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PREFIXES AND AFFIXES.

A Prefix or Initiative is a particle prefixed to a word, to modify its meaning, as un in unfair, that is, not fair.

An Affix, Postfix or Terminative, is a particle fixed to the end of a word, to modify its meaning, as ful, in graceful, ous in gracious, that is, full of grace.

I. PREFIXES.

OF ENGLISH OR SAXON ORIGIN.

1. A signifies, at, on, to, with,-as, afar, at a great distance,-aboard, on board, afield, to the field, apace, with a quick pace.

2. Be, signifies about, before, to make,-as, begird, to gird about,— bespeak, to order before,—becalm, to make calm.

3. En, (with its variations em, im,) means, in, also to make, as enthrone, to place in a throne,-embolden, to make bold,-embitter, to make bitter.

4. For, gives the word to which it is joined an opposite meaning, as, forgive, to give pardon instead of punishment, forbear, to suffer but abstain from showing it.

5. Fore, means, before,-as, forerun, to run before.

6. Mis, means, error, ill, not,-as, misbehaviour, ill behaviour,-miscount, to err in counting,-mistrust, not to trust, to suspect.

7. Out, signifies beyond, superiority,—as, outlive, to live beyond another,outdo, to do in a superior manner.

8. Over, means, above, beyond,-as, overcome, to come above or over one, to conquer,-overcharge, to charge beyond or too much.

9. Un, before a verb, means, the undoing of the action,-as, unfetter, to take off fetters.

10. Un, before an adjective or adverb, means, not,—as, unable, not able,-unlikely, not likely.

11. Under, means, beneath or inferior,—as, underclerk, a clerk beneath a principal clerk.

12. Up, means, motion upwards,—as, upset, to set the under part of a thing up, to overset.

13. With, from or against,―as, withdraw, to draw from,-withhold, to hold against.

EXERCISE.

Point out the prefix in each of the following words, tell its import, and also the meaning of the whole word.

1. abed, aground, afoot.

2. besprinkle, bespatter, bedim.
3. entrap, empower, imprison.
4. forsake, forget, forswear.
5. foreknow, forefather.

6. mislead, misdeed, misfortune.

7. outcry, outlet, outshine.
8. overdo, overdrive, overshade.
9. unbosom, unfurl, unclasp.
10. unsafe, uneasy, unjustly.
11. undermine, underground,
12. uphold, uphill, upset.

II. PREFIXES.

OF LATIN ORIGIN.

1. A, (with its variations, ab, abs,) signifies, from or away,-as, avert' to turn from,-absolve, to loose from, to acquit,-abstain, to hold from' to refrain.

2. Ad, (a, ac, af, ag, al. an, ap, ar, as, at,) means, to or at,—as, ascend, to climb to,-accede, to yield to,-adjoin, to join to,-affix, to fix to,aggravate, to make heavy to, to make worse,-alleviate, to make light to, to soften,-annex, to tie to,-approximate, to draw very near to,arrogate, to ask to one's self, to assume,-assimilate, to make similar to,-attest, to bear witness to.

3. Am, means, round,-as, ambition, a going round seeking honour or preferment.

4. Ante, means, before,-as, antecedent, going before,-antecessor, contracted into ancestor, one that goes before, a predecessor. The Greek prefix anti, means, against.

5. Circum, (circu) means, round,—as, circumfluent, flowing around,— circuit, a going round.

6. Cis, means, on this side of,—as, cisalpine, on this side of the Alps. 7. Con, (co, cog, col, com, cor,) signifies, together,―as, conspire, to breathe together, to plot,-compose, to place together, coheir, heir together, joint heir,-cognate, born together,-collect, to gather together, corrupt, to burst together, to rot.

8. Contra, (contro, counter,) signifies, against,-as, contradict, to speak against, controvert, to turn against, to dispute,-counterplot, to oppose one plot by another.

9. De, means, down or from,-as, deject, to throw down,-demonstrate, to show from a height, to shew clearly,-decrease, to grow down, to diminish.

10. Dis, (di, dif,) means, asunder, not,—as, dissolve, to loose asunder, digress, to step aside, to wander,-diffuse, to pour asunder.

11. Ex, (e, ec, ef,) means, out, from,―as, exclude, to shut out,-eject to cast out, eccentric, from the centre, irregular, efflux, a flowing out. 12. Extra, means, beyond,-as, extraordinary, beyond ordinary.

13. In, (il, im, ir,) prefixed to verbs, means, in, into, on,-as, invent, to come upon something new,-illume, to throw light on,-import, to carry into,-irradiate, to throw rays on, to shine.

