Puslapio vaizdai
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My lord of Surrey, why look you so sad?
Sur. My heart is ten times lighter than my looks.
K. Rich. My lord of Norfolk,-

Here, most gracious liege. K. Rich. Norfolk, we must have knocks: Ha! must we not?

Nor. We must both give and take, my loving lord. K. Rich. Up with my tent: Here will I lie tonight;"

[Soldiers begin to set up the King's tent. But where, to-morrow?-Well, all's one for thatWho hath descried the number of the traitors? Nor. Six or seven thousand is their utmost power. K. Rich. Why, our battalia trebles that ac


Besides, the king's name is a tower of strength,
Which they upon the adverse faction want.
Up with the tent.-Come, noble gentlemen,
Let us survey the vantage of the ground;-
Call for some men of sound direction:4-
Let's want no discipline, make no delay;
For, lords, to-morrow is a busy day. [Exeunt.
Enter, on the other side of the Field, RICHMOND,
Lords. Some of the Soldiers pitch RICHMOND'S


And you, Sir Walter Herbert, stay with me:
The earl of Pembroke keeps his regiment ;-
Good Captain Blunt, bear my good night to him,
And by the second hour in the morning
Desire the earl to see me in my tent:
Yet one thing more, good captain, do for me,
Where is Lord Stanley quarter'd, do you know?

Blunt. Unless I have mista'en his colours much (Which, well I am assur'd, I have not done,) His regiment lies half a mile at least South from the mighty power of the king. Richm. If without peril it be possible, Sweet Blunt, make some good means" to speak with him,

And give him from me this most needful note.
Blunt. Upon my life, my lord, I'll undertake it;
And So, God give you quiet rest to-night!
Richm. Good night, good captain Blunt. Come,
Let us consult upon to-morrow's business;
In to my tent, the air is raw and cold.

[They withdraw into the Tent. Enter, to his Tent, KING RICHARD, NORFOLK, RATCLIFF, and CATESBY.

K. Rich. What is't o'clock?

It's nine o'clock.
K. Rich.

It's supper time, my lord:

I will not sup to-night.— Give me some ink and paper.What, is my beaver easier than it was ?And all my armour laid into my tent? Cate. It is, my liege; and all things are in rea


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Richm. The weary sun hath made a golden set, And, by the bright track of his fiery car, Gives token of a goodly day to-morrow.Sir William Brandon, you shall bear my standard.-Ratcliff, Give me some ink and paper in my tent ;I'll draw the form and model of our battle, Limits each leader to his several charge, And part in just proportion our small power. My lord of Oxford, you, Sir William Brandon,

1 Alluding to the proverb, Conscientiæ mille testes.' 2 Richard is reported not to have slept in his tent on the night before the battle, but in the town of Leicester. 3 Richmond's forces are said to have been only five thousand; and Richard's army consisted of about twelve thousand. But Lord Stanley lay at a small dis. Lance with three thousand men, and Richard may be supposed to have reckoned on them as his friends, though the event proved otherwise.

4 i. e. tried judgment, military skill. 5 Appoint.

6 Remains with.

7 i. e. contrive, take some pains or earnest measures. By a watch is most probably meant a watch-light. The nature of which will appear from the following bote of Sir Frances Kinaston upon Chaucer's Troilus and Cressida. in the very curious rhiming Latin Version of that poem which I possess in manuscript. This word [morter] doth plainely intimate Jeffery Chaucer to have been an esquire of the body in ordinary to the king, whose office it is, after he hath chardged and set the watch of the gard, to carry in the morter and to set it by the king's bed-side, for he takes from the cupboard a silver bason, and therin poures a little water, and then sets a round cake of virgin wax in the middest of the bason, in the middle of which cake is a wicke of bumbast, which being lighted burnes as a watch-light all night by the king's bed-side. It hath, as I conceive, the name of morter for the likenes it hath when it is

K. Rich. Saw'st thou the melancholy Lord Nor

thumberland ?10

Rat. Thomas the earl of Surrey, and himself, Much about cock-shut" time, from troop to troop, Went through the army, cheering up the soldiers.

nere consumed unto a morter wherin you bray spices, for the flame first hollowing the middle of the waxe cake, which is next unto it, the waxe by degrees, like the sands in a houre glasse, runs evenly from all sides to the middle to supply the wicke. This royal ceremony Chaucer wittily faines to be in Cresseid's bed-chamber, calling this kind of watch-light by the name of morter, which very few courtiers besides esquires of the body (who only are admitted after all night is served to come into the king's bedchamber,) do understand what is meant by it.' Kinaston was himself esquire of the body to King Charles I. Baret mentions watching lamps, or candles; lucernæ vigiles:' and watching candles are mentioned in many old plays. Steevens says that he has seen them represented in some of the pictures [qu. prints?] of Albert Durer.

