31. e. his lance, like a weaver's beam; as Goliath's spear is described.

4 Bruised, crushed

5 A mervayllous beaste that was called Sagittayre, that behynde the myddes was an horse, and to fore a

man: this beste was heery like an horse, and shotte well with a bowe: this beste made the Grekes sore

aferde, and slewe many of them with his bowe.-Destruction of Troy, by Caxton.

A more circumstantial account of this Sagittary is to be found in Lydgate. 6 i. e. dispersed shoals. "A scull of fishes: examen vel agmen piscium' (Baret,) was also in more ancient times written a scoole."'

7 This remark seems to be made by Nestor, in consequence of the return of Ajax to the field, he having lately refused to cooperate or draw together with the Greeks, though at present he is roused from his sullen fit by the loss of a friend.

9 i. e. murderer of boys. So in King Henry IV. Part ii. Act ii. Scene 1:

A man-queller and a woman-queller. 9 That is, as we should now say, I will not be a looker-on.

10 The poet had heard of Græcia mendax. Diomedes had defrauded him of his mistress, and he bestows the epithet on both, unius ob culpam. Cicero bears witness to this character of the ancient Greeks:"Testimoniorum religionem et fidem nunquam ista natio coluit.' And again-Græcorum ingenia ad fallendum parata sunt."


But thou anon shalt hear of me again;
Till when, go seek thy fortune.
Fare thee well:-
I would have been much more a fresher man,
Had I expected thee.-How now, my brother?
Re-enter TROILUS.

Tro. Ajax hath ta'en Æneas; Shall it be?
No, by the flame of yonder glorious heaven,
He shall not carry him; I'll be taken, too,
Or bring him off:-Fate, hear me what I say!
I reck not though I end my life to-day.

Enter One in sumptuous Armour.


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SCENE VII. The same. Enter ACHILLES, with

Achil. Come here about me, you my myrmidons;
Mark what I say.-Attend me where I wheel:
Strike not a stroke, but keep yourselves in breath;
And when I have the bloody Hector found,
Empale him with your weapons round about;
In fellest manner execute1
your arms.
Follow me, sirs, and my proceedings eye!
It is decreed-Hector the great must die. [Exeunt.
and PARIS, fighting; then THERSITES.
Ther. The cuckold, and the cuckold-maker are at
it: Now, bull! now, dog! 'Loo, Paris, 'loo! now
my double-henned sparrow! 'loo, Paris, loo! The
bull has the game :-'ware horns, ho!



Mar. Turn, slave, and fight.
Ther. What art thou?

Mar. A bastard son of Priam's.
Ther. I am a bastard too; I love bastards: I
am a bastard begot, bastard instructed, bastard in
mind, bastard in valour, in every thing illegitimate.
One bear will not bite another, and wherefore
should one bastard? Take heed, the quarrel's most
ominous to us: if the son of a whore fight for a
whore, he tempts judgment: Farewell, bastard.
Ma. The devil take thee, coward! [Exeunt.
SCENE IX. Another part of the Field. Enter


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Enter ACHILLES and Myrmidons.
Achil. Look, Hector, how the sun begins to set;
1 i. e. prevail over him. So in All's Well that Ends

The count he woos your daughter,
Resolves to carry her.'

2 This circumstance is also taken from Lydgate's poem, who furnished Shakspeare with the hint for the following line:

'I am unarm'd; forego this vantage, Greek.'

How ugly night comes breathing at his heels:
Even with the yaile and dark'ning of the sun,
To close the day up, Hector's life is done.
Hect. I am unarm'd: forego this vantage, Greek.
Achil. Strike, fellows, strike; this is the man I
[HECTOR falls.


So, Ilion, fall thou next! now, Troy, sink down!
Here lies thy heart, thy sinews, and thy bone.-
On, Myrmidons; and cry you all amain,
Achilles hath the mighty lector slain.

[A Retreat sounded. Hark! a retreat upon our Grecian part.

Myr. The Trojan trumpets sound the like, my lord.

Achil. The dragon wing of night o'erspreads the

And, sticklers like, the armies separates.
My half-supp'd sword, that frankly would have fed,
Pleas'd with this dainty bit, thus goes to bed.--
[Sheathes his sword.
Come, tie his body to my horse's tail,
Along the field I will the Trojan trail.
SCENE X. The same. Enter AGAMEMNON,
others, marching. Shouts within.


Agam. Hark! hark! what shout is that?
Peace, drums.



