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the centre on which the whole body can bend or rotate-from the Latin, verětre, to turn. This division includes man, quadrupeds, birds, serpents, frogs, tortoises, crocodiles and those fish which have a bony skeleton, as cod, herrings, &c. This first great division of the animal kingdom is subdivided into four classes:-1. Mammalia, (Lat. Mamma, a breast), or animals which suckle their young, as the cow, the elephant, the whale, &c. 2. Aves; birds. 3. Reptilia; reptiles, such as the serpent, crocodile, &c. 4. Pisces; fishes, that is such as possess a bony skeleton.
The second great group consists of the Mollusca, or softbodied animals; popularly known as "shell-fish ;"—so named from the Latin word, mollis, soft. Molluscs for the most part have shells, forming a defence and covering for their soft bodies, as the snail, oyster, limpet, whelk, &c; some are destitute of this covering, as the cuttle fish, the common garden slug, &c. This second division is separated into six classes, viz., 1. Cephalopoda, (Gr. kephale, the head, and pous, a foot,) foot-headed animals, as the cuttle-fish, the nautilus, &c. 2. Pteropoda (Gr. pteron, a wing,) wing-footed animals, as the clio, the chief food of the whale. 3. Gasteropoda (Gr. gaster, the stomach,) belly-creeping animals, as the snail, limpet, whelk, &c. 4. Acephala (Gr. a, without, and kephale, the head,) headless, as the oyster, muscle. 5. Brachipoda (Gr. brachion, the arm,) armfooted, as the bivalve shells. 6. Cirripeda (Lat. cirrus, a curl, and pes, the foot,) clasp-footed, as the barnacle. The third sub-kingdom includes the Articulated animals, so named (from Lat. articulus, a little joint,) on account of their peculiar formation, which consists of a head and successive members jointed together. This third group is divided into four classes, viz., 1. Annulata, (Lat. annulus, a ring,) or ringed animals, as worms, leeches, &c. 2. Crustacea, (Lat. crusta, a shell,) or animals covered with shells, as crabs, lobsters, &c. 3. Arachnides, (Gr. arachnēs, a spider,) including spiders, scorpions, &c. 4. Insecta, (Lat. secare, to cut,) or small animals having the body divided into three portions, whence their name, as flies, bees, wasps, butterflies, &c. The Radiata, (Lat. radius, a ray,) form the fourth great division of the animal world. In them the nervous system, as far as it has been observed, presents a rayed or radiated arrangement, like the petals or flower leaves of a daisy, or anemone. Animals of this division are also called
zoophytes from the Greek words, zoon, an animal, and phyton, a plant, because they bear a great resemblance to plants in their structure. The Radiata are divided into five classes, viz., 1. Echinodermata, (Gr. echinos, a hedgehog, and derma, a skin,) spiny-skinned animals, including star-fishes, and seaurchins. 2. Entozoa, (Gr. entos, within, and zoon, an animal,) intestinal animals. 3. Acalepha, (Gr. acalephe, a nettle,) stinging animals, as the Medusa, Jelly-fish, &c. 4. Polypi, (Gr. polus, many, and pous, a foot,) sea-animals with many feet. 5. Infusoria, (Lat. infusor, a pourer in,) a class of minute animals, found in water in which vegetable matters are contained, and to which the term animalcules is commonly applied. They can be seen only by the microscope.
1. What influences greatly the distribu-[ tion of animals on the earth's surface?
2. State Cuvier's four grand divisions of the animal kingdom.
3. Why are vertebrated animals so named, and what is their peculiar characteristic ?
4. What animals are included in this division?
5. Name the four classes into which the first grand division is sub-divided.
6. To what class does the whale belong? 7. Is the whale correctly called a tish? 8. Why are molluscous animals so named, and what animals belong to the division?