9 i. e. the staves or poles of his lances. It was the custom to carry more than one into the field.

10 Richard calls him melancholy because he did not join heartily in his cause.

11 i. e. twilight. A cock-shut was a large net stretched across a glade, and so suspended upon poles as easily to be drawn together, and was employed to catch woodcocks. These nets were chiefly used in the twi light of the evening, when woodcocks 'take wing to go and get water, flying generally low; and when they find any thoroughfare through a wood or range of trees, they venture through. The artificial glade made for

K. Rich. So, I am satisfied. Give me a bowl of wine:

I have not that alacrity of spirit,

Nor cheer of mind, that I was wont to have.-
Set it down. Is ink and paper ready?

Rat. It is, my lord.
K. Rich. Bid my guard watch; leave me.
About the mid of night, come to my tent,
And help to arm me.-Leave me, I say.

[KING RICHARD retires into his Tent.
RICHMOND'S Tent opens, and discovers him, and
Officers, &c.


Stan. Fortune and victory sit on thy helm!
Richm. All comfort that the dark night can afford,
Be to thy person, noble father-in-law!
Tell me, how fares our loving mother?

Stan. I, by attorney,' bless thee from thy mother,
Who prays continually for Richmond's good:
So much for that.-The silent hours steal
And flaky darkness breaks within the east.
In brief, for so the season bids us be,
Prepare thy battle early in the morning;
And put thy fortune to the arbitrement
Of bloody strokes, and mortal-staring war,
I, as I may (that which I would, I cannot,)
With best advantage will deceive the time,
And aid thee in this doubtful shock of arms:
But on thy side I may not be too forward,
Lest, being seen, thy brother tender George?
Be executed in his father's sight:
Farewell: The leisure and the fearful time
Cuts off the ceremonious vows of love,
And ample interchange of sweet discourse,
Which so long sunder'd friends should dwell upon;
God give us leisure for these rites of love:
Once more, adieu :-Be valiant, and speed well!

Richm. Good lords, conduct him to his regiment:
I'll strive, with troubled thoughts, to take a nap;
Lest leaden slumber peise me down to-morrow,
When I should mount with wings of victory:
Once more, good night, kind lords and gentlemen.
[Exeunt Lords, &c. with STANLEY.
O Thou! whose captain I account myself,
Look on my forces with a gracious eye;
Put in their hands thy bruising irons of wrath,
That they may crush down with a heavy fall
The usurping helmets of our adversaries!
Make us thy ministers of chastisement,
That we may praise thee in thy victory!
To thee I do commend my watchful soul,
Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes
Sleeping, and waking, O, defend me still. [Sleeps.
The Ghosts of Prince Edward, Son to Henry the
Sixth, rises between the two Tents.

Ghost. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow!
Think, how thou stab'dst me in my prime of youth
At Tewksbury; Despair therefore, and die !-
Be cheerful, Richmond; for the wrong'd souls
Of butcher'd princes fight in thy behalf:
King Henry's issue, Richmond, comforts thee.

them to pass through were called cock-roads. Hence
cock-shut time and cock-shut light were used to express
the evening twilight.

1 i. e. by deputation.

The Ghost of King Henry the Sixth rises.
Ghost. When I was mortal, my anointed body

By thee was punch'd' full of deadly holes:
Think on the Tower, and me; Despair, and die;
Harry the Sixth bids thee despair and die.-
Virtuous and holy, be thou conqueror!
Doth comfort thee in thy sleep; Live, and flourish'
Harry, that prophesy'd thou should'st be king,"
The Ghost of Clarence rises.

2 This is from Holinshed. The young nobleman, whom the poet calls George Stanley, was created Lord Strange in right of his wife by Edward IV. in 1492. 3 We have still a phrase equivalent to this, however harsh it may seem. 'I would do this if leisure would permit,' where leisure stands for want of leisure. 4 Weigh.

