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No mingling voices sound-
Oh! change-oh, wondrous change,
Oh! change stupendous change!
1. How are we to enter the poor man's shed?
2. What is taking place within?
4. What king holds court within ?
9. What has parted with that groan ?
10. What prison bars are burst? 11. What was there a moment since in agony, and is now beyond the stars?
12. What only lies before us, on the wretched bed now?
13. In what glorious state does the soul feel itself now?
14. Do all souls pass immediately to glory in heaven at death?
15. What were Christ's words to the penitent thief on the cross?
XXVI.—THE SPANISH ARMADA,
The "invincible armada," as it was called, consisted of 132 vessels, most of them being of unusual magnitude, and mounted 3165 guns. It was navigated by 8766 seamen, and carried nearly 22,000 soldiers; a force which was to be augmented by 30,000 men assembled in the neighbourhood of Dunkirk. England now appeared animated with one sentiment. Exclusive of the levies furnished by the city of London, 132,000 men were speedily collected where the prospect of invasion was most imminent. The queen appeared on horseback in the camp at Tilbury, and haranuging the army, exhorted the soldiers to remember their duties to their country and their religion. "I am ready," she said, "to pour out my blood for God, my kingdom, and my people. I will fight at your head; and although I have but the arm of a woman, 1 have the soul of a king, and what is more, of a king of England." By such conduct and language she filled the people with enthusiasm. Her fleet, which consisted of only twenty-eight ships, was by the zeal of her people soon increased to a hundred and seventeen, having on board 11,120 men, placed under the orders of the High-admiral Lord Howard of Effingham, who was aided by Drake, Hawkins, Lord Henry Seymour, and Frobisher. The spirit of the Scotch was not inferior to that of the English; they raised troops for the defence of both kingdoms, and formed an association, whose object was to maintain their religion and government against all enemies, at home or abroad.
On the 29th of May 1588, the Spanish armada, under the Duke of Medina, sailed from Lisbon; but a furious tempest next morning drove it back into harbour, and it did not reach the Channel before the 19th of July. Here it was attacked by the English squadron, which proved victorious in five successive engagements. The duke finding he could not form a junction with the troops at Dunkirk, meditated a return to Spain, when a storm arose, which destroyed the greater part of his fleet on the shores of Orkney and Ireland, so that only 53 ships reached home, and these in a
shattered condition. The event was celebrated in this country with great rejoicings and a medal struck in commemoration, bearing the inscription, Deus aflavit et dissipantur, (God blew and they are scattered). The destruction of the armada was a fatal blow to Spain; English cruisers covered all the seas, ravaged her coasts, and plundered her colonies.-White's Universal History.
ATTEND all ye who list to hear our noble England's praise:
At earliest twilight, on the waves, lie heaving many a mile.
The yeomen round the market cross, make clear an ample space,
For there behoves him to set up the standard of her grace: And haughtily the trumpets peal, and gaily dance the bells, As slow upon the labouring wind, the royal blazon swells. Look how the lion of the sea lifts up his ancient crown, And underneath his deadly paw treads the gay lilies down!
1 Castille, a former kingdom of Spain, and from its great importance as occupying the centre table-land, it frequently gives its name to the whole kingdom. The Spaniards are sometimes called Castillians.
2 Aurigny's isle,-Alderney, one of the Channel islands.
3 Pinta, a Spanish vessel of war built for fast sailing.
So stalked he when he turned to flight, on that famed Picard' field, Bohemia's plume, and Genoa's bow, and Cæsar's eagle shield: So glared he when, at Agincourt,2 in wrath he turned to bay, And crushed and torn, beneath his claws, the princely hunters lay,
Ho! strike the flagstaff deep, sir Knight! Ho! scatter flowers, fair maids!
Ho, gunners! fire a loud salute! ho, gallants! draw your blades!
Thou, sun, shine on her joyously! ye breezes, waft her wide!
The parting gleam of sunshine kissed that haughty scroll of gold.
Night sunk upon the dusky beach, and on the purple sea;
That time of slumber was as bright as busy as the day;
High on St. Michael's Mount it shone-it shone on Beachy Head.
Faro'er the deep, the Spaniard saw, along each southern shire, Cape beyond cape, in endless range, those twinkling points of fire,
The fisher left his skiff to rock on Tamer's glittering waves, The rugged miners poured to war, from Mendip's* sunless
O'er Longleat's towers, o'er Cranbourne's oaks, the fiery herald flew
He roused the shepherds of Stonehenge-the rangers of Beaulieu.
1 Picard field,-Crecy or Cressy, a village in Picardy, famous for the great victory obtained by Edward III. over a large French army, Aug. 26th, 1346.
2 Agincourt, a villiage in France near which, 25th Oct., 1415, the English under Henry V. totally defeated a vastly superior force.
3 Semper eadem,-" always the same,"-Queen Elizabeth's motto.
4 Mendip's sunless caves,-coal and lead mines are worked in the Mendip hills, Somersetshire.
5 Stonehenge,"balancing or hanging stone," the remains of a gigantic Druidic temple in the midst of Salisbury plain, Wiltshire.