9. Give the names of the six classes in this division.
10. Explain the names, and give exam ples of animals in each class.
11. Name the third sub-kingdom and explain the name.
12. Into what four classes is it subdivided?
13. Explain the names, and give examples under each.
14. Why are radiated animals so named? 15. Explain the names of the five classes, and give examples under each.
16. Name soine animals that belong to this division.
17. Explain the term zoophyte.
In the Old World the animal kingdom holds the preponder
ance over the vegetable, as the vegetable kingdom does over the animal in the New World. The animals of the Old World generally differ in species from those of the New World. The ape and baboon, the hyæna, panther, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, horse, ass, camel, buffalo, crocodile, python, &c., are inhabitants of the Old World; while the puma, (erroneously called the American lion,) the jaguar, the sloth, the armadillo, bison, llama, alligator or caiman, boa constrictor, and rattlesnake, are peculiar to the New World. In the animal as well as in the vegetable kingdom, the largest number of species are met with in the warm regions of the globe, the heat, light, and abundance of vegetable food tending to their increase; and a gradual diminution in the number, both of species and genera, takes place as we recede from the equator. The zoophytes, as coral and madrepore, are there abundant, and the shell-fish are large and brilliantly coloured, particularly in the Indian seas. Insects, reptiles, birds, swarm in great numbers, together with herbivorous animals of gigantic size, as the elephant, camelopard, buffalo, tapir, &c.; as also the formidable carnivorous, or flesh-eating beasts, the lion, hyæna, vulture, and condor. The effects of light and heat appear to be extended even to the inhabitants of the ocean; the sharks, and some other fish, are larger, and more ferocious, in the seas of tropical regions, and some species of fish are here adorned with gayer colours, than those in higher latitudes. The flying-fish, and the porcupine-fish, are found only in the warm seas. The most enormous of all animals in existence, are the cetacea or whale tribe; they are found more particularly, however, in the cold seas of high latitudes, except the sperm whale, which abounds chiefly in the warm seas. The researches of naturalists have shown that certain fishes are not merely limited in their range according to the laws of geographical distribution, but also have certain depths, to which they are in a great degree restricted. Hence some are most usually found at or near the surface; some are ground feeders, and are taken at considerable depths, and some occupy various intermediate stations. The temperate zones are favourable to all herbivorous quadrupeds, so useful, yea, so indispensable to man, as the horse, ass, ox, deer, sheep; the wolf, lynx, fox, bear, otter, being the chief beasts of prey. Animal life decreases rapidly as we advance to the polar regions. There the larger quadrupeds, and birds, are only summer visitants-as deer, elks. The beaver builds
for itself a warm house, and a few foxes and wolves, only, roam over the dreary snow. It is worthy of remark here, that in the most northerly parts alone, of the Old and New World, are the same species of animals found, thus the polar bear, and the arctic fox, inhabit the whole of the icy regions extending from Spitzbergen and Siberia to arctic America. The fauna, a group of animals met with in Australia, are mostly peculiar to that region, and include some of very singular forms. Among these are the various species of oppossum, and kangaroo, which belong to the order of mammalia called Mursupialia, or pouched animals, (marsupium being the Latin word for a pouch,) as having a tegumentary pouch, in which the young animal is protected during the completion of its development. Birds, like other animals, have their natural geographical limits, and though some have a very wide range, others are confined to a particular region; thus the birds of Paradise are found only in New Guinea, and some adjacent islands, the ostrich in Africa and Arabia, the cassowary in Java and New Holland, the humming-bird in America, the condor in the chain of the Cordilleras of Mexicoand Peru, and the great eagle among the ridges of the Alps. The powers of flight possessed by most birds, and the migratory instinct, which leads some species of birds to remove their quarters at the change of season, cause them to have a very wide range, and to enjoy at all times a climate especially adapted to their wants.
O'er Afric's sand the tawny Lion stalks,
On Phasis1 banks the graceful Pheasant walks;
And Seals and spouting Whales sport in the Northern Main.
1 Phasis (modern name Rhion) a river of Asiatic Russia, flowing W. into the Black Sea. The European pheasant (gallus phaseanus) derives its name from having been originally imported from the banks of this stream, and it still frequents an island at its mouth.
2 St. Kilda, the most remote island of the Hebrides, 82 miles W. of Harris. Pop. 100 people, who all live in a village near the S. E., occupied in rearing a few cattle and sheep, and taking wild fowl and eggs.
3 Ancient Mauritania, comprehended the N. portion of Morocco, and W. part of Algiers, that is the N. W. portion of Africa.
1. Compare the Old and New Worlds as to the animal and vegetable kingdom.
2. Name animals peculiar to the Old World.
What animals are peculiar to the New World?
4. Where are the greatest number of species, both of animals and vegetables, found?
5. How do matters go as we proceed towards the poles?
6. Give soine information about the / animals in the tropics, and name some of them.
7. What of the animals inhabiting the sea there?
8. What about the whale tribe?
9. Are fishes distributed any other way than geographically?
10. In what other way?
11. Where do the more useful quadrupeds thrive best?
12. Name the chief beasts of prey in the temperate zone.
13. Describe matters as to animals in the polar regions.
14. What about the polar bear and arctic fox?
15. Mention the peculiarity of the animals of Australia.
16. Are birds also restricted to certain regions?
17. Where find we the bird of paradise, ostrich, cassowary, humming-bird, condor, great eagle?
18. How have birds a wider range than most other animals?
19. Repeat to me the lines of poetry. 20. What know you of Phasis, Kilda, Mauritania?
21. Now say, must not the numbers of living beings be immense?
22. Who feeds them all?
23. Who will repeat to me the 15th and 16th verses of the 145th Psalm, the second version?
24. What does Christ say about the sparrows in Matthew, chap. x?
25. Should we not always look up to God in Christ?
On the 29th we arrived at a small village of Bakalahari. The evening passed away cheerfully. Soon after it was dark we heard elephants breaking the trees in the forest across the river, and once or twice I strode away into the darkness some distance from the fireside, to stand and listen to them. I little, at that moment, dreamed of the imminent peril to which I was exposing my life, nor thought that a bloodthirsty man-eater lion1 was crouching near, and only watch
1 The lion, divided into several varieties, is at present confined to Africa, Arabia, India, Persia, and the borders of the Euphrates. This ferocious animal was once common in the east of Europe. During the day he usually slumbers in his retreat, rousing up from his lair as night sets in, and prowling during the hours of darkness in quest of prey. The lion belongs to the Feline or cat species, (Lat. felis, a cat.)