5 Thus in Romeo and Juliet :

thy eyes' windows fall

Like death."

Ghost. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow!
I, that was wash'd to death with fulsome wine,
To-morrow in the battle think on me,
Poor Clarence, by thy guile betray'd to death!


And fall thy edgeless sword; Despair, and die !-
Thou offspring of the house of Lancaster,
The wronged heirs of York do
for thee;
Good angels guard thy battle! Live, and flourish!
The Ghosts of Rivers, Grey, and Vaughan, rise.
Riv. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow,
Rivers, that died at Pomfret! Despair, and die!
Grey. Think upon Grey, and let thy soul despair!
Vaugh. Think upon Vaughan; and, with guilty

6 The hint for this scene is furnished by Holinshed, who copies from Polydore Virgil. It seemed to him being asleepe, that he saw diverse ymages like terrible devilles which pulled and haled him, not sufferynge him to take any quiet or reste. The which strange vision

Let fall thy lance! Despair, and die!


All. Awake! and think, our wrongs in Richard's
Will conquer him ;-awake, and win the day!
The Ghost of Hastings rises.
Ghost. Bloody and guilty, guiltily awake;
And in a bloody battle end thy days!
Think on Lord Hastings; and despair, and die !-
Quiet untroubled soul, awake, awake!

Arm, fight, and conquer, for fair England's sake!
The Ghosts of the two young Princes rise.
Ghosts. Dream on thy cousins smother'd in the

Let us be lead within thy bosom, Richard,
And weigh thee down to ruin, shame, and death!
Thy nephews' souls bid thee despair, and die.-

Sleep, Richmond, sleep in peace, and wake in joy;
Live, and beget a happy race of kings!
Good angels guard thee from the boar's annoy!
Edward's unhappy sons do bid thee flourish.

The Ghost of Queen Anne rises.
Ghost. Richard, thy wife, that wretched Anne thy
That never slept a quiet hour with thee,
Now fills thy sleep with perturbations:
To-morrow in the battle think on me,

And fall thy edgeless sword; Despair, and die !—

but it stuffed his head with many busy and dreadful not so sodaynely strake his heart with a sodayne feare, imaginations. And least that it might be suspected that he was abashed for fear of his enemies, and for that familiar friends of the morning his wonderfull vysion cause looked so piteously, he recited and declared to his and feareful dreame.' The Legend of King Richard III. in the Mirror for Magistrates, and Drayton in the twenty-second Song of his Polyolbion, have passages found. ed upon Shakspeare's description.

7 The verb to punch, according to its etymology, was formerly used to prick or pierce with a sharp point. 8 See the prophecy in King Henry VI. Part III. Act

iv. Sc. 6.

seems to have forgot that Clarence was killed before he 91. e. teeming or superabundant wine. Shakspeare was thrown into the Malmsey butt, and consequently could not be washed to death.

10 Fall is here a verb active, signifying to drop or les fall.

Thou, quiet soul, sleep thou a quiet sleep;

Dream of success and happy victory;
Thy adversary's wife doth pray for thee.


The Ghost of Buckingham rises.
Ghost. The first was I, that help'd thee to the
The last was I that felt thy tyranny:
O, in the battle think on Buckingham,
And die in terror of thy guiltiness!
Dream on,
dream on, of bloody deeds and death;
Fainting, despair; despairing, yield thy breath!
I died for hope, ere I could lend thee aid:
But cheer thy heart, and be thou not dismay'd:
God, and good angels fight on Richmond's side;
And Richard falls in height of all his pride.

[The Ghosts vanish. KING RICHARD
starts out of his dream.

K. Rich. Give me another horse,-bind up my

Have mercy, Jesu!-Soft; I did but dream.-
O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me!-
The lights burn blue. It is now dead midnight.
Cold fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh.
What do I fear? myself? there's none else by:
Richard loves Richard; that is, I am I.2
Is there a murderer here? No ;—Yes; I am:
Then fly, What, from myself? Great reason:

Lest I revenge. What? Myself on myself?
I love myself. Wherefore? for any good,
That I myself have done unto myself?
O, no: alas, I rather hate myself,
For hateful deeds committed by myself.
I am a villain: Yet I lie, I am not.

