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sky, and were surprised at the extent and hurry of the preparations; but the required measures were not completed, when a more awful hurricane burst upon them than the most experienced had ever braved. Nothing could withstand it; the sails, already furled and closely bound to the yards, were riven away in tatters; even the bare yards and masts were in great part disabled, and at one time the whole rigging had nearly fallen by the board.
Such, for a few hours, was the mingled roar of the hurricane above, of the waves around, aud of the incessant peals of thunder, that no human voice could be heard, and midst the general consternation, even the trumpet sounded in vain. In that awful night, but for the little tube of mercury which had given warning, neither the strength of the noble ship. nor the skill and energies of the commander, could have saved one man to tell the tale. On the following morning, the wind was again at rest, but the ship lay upon the yet heaving waves, an unsightly wreck. The marine barometer differs from that used on shore, in having its tube contracted in one place to a very narrow bore, so as to prevent that sudden rising and falling of the mercury, which every motion of the ship would else occasion. Civilized Europe is now familiar with the barometer and its uses, and, therefore, they almost require to witness the astonishment or incredulity with which people of other parts regard it. A Chinese once conversing on the subject with the author, could only imagine of the barometer that it was a gift of a miraculous nature, which the God of Christians gave them in pity, to direct them in the long and perilous voyages which they undertook to unArnott's Elements of Physics.
1. Tell me something about Galileo and Torricelli.
2. To what height can water be made to rise in a pump?
3. What happy thought on this subject entered Torricelli's mind?
4. How many times is mercury or quicksilver heavier than water?
5. If water rise under pressure of the air 34 feet, how many inches will mercury rise?
6. Why does the mercury fall in the tube on the tops of mountains?
7. What important fact about the atmosphere has been made known to us through the barometer?
8. How does the mercury stand in calm dry weather, and before storms?
9. To whom must the barometer be of the greatest service?
10. If the mariner sees the mercury fall very rapidly what must he immediately do? 11. How violent was the storm of which Mr. Arnott here gives an account?
12. Could they have known to prepare for this storm without the barometer?
13. In what respect does the barometer used at sea differ from that used on land?
14. What did the Chinese who conversed with Mr. Arnott think about the barometer?
15. Who raises up men such as Galileo, Newton, Watt, &c., to benefit men by their great discoveries ?
16. Should not then the very sight of a barometer or steam-engine excite our gratitude?
XIV. THE ACQUITTAL OF THE BISHOPS.
James Second, who was a bigoted Roman Catholic, was born in 1633, and began to reign 6th Feb., 1685, but after a short reign of 2 years, he was obliged to abdicate the throne, for his attempting to put down Protestantism in England, Jan. 22, 1688. On the throne becoming vacant, William and Mary, the Prince and Princess of Orange, were proclaimed King and Queen of England. Such was the revolution of 1688, justly called Glorious.
Ir was dark before the jury retired to consider of their verdict. The night was a night of intense anxiety. Some letters are still extant which were dispatched during that period of suspense, and which have therefore an interest of a peculiar kind. "It is very late," wrote the Papal Nuncio, "and the decision is not yet known. The judges and the culprits have gone to their own homes. The jury remain together. Tomorrow we shall learn the event of this great struggle."
The solicitor for the bishops sat up all night with a body of servants on the stairs leading to the room where the jury was consulting. It was absolutely necessary to watch the officers who watched the doors; for those officers were supposed to be in the interest of the crown, and might, if not carefully observed, have furnished a courtly juryman with food, which would have enabled him to starve out the other eleven. Strict guard was therefore kept. Not even a candle to light a pipe was permitted to enter. Some basins of water for washing were suffered to pass at about four in the morning. The jurymen raging with thirst soon lapped up the whole. Great numbers of people walked the nieghbouring streets till dawn. Every hour a messenger came from Whitehall to know what was passing. Voices high in altercation, were repeatedly heard within the room; but nothing certain was known.
At first, nine were for acquitting and three for convicting. Two of the minority soon gave way, but Arnold was obstinate.
Thomas Austin, a country gentleman of great estate, who had paid close attention to the evidence and speeches, and had taken full notes, wished to argue the question. Arnold declined. He was not used, he doggedly said, to reasoning and debating. His conscience was not satisfied, and he should not acquit the bishops. If you come to that," said Austin, "look at me; I am the largest and strongest of the twelve, and before I find such a petition as this a libel, here I will stay till I am no bigger than a tobacco-pipe." It was six in the morning before Arnold yielded. It was soon known that the jury were agreed, but what the verdict would be was still a secret.
At ten the court again met. The crowd was greater than ever. The jury appeared in their box, and there was a breathless stillness.
