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pearing to molest the other. The dog, or Louisiana marmot is found generally throughout the trans-Mississipian terri tories, as far as the Rocky Mountains. They frequently construct their mounds in such numbers as to occupy an are: of a square mile, or even more, consisting of burrows, the entrances to which are at the side, their height being about a foot from the ground. On the top of these little cones they frequently sit, on the approach of strangers escaping down the orifices, but soon their little heads will be seen protruding, to see if the intruder still appears. The passage descends vertically to the depth of a foot or two, and then branches off in an oblique direction for a considerable distance, leading to a chamber which forms the dormitory of the inmates. They are exceedingly playful, sporting about, and frequently uttering their short hurried bark, which may be imitated by pronouncing the syllable cheh, cheh, chel, in rapid succession, by propelling the breath between the tip of the tongue and the roof of the mouth; it is from this bark they derive their name.-Face of the Earth.
12. How does the hunter take advantage of this?
13. What beasts of prey follow the buffalo herds?
14. How does the wolf overcome the bison?
15. To what species of animal does the prairie dog belong?
16. What other creature resides unmolested in the Marmots' holes?
17. What space of country is sometime covered with their mounds?
18. How high are these little hillocks? 19. Where do they go when a strange comes near?
20. Do they remain long at the botto of their holes?
21. Describe their little dwelling?
THE noblest conquest that man ever made over the brute creation was in taming the horse,1 and engaging him in his service. He lessens the labour of man, adds to his pleasures, advances or flees, with ardour and swiftness, for attack or defence; shares, with equal docility and cheerfulness, the fatigues of hunting and the dangers of war; and draws with appropriate strength, rapidity, or grace, the heavy ploughs and carts of the husbandman, the light vehicles of the rich, and the stately carriages of the great.
The horse is bred now in most parts of the world; those of Arabia, Turkey, and Persia are accounted better proportioned than many others; but the English race-horse may justly claim the precedence over all the European breed, and he is not inferior to the others in point of strength and beauty. The beautiful horses produced in Arabia are in general of a brown colour; their mane and tail very short, and the hair black and tufted. The Arabs, for the most part, use the mares in their ordinary excursions, experience having taught them that they are less vicious than the male, and are more capable of sustaining abstinence and fatigue.
As they have no other residence than a tent, this also serves for a stable, and the husband, the wife, the child, the mare, and the foal, lie down together indiscriminately; and the youngest branches of the family may be often seen embracing the neck, or reposing on the body of the mare, without any idea of fear or danger.
Of the remarkable attachment which the Arabs have for these animals, St. Pierre has given an affecting instance in his Studies of Nature. "The whole stock of a poor Arabian of the desert consisted of a beautiful mare; this the French consul at Saide2 offered to purchase, with an intention to send her to Louis XIV.3 The Arab, pressed by want, hesitated a long time, but at length consented, on condition of receiving a very considerable sum of money, which he
1 As to the native country of the horse, Mr. Bell, in his history of British quadru peds, speaks in the following terms:-"The long acknowledged superiority of the horses of Arabia is no proof that they were indigenous to that arid country in a wild state; for there is great reason to conclude that it was only at a comparatively late period that they were employed by that people. Solomon received treasures of vari ous kinds from Arabia, but from Egypt only were his horses brought. Egypt, then, most probably, is the native country of the horse."
2 Saide, a town in Syria, the Port of Damascus,-the ancient Sidon, which was next to Tyre in importance.
8 Louis XIV of France, miscalled the Great, was born 1638, and died 1715, aged 77 years. He was addicted to sensual pleasures, fond of war, and a violent persecutor of the Protestants,
named. The consul wrote to France for permission to close the bargain; and having obtained it, sent the information to the Arab. The man, so indigent as to possess only a miserable covering for his body, arrived with his magnifi cent courser he dismounted, and first looking at the gold, then steadfastly at his mare, heaved a sigh. To whom is it,' exclaimed he, that I am going to yield thee up? To Europeans! who will tie thee close, who will beat thee, who will render thee miserable! Return with me, my beauty, my jewel! and rejoice the hearts of my children." As he pronounced the last words, he sprung upon her back and was out of sight almost in a moment.'