Fool, of thyself speak well:-Fool, do not flatter.
My conscience hath a thousand several tongues,
And every tongue brings in a several tale,
And every lale condemns me for a villain.
Perjury, perjury, in the high'st degree,
Murder, stern murder, in the dir'st degree;
All several sins, all us'd in each degree,
Throng to the bar, crying all-Guilty! guilty!
I shall despair.-There is no creature loves me;
And, if I die, no soul will pity me:-

Nay, wherefore should they? since that I myself
Find in myself no pity to myself.

Methought, the souls of all that I had murder'd
Came to my tent: and every one did threat
To-morrow's vengeance on the head of Richard.

Rat. My lord,


K. Rich. Who's there?

RICHMOND wakes. Enter OXFORD and others.
Lords. Good morrow, Richmond.
Richm. 'Cry mercy, lords, and watchful gentle-

That you


have ta'en a tardy sluggard here. Lords. How have you slept, my lord? Richm. The sweetest sleep, and fairest-boding dreams,

That ever enter'd in a drowsy head,

Have I since your departure had, my lords. Methought, their souls, whose bodies Richard murder'd,

Came to my tent, and cried-On! victory!

I promise you, my heart is very jocund
In the remembrance of so fair a dream.
How far into the morning is it, lords?
Lords. Upon the stroke of four.
Richm. Why, then 'tis time to arm, and give di-
rection.- [He advances to the troops.
More than I have said, loving countrymen,
The leisure and enforcement of the time
Forbids to dwell on: Yet, remember this,-
God, and our good cause, fight upon our side:
The prayers of holy saints, and wronged souls,
Like high-rear'd bulwarks, stand before our faces;
Richard except, those, whom we fight against,
Had rather have us win, than him they follow.
For what is he they follow? truly, gentlemen,
A bloody tyrant, and a homicide;

One rais'd in blood, and one in blood establish'd;
One that made means3 to come by what he hath,
And slaughter'd those that were the means to help

A base foul stone, made precious by the foil
Of England's chair, where he is falsely set;
One that hath ever been God's enemy:
Then, if you fight against God's enemy,
God will, in justice, ward you as his soldiers;
If you do sweat to put a tyrant down,
You sleep in peace, the tyrant being slain;
If you do fight against your country's foes,
Your country's fat shall pay your pains the hire;
If you do fight in safeguard of your wives,
Your wives shall welcome home the conquerors;
If you do free your children from the sword,
Your children's children quit' it in your age.
Then, in the name of God, and all these rights,
Advance your standards, draw your willing swords;
For me, the ransom of my bold attempt
Shall be this cold corpse on the earth's cold face;
But if I thrive, the gain of my attempt
The least of you shall share his part thereof.
Sound, drums and trumpets boldly and cheerfully i
God, and Saint George! Richmond, and victory

Rat. Ratcliff, my lord; 'tis I. The early village Re-enter KING RICHARD, RATCLIFF, Attendants,


Hath twice done salutation to the morn:
Your friends are up, and buckle on their armour.
K. Rich. O, Ratcliff, I have dream'd a fearful

What thinkest thou? will our friends prove all true?
Rat. No doubt, my lord.

K. Rich.
Ratcliff, I fear, I fear,-1
Rat. Nay, good my lord, be not afraid of shadows.
K. Rich. By the apostle Paul, shadows to-night
Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard,
Than can the substance of ten thousand soldiers,
Armed in proof, and led by shallow Richmond.
It is not yet near day. Come, go with me;
Under our tents I'll play the eaves-dropper,
To hear, if any mean to shrink from me.

[Exeunt KING RICHARD and RATCLIFF. Buckingham's hope of aiding Richmond induced him to take up arms; he lost his life in consequence, and therefore may be said to have died for hope; hope being the cause which led to that event.

2 There is in this, as in many of the poet's speeches of passion, something very triffing, and something very striking. Richard's debate, whether he should quarrel with himself, is too long continued; but the subsequent exaggeration of his crimes is truly tragical.-Johnson. ૨

and Forces.

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He should have brav'd' the east an hour ago:
A black day will it be to somebody.—-

Rat. My lord?
K. Rich. The sun will not be seen to-day;
The sky doth frown and lour upon our army.
I would, these dewy tears were from the ground.
Not shine to-day! Why, what is that to me,
More than to Richmond? for the self-same heaven,
That frowns on me, looks sadly upon him.