Achilles! Hector's slain! Achilles!
Dio. The bruit is-Hector's slain, and by Achilles.
Ajax. If it be so, yet bragless let it be;
Great Hector was as good a man as he.

Agam. March patiently along:--Let one be sent
To pray Achilles see us at our tent.--
If in his death the gods have us befriended,
Great Troy is ours, and our sharp wars are ended.
[Exeunt, marching.
Another part of the Field. Enter
ENEAS and Trojans.


Ene. Stand, ho! yet are we masters of the field!
go home; here starve we out the night.

Tro. Hector is slain.
Hector?--The gods forbid!
Tro. He's dead; and at the murderer's horse's tail,
In beastly sort, dragg'd through the shameful field.-
Frown on, you heavens, effect your rage with speed!
Sit, gods, upon your thrones, and smile at Troy!
I say, at once let your brief plagues be mercy,
And linger not our sure destructions on!

ne. My lord, you do discomfort all the host.
Tro. You understand me not, that tell me so;
I do not speak of flight, of fear, of death;
But dare all imminence, that gods and men,
Address their dangers in. Hector is gone!
Who shall tell Priam so, or Hecuba?"
Let him, that will a screech-owl aye be call'd,
Go in to Troy, and say there--Hector's dead:
There is a word will Priam turn to stone;
Make wells and Niobes of the maids and wives,
Cold statues of the youth; and, in a word,

6 The rail of the sun,' is the sinking, setting, or vailing of the sun.

7 Heywood, in his Rape of Lucrece, 1638, gives the same account of Achilles overpowering Hector by numbers. In Lydgate and the old story book the same account is given of the death of Troilus. Lydgate, following Guido of Colonna, who in the grossest manner has vio

the Grecian poet as the original offender.

3 To frush is to break or bruise. So in the Destruc-lated all the characters drawn by Homer, reprehends tion of Troy :- Saying these words, Hercules caught by the head poor Lychas-and threw him against a rocke so nercely that he to frushed and all to-burst his bones, and so slew him.'

4 To execute their arms is to employ them, to put them to use. So in Love's Labour's Lost, Rosaline says to Biron :

Full of comparisons and wounding flouts, Which you on all estates will execute.' 5 Bastard, in ancient times, was not a disreputable appellation.

8 Sticklers were persons who attended upon combatants in trials of skill, to part them when they had fought enough, and, doubtless, to see fair play. They were probably so called from the stick or wand which they carried in their hands. The name is still given to the arbitrators at wrestling matches in the west country. 9 Hanmer and Warburton read:smite at Troy ;" which, it must be confessed, is more in correspondence with the rest of Troilus's wish,

Scare Troy out of itself. But, march, away:
Hector is dead; there is no more to say.
Stay yet;-You vile abominable tents,

Thus proudly pight' upon our Phrygian plains,
Let Titan rise as early as he dare,

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As many as be here of pander's hall,
Your eyes, half out, weep out at Pandar's fall:
Or, if you cannot weep, yet give some groans,

I'll through and through you!-And thou, great-Though not for me, yet for your aching bones.

siz'd coward!

No space of earth shall sunder our two hates;
I'll haunt thee like a wicked conscience still,
That mouldeth goblins swift as frenzy thoughts.
Strike a free march to Troy !-with comfort go:
Hope of revenge shall hide our inward woe.
• [Exeunt ENEAS and Trojans.
As TROILUS is going out, enter, from the other side,

Pan. But hear you, hear you!
Tro. Hence, broker lackey! ignomy and shame
Pursue thy life, and live aye with thy name!

Brethren, and sisters, of the hold-door trade,
Some two months hence my will shall here be made:
It should be now, but that my fear is this,-
Some galled goose of Winchester' would hiss:
Till then I'll sweat, and seek about for eases

And, at that time, bequeath you my diseases.


THIS play is more correctly written than most of which either the extent of his views or elevation of his Shakspeare's compositions, but it is not one of those in fancy is fully displayed. As the story abounded with materials, he has exerted little invention; but he has Pan. A goodly med'cine for my aching bones!--diversified his characters with great variety, and preO, world! world! world! thus is the poor agent served them with great exactness. His vicious characdespised! O traitors and bawds, how earnestly are ters disgust, but cannot corrupt, for both Cressida and you set a' work, and how ill requited! Why should characters seem to have been the favourites of the wriour endeavour be so loved, and the performance so ter: they are of the superficial kind, and exhibit more loathed? what verse for it? what instance for it?-of manners than nature; but they are copiously filled Let me see:

Full merrily the humble-bee doth sing,
Till he hath lost his honey, and his sting:
And being once subdued in armed tail,
Sweet honey and sweet notes together fail.-

1 Pitched, fixed.

2 Broker anciently signified a bawd of either sex. So in King John:

This bawd, this broker, this all-changing word,' &c. 3 Ignominy.