The intelligence of the horse is next to that of the elephant, and he obeys his rider with so much punctuality and understanding, that the native Americans, who had never seen a man on horseback, thought, at first, that the Spaniards were a kind of monstrous race, half men and half horses. horse seems, indeed, to feel a delight in obeying man. Were he not of a kind disposition, he might become a dangerous enemy. There are but few instances recorded of his resenting an injury. One of the most remarkable is the following. A baronet, who was in possession of a hunter which seemed untirable, resolved to try if he could not fatigue him completely. After a long chase, he dined, remounted, and rode him furiously among the hills, till the animal was so exhausted that he reached the stable with infinite difficulty. More humane than his worthless master, the groom shed tears to see the state of the animal. Shortly afterwards, on the baronet's entering the stable, the horse furiously sprang at him, and he would have perished had he not been rescued by the groom.
Horses are sociable animals. Many, though quiet in company, will not stay a minute in a field by themselves, but will break through the strongest fences to seek for company. "My neighbour's horse," says Mr. White, "will not only not stay by himself abroad, but he will not bear to be left alone in a strange stable, without discovering the utmost impatience, and endeavouring to break the rack and manger with his fore feet. He has been known to leap out of a stable window, after company; and yet, in other respects, is remarkably quiet.”
An interesting story is told of affection in a horse. There were two Hanoverian horses, which had assisted in drawing
the same gun, in the German brigade of artillery, during the whole peninsular war. One of them was killed, the survivor was picqueted as usual, and his food was brought to him. He refused to eat, and kept constantly turning his head round to look for his companion, and sometimes calling him by a neigh. Every care was taken, and all means that could be thought of were adopted, to make him eat, but without effect. Other horses surrounded him on all sides, but he paid no attention to them; his whole demeanour indicated the deepest sorrow, and he died from hunger, not having tasted a bit from the time his companion fell.
The horse, in a domestic state, seldom lives longer than twenty years; but we may suppose, in a wild state, that he might attain double this age; and it is melancholy to think that our bad treatment has shortened the days of so noble a creature.
I cannot leave this subject without expressing my abhorrence of the cruelty with which this admirable creature is often treated. Young men frequently overdrive a horse, and thus impair his strength during the remainder of his life; and all this, perhaps, only for display. I have often seen a horse brutally whipped and beaten by those who had better deserved the lash themselves. I cannot believe that such wanton wickedness will go unpunished. That God who made the brute for the service of man, will not permit him to make it the sport of his wanton or wicked passions with impunity.
1. Tell me what the horse willingly does for man.
2. Which countries produce the best proportioned horses?
3. What say you about the native country of the horse?
4. Describe the Arabian horse.
5. Why do the Arabs prefer mares in their excursions?
6. What sort of residence has the Arab? 7. On what terms are the children and the horse in the tent?
8. What was the ancient name of Saide? and who was Louis XIV?
9. Relate the beautiful anecdote of the poor Arabian and his courser.
11. Who first imported horses into America?
12. What did the native Americans think about the Spaniards on horseback?
13. Relate the story of the horse so cruelly used by the worthless baronet.
14. Who will tell me a story that shows that the horse is fond of company?
15. Have you any instance to give of strong affection in a horse?
16. What about the horse's age in a domestic and in a wild state?
17. What think you of the man that would cruelly use such a noble creature? 18. If we are cruel to others, even to dumb brutes, can we consistently ask for
10. What is the only animal that excels mercy to ourselves? the horse in intelligence?
It is estimated that the number of distinct species of plants, already known and described, is 92,930. This includes all the flowering plants, trees, and shrubs, ferns, mosses, lichens, sea and river weeds, (Algo) mushrooms and their allies, (Fungi) in fact, every vegetable production. These are very variously distributed over our globe; light, heat, altitude, soil, situation, all contributing their influence in modifying the diffusion of species, and of these the first two are by far the most important. Near the equator, where light and heat are most intense, vegetation is most luxuriant and profuse; while at the poles, or at those high elevations which reach above the line of perpetual snow, or in the profounder recesses of the ocean, vegetable life seems to become entirely extinct, and not a plant even of the simplest form appears. Between these extreme limits, however, every gradation is seen, according to the increase of latitude or height. The species which inhabit each particular district of our globe are just those best suited to the physical condition of each, and to the requirements of its inhabitants, whether of the human species or of the brute creation. Thus, the water-melon, the banana, the breadfruit, and the rice-plant, are peculiar to tropical regions; while the vine, wheat, barley, and the common corn-plants, will not succeed in so high a temperature, but require a cooler climate. Many facts, which we shall have to notice, will exhibit to us the goodness of God in so arranging the vegetable productions of our globe, that not only (to a great extent) are the food-plants of the various countries exactly such as are best adapted to the wants of the inhabitants,