Nor. Arm, arm, my lord; the foe vaunts in the

K. Rich. Come, bustle, bustle ;-Caparison my Call

horse ;

up Lord Stanley, bid him bring his power:
I will lead forth my soldiers to the plain,
And thus my battle shall be ordered.

My foreward shall be drawn out all in length,
Consisting equally of horse and foot;
Our archers shall be placed in the midst :
John duke of Norfolk, Thomas earl of Surrey,
Shall have the leading of this foot and horse.
They thus directed, we ourself will follow

In the main battle; whose puissance on either side
Shall be well winged with our chiefest horse.
This, and Saint George to boot!2-What think'st
thou, Norfolk?

Nor. A good direction, warlike sovereign.-
This found I on my tent this morning.
Giving a scroll.
K. Rich. Jocky of Norfolk, be not too bold, [Reads.
For Dickon thy master is bought and sold.
A thing devised by the enemy.

Go, gentlemen, every man unto his charge:
Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls;
Conscience is but a word that cowards use,
Devis'd at first to keep the strong in awe;
Our strong arms be our conscience, swords our law.
March on, join bravely, let us to't pell-mell;
If not to heaven, then hand in hand to hell.-
What shall say more than I have inferr'd?
Remember whom you are to cope withal ;-
A sort of vagabonds, rascals, and runaways,
A scum of Bretagnes, and base lackey peasants,
Whom their o'er-cloyed country vomits forth
To desperate ventures and assur'd destruction.
You sleeping safe, they bring you to unrest;
You having lands, and bless'd with beauteous wives,
They would restrains the one, distain the other.
And who doth lead them, but a paltry fellow,
Long kept in Bretagne at our mother's cost?

A milk-sop, one that never in his life
Felt so much cold as over shoes in snow?
Let's whip these stragglers o'er the seas again ;
Lash hence these over-weening rags of France,
These famish'd beggars, weary of their lives;
Who, but for dreaming on this fond exploit,
For want of means, poor rats, had hang'd them-

selves :

If we be conquer'd, let men conquer us,
And not these bastard Bretagnes; whom our fathers
Have in their own land beaten, bobb'd, and thump'd,
And, on record, left them the heirs of shame.
Shall these enjoy our lands? lie with our wives?
Ravish our daughters ?-Hark, I hear their drum.
[Drum afar off

Fight, gentlemen of England! fight, bold yeomea!
Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the head!
Spur your proud horses hard, and ride in blood;
Amaze the welkin with your broken staves!"
Enter a Messenger.

What says Lord Stanley? will he bring his power?
Mess. My lord, he doth deny to come.

K. Rich. Off instantly with his son George's head.
Nor. My lord, the enemy is pass'd the marsh ;*
After the battle let George Stanley die.

K. Rich. A thousand hearts are great within my


Advance our standards, set upon our foes;
Our ancient word of courage, fair Saint George,
Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons!
Upon them! Victory sits on our helms. [Exeunt.
SCENE IV. Another part of the Field. Alarum.
Excursions. Enter NORFOLK, and Forces; to

Cate. Rescue, my lord of Norfolk, rescue, rescue!
The king enacts more wonders than a man,
Daring an opposite to every danger;

His horse is slain, and all on foot he fights,
Seeking for Richmond in the throat of death:
Rescue, fair lord, or else the day is lost!

Alarum. Enter KING RICHARD.

K. Rich. A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!

Cate. Withdraw, my lord, I'll help you to a horse.
K. Rich. Slave, I have set my life upon a cast,
And I will stand the hazard of the die:

I think, there be six Richmonds in the field;
Five have I slain to-day, instead of him:-10
A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!!!


1 Steevens's notion is a strange one, that brav'd here means made it splendid or fine. The common signifi. position of his forces that it served to protect his right cation of the old verb to brave was not what he states it wing. By this movement he gained also another point, to be to challenge or set at defiance; but to look that his men should engage with the sun behind them, aloft, and go gaily, desiring to have the preeminence.and in the faces of his enemies; a matter of great conThis is old Baret's definition, which explains the text sequence when bows and arrows were in use. 9 i. e. daringly opposing himself, or offering himself better than Mr. Steevens has done. as an opponent to every danger.