14. In, (ig, il, im, ir,) before adjectives or adverbs, means, not,-as, invisible, not to be seen,-immortal, not mortal,-ignoble, not noble, mean,―illegal, not legal,―irresistiably, in a manner not to be resisted or withstood.

15. Inter, (intra, intro,) means, between, among,-as, intercede, to go between, to mediate,-intramural, within walls,-introduce, to lead among, to make known.

16. Juxta, means, nigh,—as juxtaposition, a placing nigh to.

17. Ob, (oc, of, op,) means, against, in the way of, as, object, to cast against,-occur, to run or come in the way of,-offer, to bring in the way, to present,-oppress, to press against, to crush.

18. Per, (pel,) means, through or thoroughly,―as, pereunial, lasting through the year,-pellucid, letting light through, clear.

19. Post, means, after,-as, postpone, to place after, to delay. 20. Pre, means, before,-as, precede, to go before.

21. Preter, means, beyond or past,―as, pretermit, to send past, to omit.

22. Pro, means, forth, forward, in place of,-as, provide, to see or look forward, protrude, to thrust forth,-pronoun, a word used instead

of a noun.

23. Re, means, back or again,-as, repulse, to drive back,-revise, to see or examine again.

24. Retro, means, backwards,—as, retrospect, a looking backwards or on the past.

25. Se, means, aside, or out of the way,―as, select, to gather aside to choose,-seduce, to lead out of the way.

26. Sine, (sim,) without, or not having,—as, sinecure, an office with emolument but without care,-simple, without a fold, artless.

27. Sub, (su, suc, suf, sug, sup, sus,) means, under,-as, suspect, to look or spy under, to imagine to be guilty,-submerge, to plunge under, --succour, to run under, to assist, suffer, to bear under,-suggest, to bring under notice, to hint,-support, to carry under, to uphold,pend, to hang under, to interrupt.

-sus

28. Subter, means, under,―as, subterfuge, a flying under, a shift. 29. Super, (sur,) means, over or above,-as, supervisor, one who looks over, surpass, to pass above, to excel.

30. Trans, (tra, tress,) means, over, beyond, along,-as, transport, to carry beyond,—traduce, to lead along in order to expose to public ignominy, to defame,-tresspass, to pass over the line.

31: Ultra, means, beyond,-as, ultramontane, beyond the mountain, a foreigner.

EXERCISES.

Point out the prefix in each of the following words, tell its import, and also the meaning of the whole word.

1. avoid, abduce, absent.

2. asperse, adverb, accept, affluence, aggrandise, alluvial, annihilate, appraise, arrest, assume, attend.

3. amputate, ambiguity.

4. antedate, anticipate.

5. circumscribe, circumvent.

6. coequal, cognominal, colloquy, conjunction, compile, correspond.

7. contravene, countervail.
8. demerit, depress, degrade.
9. disfigure, divulge, diffident.
10. elongate, efface, excavate.
11. extramundane, extravagant.

12. invade, illude, impede, irruption.

13. ignorant, illegible, insane, immense, irregularly.

14. interrupt, intelligent, introvert. 15. oblige, occasion, offend, opposite. 16. peruse, perspire.

17. postscript, posthumous,

18. precursor, precaution, premature. 19. procure, proclaim, promote.

20. rebuild, reprint, return.

21. Secede, secrete, seclude.

22. subvert, succumb, suffuse, supplicate, sustain.

23. subterranean.

24. superfine, supernatural, superscribe. 25. transgress, transmit.

III. PREFIXES.

OF GREEK ORIGIN.

1. A, an, means, want of, or without,-as, apathy, want of feeling,— anarchy, without government, disorder.

2. Amphi, means, double,-as, amphibious, having a double life, that can live in two elements.

3. Ana, means, through or up,-as, anatomy, the act of cutting up or dissecting the body.

4. Anti, ant, means, against,-as, antipathy, a feeling against, dislike, antarctic, opposite to the arctic or north, southern.

5. Apo, aph, signifies, from or away,-as, apostate, one who stands from, or forsakes his professed principles,―aphelion, away from the sun. 6. Cata, cat, means, down, as, cataract, a rushing down of water, catarrh, a running cold in the head,-catalogue, an account down, a list.

7. Dia, di, means, through,-as, diameter, a measure through the centre of a circle.

8. En, em, means, in or on,―as, endemic, on the people, peculiar to a country, emphasis, stress laid on a word in speaking.

9. Epi, means, upon or over,―as, epitaph, an inscription upon a tomb. 10. Hyper, means, overmuch,-as, hypercritic, a critic over-exact. 11. Hypo, means, under,--as, hypocrite, one who keeps under or conceals his real sentiments.

12. Meta, met, means, beyond, change,-as, metaphor, a carrying of a word beyond its proper meaning,-metonomy, change of name.