Right sharp and quick the bells rang out, all night, from Bristol town ;
And, ere the day, three hundred horse had met on Clifton Down.
The sentinel on Whitehall gate looked forth into the night, And saw o'erhanging Richmond Hill, that streak of bloodred light.
The bugle's note, and cannon's roar, the deathlike silence broke,
And with one start, and with one cry the royal city woke ; At once, on all her stately gates, arose the answering fires; At once the wild alarum clashed from all her reeling spires; From all the batteries of the Tower pealed loud the voice of fear,
And all the thousand masts of Thames sent back a louder
And from the farthest wards was heard the rush of hurrying
And the broad streams of flags and pikes dashed down each rousing street;
And broader still became the blaze, and louder still the din, At fast from every village round the horse came spurring in And eastward straight, for wild Blackheath, the warlike errand went;
And roused in many an ancient hall, the gallant squires of Kent;
Southward, for Surrey's pleasant hills, flew those bright coursers forth;
High on black Hampstead's swarthy moor, they started for the north;
And on, and on, without a pause untired they bounded still; All night from tower to tower they sprang, all night from hill to hill;
Till the proud peak unfurled the flag o'er Derwent's rocky dales;
Till, like volcanoes, flared to heaven the stormy hills of Wales; Till twelve fair counties saw the blaze on Malvern's lonely
Till streamed in crimson, on the wind, the Wrekin's crest of light;
Till, broad and fierce the star came forth, on Ely's stately fane, And town and hamlet rose in arms, o'er all the boundless
Till Belvoir's lordly towers the sign to Lincoln sent,
And Lincoln sped the message on, o'er the wide vale of Trent; Till Skiddaw saw the fire that burnt on Gaunt's' embattled
And the red glare on Skiddaw roused the burghers of Car
1. Give the number of ships of war, men, and pieces of cannon, employed by Philip for the invasion of England.
2. Of what number of ships did the English fleet consist?
3. To what number was it soon increased by the zeal of the people ?
10. What was immediately done in Plymouth?
11. What does unbonneted apply to? 12. Who is called "her grace"?
13. What country is meant by "the lion of the sea," and what by the "gay lilies" ? 14. What have you to tell me about Picard field" ?
4. Describe the Queen as she appeared" in the camp at Tilbury, and give the noble words with which she addressed the army. 5. With what success did the English squadron attack the Armada?
6. What completed its destruction? 7. Give the beautiful inscription on the medal.
8. Should we not trace all our successes to God's hand?
9. Who spied the Armada and gave the alarm?
15. What about Agincourt? 16. Explain the Latin words " semper eadem."
17. If I put the large map of England before you, will any one point to Eddystone and tell me something about it?
18. Now who will point to each of the places mentioned?
19. For what is Stonehenge celebrated? 20. Why comes Lancaster castle to be called Gaunt's embattled pile?
XXVII.-HYMN BEFORE SUNRISE IN THE VALE OF CHAMOUNI.
THE valley of Chamouni on N. W. of Mont Blanc, is the most celebrated in the Alps for its picturesque sites and the wild grandeur of its glaciers. The glaciers which descend into the valley from M. Blanc are without doubt the grandest in the Alps, and the grandest among these is the Mer de Glace or sea of ice. Cheever in his "Wanderings of a Pilgrim in the Shadow of M. Blanc," says,-"This Mer de Glace is an easy and excellent residence for the scientific study of the glaciers, a subject of very great interest, formerly filled with mysteries, which the bold and persevering investigations and theories of some modern naturalists have quite cleared up. The strange movements of the glaciers, their apparent wilful rejection of extraneous bodies and substances to the surface and the margin, their increase and decrease, long remained invested with something of the supernatural; they seemed to have a soul and a life of their own. They look motionless and silent, yet they are always moving and sounding on, and they have great voices that give prophetic warning of the weather to the shepherds of the Alps. Scientific men have set up huts upon the sea, and landmarks on the mountains opposite, to test the progress of the icy masses, and in this way it was found that a cabin constructed by Professor Hugi on the glacier of the Aar, had travelled, between the years 1827 and 1840, a distance of 4600 feet. It is supposed that the Mer de Glace moves down between four and five huudred feet annually.
It is impossible to form a grander image of the rigidity and barrenness, the coldness and death of winter, than when you stand among the billows of one of these frozen seas; and yet it is here that Nature locks up in her careful bosom the treasures of the Alpine valleys, the sources of rich summer verdure and vegetable life. They are hoarded up in winter, to be poured forth beneath the sun, and with the sun in summer. Some of the largest rivers in Europe take their rise from the glaciers, and give to the Swiss valleys their most abundant supply of water, in the season when ordinary streams are dried up. This is a most interesting provision in the economy of nature, for if the glaciers did not exist, those verdant valleys into which the summer sun pours with such fervour would be parched with drought. So the mountains are parents of perpetual streams, and the glaciers are reservoirs of plenty." -Cheever's Wanderings of a Pilgrim.
1 "Gaunt's embattled pile."-The castle of Lancaster. John, duke of Lancaster, was born in Gaunt or Ghent, in Belgium. He was the progenitor of the Lancastrian line of kings.