Sir Samuel Astry spoke, "Do you find the defendants, or any of them guilty of the misdemeanour whereof they are impeached, or not guilty?" Sir Roger Langley answered, "Not guilty." As the words passed his lips, Halifax sprung up and waved his hat. At that signal, benches and galleries raised a shout. In a moment ten thousand persons, who crowded the great hall, replied with a still louder shout, which made the old oaken roof crack; and in another moment the innumerable throng without set up a third huzza, which was heard at Temple Bar. The boats which covered the Thames gave an answering cheer. A peal of gunpowder was heard on the water, and another, and another; and so, in a few moments, the glad tidings went flying past the Savoy and the Friars to London Bridge, and to the forest of masts below.
As the news spread, streets and squares, market-places, and coffee-houses, broke forth into acclamations. Yet were the acclamations less strange than the weeping. For the feelings of men had been wound up to such a point that at length the stern English nature, so little used to outward signs of emotion, gave way, and thousands sobbed for very joy. Meanwhile, from the outskirts of the multitude, horsemen were spurring off to bear along the great roads intelligence of the victory of our church and nation. Yet not even that astounding explosion could awe the bitter and intrepid spirit of the solicitor. Striving to make himself heard above the din, he called on the judges to commit those who had violated, by
clamour, the dignity of a court of justice. One of the rejoicing populace was seized; but the tribunal felt it would be absurd to punish a single individual for an offence common to hundreds of thousands, and dismissed him with a gentle reprimand.
The acquitted prelates took refuge from the crowd which implored their blessing in the nearest chapel where divine service was performing. Many churches were open on that morning throughout the capital, and many pious persons repaired thither. The bells of all the parishes of the city and liberties were ringing. The jury, meanwhile, could scarcely make their way out of the hall. They were forced to shake hands with hundreds. 66 God bless you," cried the people; "God prosper your families; you have done like honest goodnatured gentlemen. You have saved us to-day." As the gentlemen who had supported the cause drove off, they flung from their windows handfuls of money, and bade the crowd drink to the health of the bishops and the jury.
The attorney went with the tidings to Sunderland, who happened to be conversing with the Nuncio. "Never," said Powis, "within man's memory, have there been such shouts and such tears of joy as to-day." The king had that morning visited the camp on Hounslow Heath. Sunderland instantly sent a courier thither with the news. James was in Lord Feversham's tent when the express arrived. He was greatly disturbed, and exclaimed in French, "So much the worse for them." He soon set out for London.
While he was present, respect prevented the soldiers from giving loose to their feelings; but he had scarcely quitted the camp when he heard a great shouting behind him. He was surprised, and asked what the uproar meant." Nothing," was the answer. The soldiers are glad that the bishops are acquitted." "Do you call that nothing?" said James, and then repeated, "So much the worse for them." He might well be out of temper. His defeat had been complete and most humiliating. Had the prelates escaped on account of some technical defect in the case for the crown, had they escaped because they had not written the petition in Middlesex, or because it was impossible to prove, according to the strict rules of law, that they had delivered to the king the paper for which they were called in question, the prerogative would have suffered no shock. Happily for the country, the fact of
publication had been fully established. The counsel for the defence had therefore been forced to attack the dispensing power. They had attacked it with great learning, eloquence, and boldness. The advocates of the Government had been, by universal acknowledgment, overmatched in the contest. Not a single judge had ventured to declare that the Declaration of Indulgence was legal. One judge had in the strongest terms pronounced it illegal. The language of the whole town was that the dispensing power had received a fatal blow. Macaulay.
*NOTE, It is the principle of the English law that the twelve Jury men must be unanimous before a verdict can be returned. In Scotland there are fifteen in the Jury, and a simple majority decides.
1. When did the jury retire to consider of their verdict?
2. What is the difference between an English jury, and a Scotch jury?
3. Were not the people most anxious that the seven Bishops, who resented the tyranny of the King, should be acquitted? 4. Quote the words from the Papal Nuncio's letter?
5. Who kept watch on the stairs all night?
6. Why was it necessary to do so? 7. Did the jurymen wash their hands with the water they got in the morning? 8. Which of the jurymen was determined to bring in the bishops guilty?
9. When requested by Austin to argue the question, what reply did Arnold make? 10. What was Austin's answer to this? 11. How long did Arnold hold out against the eleven?
12. When did the court meet again? 13. What was Sir Samuel Astry's question to the jury?
14. Give Sir Roger Langley's reply? 15. What took place when Halifax waved his hat?
16. Describe the scene that followed on the Thames, and throughout the city? 17. Did not the people weep for very joy? 18. Where did the Bishops take refuge from the people who crowded about them to implore their blessing?
19. How did the people act when the jury came cut of the hall?
20, For what purpose did Gentlemen throw handfuls of money to the crowd? 21. Where was King James that morning?
22. What was his exclamation when the news were brought to him?
23. How did the soldiers act, when the King left the camp?
24. Show to me that the defeat of the King was most signal and complete. 25. What was the dispensing power, here spoken of?
26. What was every one's opinion in regard to it after the acquittal of the bishops?
27. Should we not value our civil and religious liberties most highly, and guard them with jealous care?