13. Para, par, means, near to, similarity or contrariety,―as, parallel, extending near to, and preserving the same distance,―parable, putting a thing near to another, a similitude,—paradox, a contrary opinion. 14. Peri, means, round about,-as, periosteum, around the bone, a membrane that covers the bone,-periphrasis, round-about speech, circumlocution.

15. Syn, Sym, Syl, means, with, together,—as, synonyme, a word having a meaning with or the same as another word,-sympathy, a feeling together, compassion,-syllable, letters pronounced together.

EXERCISES.

Point out prefix, tell its import, and also meaning of the whole word.

1. abyss, atone, atheist.

2. amphitheatre, amphisbaena.

3. anabaptist, analysis.

4. antipodes, antidote.

5. apostle, apocalypse.

6. catechist, catastrophe.

7. diaphanous, diagonal.

8. enthusiasm, energy.

9. episode, epidemic.

10. hyperbole, hyperborean.

11. hypothesis, hyphen.

12. metathesis, metamorphose.

13. paraphrase, parasol.

14. perimeter, peripatetic.

15. synthesis, symptom, syllogism.

I. AFFIXES.

FORMING NOUNS.

It is impossible in every case to ascertain the exact face, or even general import of an affix or termination. Several seem to have ditferent or even contradictory meanings, and several merely lengthen the word without affecting the meaning. Teachers ought not to require their pupils to assign a meaning to every affix.

1. Acy, denotes, being or state of being,-as, accuracy, a being accurate, celibacy, the state of being unmarried.

2. Age, denotes, state or condition,-as, foliage, the leafy state of plants. This affix has other significations,--as, postage, money paid for conveying letters,-hermitage, the habitation of a hermit,-tillage, act of cultivating the ground, &c.

3. An, denotes, the agent, or one who,-as, guardian, one who guards an orphan.

4. Ance, denotes, being or state of being, like ing of our present participle, as, repentance, state of repenting, sorrow for sin.

5. Ancy, denotes, being or state of being, (or simply ing,)-as, constancy, state of standing firm, lasting affection.

6. Ant, denotes, the one who,-as, tenant, the person who holds property of another.

7. Ar, denotes, the person who,-as, beggar, he who begs.

8. Ard, denotes, he who,-as, dotard, he who dotes or is silly.

9. Ary, denotes, he who,―as, lapidary one who cuts precious stones. 10. Cle, denotes, little or small,-as, corpuscle, a small body,

11. Dom, denotes, state or dominion,—as, kingdom, dominion of a king,—freedom, state of being free.

12. Ee, denotes, the person in a passive state,-as, committee, persons to whom some enquiry is entrusted.

13. Eer, denotes, one who,—as, mountaineer, a dweller among the mountains.

14. Ence, denotes, state or being, or "ing,"-as, adherence, state of adhering or sticking to.

15. Ency, denotes, being or state of being, or "ing,"-as, currency, a running or being current,—consistency, the being consistent or standing together.

16. Er, denotes, the person who, as, writer, one who writes.

17. Hood, denotes, state of,-as, boyhood, state of a boy.

18. Ion, denotes, act of,-as, contribution, act of giving together,collision, act of striking together.

19. Ics, denotes, the doctrine, art or science of,-as, ethics, the science of moral philosophy,-economics, art of managing household affairs. 20. Ism, denotes, state of, peculiar to, form or system of,—as, paganism, the being a pagan,-Latinism, a Latin form of expression,-Calvinism, doctrine peculiar to Calvin, syllogism, logical form of reasoning,—catechism, a system, or book, of questions and answers.

21. Ist, denotes, one skilled in,—as, botanist, one who studies plants. 22. Ite, denotes, one who,-as, Levite, one who is descended from Levi.

23. Ive, denotes, one who,-as, captive, one who is taken in war. 24. Kin, denotes, diminution,-as, lambkin, a young or little lamb. 25. let, denotes, diminution,-as, streamlet, a little stream. 26. Ling, denotes, diminution,-as, darling, a little dear.

27. Ment, denotes, state of, act of, the thing that,―as, abasement, state of being abased or brought low,-concealment, act of concealing, -refreshment, that which refreshes.

28. Ness, denotes, state of or quality of,-as, barrenness, state of being barren,-goodness, the quality of being good.

29. Or, denotes, one who, as, intercessor, one who intercedes or goes between parties to reconcile them.

30. Ric, denotes, rule or jurisdiction,―as, bishopric, the diocese of a bishop.

31. Ry, denotes, the state of being, the place where, art or science of, -as, slavery, state of being a slave,-library, the place where books are kept,hnsbandry, art of farming.

32. Ship, denotes, office of, state of,—as, stewardship, office of a steward or manager.

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