2 i. e. this, and superadd to this, Saint George on our side. The phrase, like Saint George to borrow, which Holinshed puts into the mouth of Richard before the battle, is a kind of invocation to the saint to act as protector: Saint George to borrow meaning Saint George be our pledge or security.

3 Dickon is the ancient familiarization of Richard. 4 Company.

5 To restrain is to abridge, to diminish, to withhold from.

10 Shakspeare had employed this incident with histo.
rical propriety in the First Part of King Henry IV. He
bad here also good ground for his poetical exaggeration,
Richard, according to Polydore Virgil, was determined
if possible to engage with Richmond in single combat.
For this purpose he rode furiously to that quarter of the
field where the earl was; attacked his standard bearer,
Sir William Brandon, and killed him; then assaulted
Sir John Cheny, whom he overthrew. Having thus at

in single combat with him, and probably would have
been victorious, but at that instant Sir William Stanley
with three thousand men joined Richmond's army, and
the royal forces fled with great precipitation. Richard
was soon afterwards overpowered by numbers, and fell,
fighting bravely to the last moment."
11 In the old interlude on the subject of Richard III.
which Mr. Boswell printed at the end of this play, this
line stands:-

6 Thus Holinshed:- You see further, how a com-length cleared his way to his antagonist, he engaged pany of traitors, thieves, outlaws, and runagates, be aiders and partakers of this feate and enterprise. And to begin with the earl of Richmond, captaine of this rebellion, he is a Welsh milksop, brought up by my moother's means and mine, like a captive in a close cage in the court of Francis duke of Britaine,' p. 756. Holinshed copied this verbatim from Hall, edit. 1548, fol. 54; but his printer has given us by accident the word moother instead of brother; as it is in the original, and A horse! a horse! a fresh horse! ought to be in Shakspeare. In the first edition of Holinshed the word is rightly printed brother. So that this Burbage, the alter Roscius of Camden, appears to have circumstance not only shows that the poet follows Ho-been the original Richard. Bishop Corbet, in his Iter Boreale, introduces his host at Bosworth describing the linshed, but points out the edition used by him. battle, and when he would have say'd King Richard died, And call'd A horse' a horse !—he Burbage cried,'

7 Fright the skies with the shivers of your lances. 8 There was a large marsh in Bosworth plain between the two armies. Henry passed it, and made such a dis

Alarums, Enter KING RICHARD and RICHMOND; and exeunt fighting. Retreat and flourish. Then enter RICHMOND, STANLEY, bearing the Crown, with divers other Lords, and Forces.

Richm, God, and your arms, be prais'd, victorious friends;

The day is ours, the bloody dog is dead.

Stan. Courageous Richmond, well hast thou acquit thee!

Lo, here, this long usurped royalty,

From the dead temples of this bloody wretch
Have I pluck'd off, to grace thy brows withal;
Wear it, enjoy it, and make much of it.

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THIS is one of the most celebrated of our author's performances; yet I know not whether it has not happened to him as to others, to be praised most when praise is not most deserved. That this play has scenes noble in themselves, and very well contrived to strike in the ex

Richm. Great God of heaven, say, amen, to all!-hibition, cannot be denied. But some parts are trifling, But, tell me first, is young George Stanley living? Stan. He is, my lord, and safe in Leicester town; Whither, if it please you, we may now withdraw us. Richm. What men of name are slain on either side?

Stan. John duke of Norfolk, Walter Lord Ferrers,
Sir Robert Brakenbury, and Sir William Brandon.
Richm. Inter their bodies as becomes their births.
Proclaim a pardon to the soldiers fled,
That in submission will return to us;
And then, as we have ta'en the sacrament,
We will unite the white rose with the red-
Smile heaven upon this fair conjunction,
That long hath frown'd upon their enmity!-
What traitor hears me, and says not,-amen?
England hath long been mad, and scarr'd herself;
The brother blindly shed the brother's blood,
The father rashly slaughter'd his own son,
The son, compell'd, been butcher to the sire;
All this divided York and Lancaster,
Divided, in their dire division.-

O, now, let Richmond and Elizabeth,
The true succeeders of each royal house,
By God's fair ordinance conjoin together!
And let their heirs (God, if thy will be so,)
Enrich the time to come with smooth-fac'd peace,
With smiling plenty, and fair prosperous days!

others shocking, and some improbable.-JOHNSON. Malone says, he agrees with Dr. Johnson in think. ing that this play, from its first exhibition to the present He attributes (but I think erroneously) its popularity to hour, has been estimated greatly beyond its merits.' the detestation in which Richard's character was held at the time that Shakspeare wrote, and to the patronage of Queen Elizabeth, who was pleased at seeing King Henry VII. placed in the only favourable light in which he could be placed on the scene.' Steevens, in the fol lowing note, has stated the true grounds of the perpetual popularity of the play, which can only be attributed to one cause-the wonderful dramatic effect produced by the character of Richard.-S. W. S.