4 Canvass hangings for rooms, painted with emblems and mottoes.

5 See King King Henry VI. Part I. Act. i. Sc. 3. 6 See Measure for Measure, Act i, Sc. 2. *It should, however, be remembered that Thersites had been long in possession of the stage in an Interlude bearing his name.

The first seven books of Chapman's Homer were published in 1596, and again in 1598, twelve books not long afterward, and the whole 24 books at latest in 1611.

Pandarus are detested and condemned. The comic

and powerfully impressed. Shakspeare has in his story followed, for the greater part, the old book of Caxton, which was then very popular; but the character of Thersites, of which it makes no mention, is a proof that this play was written after Chapman had published his version of Homer.* JOHNSON.

The classical reader may be surprised that Shakspeare, having had the means of being acquainted with the great father of poetry through the medium of Chapman's translation, should not have availed himself of such an original instead of the Troy Booke; but it should be recollected that it was his object as a writer for the stage to coincide with the feelings and prejudices of his audience, who, believing themselves to have drawn their descent from Troy, would by no means have been pleased to be told that Achilles was a braver man than Hector. They were ready to think well of the Trojans as their ancestors, but not very anxious about knowing their history with much correctness; and Shakspeare might have applied to worse sources of information than even Lydgate.”—Boswell.



THE story of the Misanthrope is told in almost every a covetous churlish old man. Hermogenes, a fiddler. collection of the time, and particularly in two books, Abyssus, a usurer. Lollio, a country clowne, Philarwith which Shakspeare was intimately acquainted-gurus' sonne. Stilpo, and Speusippus, two lying phiThe Palace of Pleasure, and the Translation of Plu- losophers. Grunnio, a lean servant of Philargurus. tarch, by Sir Thomas North. The latter furnished the Obba, Timon's butler. Pa dio, Gelasimus' page. Two poet with the following hint to work upon :-'Antonius sergeants. A sailor. Callimela, Philargurus' daughter. forsook the city and companie of his friendes, saying Blatte, her prattling nurse.-Scene, Athens.' that he would lead Timon's life, because he had the like wrong offered him that was offered unto Timon; and for the unthankfulness of those he had done good unto, and whom he tooke to be his friends, he was angry with all men, and would trust no man.'

To this manuscript play Shakspeare was probably indebted for some parts of his plot. Here he found the faithful steward, the banquet scene, and the story of Timon's being possessed of great sums of gold, which he had dug up in the wood; a circumstance which it is not likely he had from Lucian, there being then no translation of the dialogue that relates to that subject. Malone imagines that Shakspeare wrote his Timon of Athens in the year 1610.

Mr. Strutt, the engraver, was in possession of a MS. play on this subject, apparently written, or transcribed, about the year 1600. There is a scene in it resembling Shakspeare's banquet, given by Timon to his flatterers. Instead of warm water he sets before them stones paint. "Of all the works of Shakspeare, Timon of Athens ed like artichokes, and afterwards beats them out of the possesses most the character of a satire-a laughing room. He then retires to the woods, attended by his satire in the picture of the parasites and flatterers, and faithful steward, who (like Kent in King Lear) has dis- a Juvenalian in the bitterness and the imprecations of guised himself to continue his services to his master. Timon against the ingratitude of a false world. The Timon, in the last act, is followed by his fickle mistress, story is treated in a very simple manner, and is defi&c. after he was reported to have discovered a hidden uitely divided into large masses:-in the first act, the joytreasure by digging. The piece itself (though it ap- ous life of Timnon, his noble and hospitable extravapears to be the work of an academic) is a wretched one. gance, and the throng of every description of suitors to The persona dramatis are as follows:--Timon; La-him; in the second and third acts, his embarrassment, ches, his faithful servant. Eutrapelus, a dissolute and the trial which he is thereby reduced to make of his young man. Gelasimus, a cittie heyre. Pseudocheus, supposed friends, who all desert him in the hour of a lying traveller. Demeas, an orator. Philargurus, nced;-in the fourth and fifth acts, Timon's flight to the

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