I most cordially join with Dr. Johnson and Mr. Malone in their opinions; and yet, perhaps, they have overlooked one cause of the success of this tragedy. The part of Richard is, perhaps beyond all others, variegated, and consequently favourable to a judicious performer. It comprehends, indeed, a trait of almost every species of character on the stage: the hero, the lover, the statesman, the buffoon, the hypocrite, the hardened and repenting sinner, &c. are to be found within its com. pass. No wonder, therefore, that the discriminating powers of a Burbage, a Garrick, and a Henderson, should at different periods have given it a popularity be yond other dramas of the same author.-STEEVENS.

1 i. e. diminish, or take away.

2 To reduce is to bring back; an obsolete sense of the word, derived from its Latin original, reduco.



I is the opinion of Johnson, Steevens, and Malone, this revival took place on the very day, being St. Peter's, that this play was written a short time before the on which the Globe Theatre was burnt down. The fire death of Queen Elizabeth, which happened on the 24th was occasioned, as it is said, by the discharge of some of March, 1602-3. The eulogium on King James, small pieces of ordnance called chambers in the scene which is blended with the panegyric of Elizabeth in the where King Henry is represented as arriving at Cardilast scene, was evidently a subsequent insertion, afternal Wolsey's gate at Whitehall, one of which, being the succession of the Scottish monarch to the throne: injudiciously managed, set fire to the thatched roof of for Shakspeare was too well acquainted with courts to the theatre *. Dr. Johnson first suggested that Ben compliment, in the lifetime of Queen Elizabeth, her Jonson might have supplied the Prologue and Epilogue presumptive successor; of whom, history informs us, to the play upon the occasion of its revival. Dr. Far. she was not a little jealous. That the prediction con- mer, Steevens, and Malone, support his opinion; and cerning King James was added after the death of the even attribute to him some of the passages of the play. queen, is still more clearly evinced, as Dr. Johnson has remarked, by the awkward manner in which it is connected with the foregoing and subsequent lines.

Mr. Gifford has controverted this opinion of Jonson having been the author of the Prologue and Epilogue of this play, and thinks the play which was performed After having lain by some years, unacted, probably under the title of All is True was a distinct performon account of the costliness of its exhibition, it was re-ance, and not Shakspeare's Henry the Eighth. To vived in 1613, under the title of 'All is True,' with new decorations, and a new Prologue and Epilogue: and

* The circumstance is recorded by the continuator of Stowe; and in a MS. Letter of Thomas Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering,dated London, this last of June, 1613, is thus mentioned: No longer since than yesterday, while Bourbage his company were acting at the Globe the play of Henry VIII. and there, shooting of certayne chambers in the way of triumph, the fire catched,' &c. --MS. Harl. 7002.

So in a letter from John Chamberlaine to Sir Ralph Winwood, dated London, 8th July, 1613: But the burning of the Globe, or Playhouse, on the Bankside, on St. Peter's day, cannot escape you; which fell out by a peale of chambers (that I know not upon what occa.

this it has been answered, That the Prologue, which has always accompanied Shakspeare's drama from its sion were to be used in the play), the tampin or stopple of one of them lighting in the thatch that covered the house, burn'd it to the ground in less than two hours, with a dwelling-house adjoining; and it was a great marvaile and faire grace of God that the people had so little harm, having but two narrow doors to get out as Winwood's Memorials, vol. iii. p. 469.

The event is also recorded by Sir Henry Wotton, in his letter of the 2d of July, 1613, where he says, it was at a new play, acted by the king's players at the Bank's Side, called All is True, representing some principal pieces of the reign of Henry the Eighth.'-Reliquia [Wotton, p. 425. Ed. 2d,

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