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33. Where were the forces of Sir William Wallace defeated?
34. How did Bruce then act?
35. What great victory did the Scots obtain under Bruce ?
36. What compelled David II. to retire to France ? 37. Why France?
was David recalled from
38. What happened to David after this? 39. Who was Robert II.?
40. What is here related of Robert III.? 41. With what qualifications for government did James I. ascend the throne? 42. Who assassinated him, and why did they do so?
43. When did James II. come to the throne?
52. Into whose hands did the sceptre now fall?
53. How old was James V. when he assumed the reins of government?
54. What did the reformed clergy do in this reign?
55. What was the occasion of this king's death?
56. Who was Mary, queen of Scots ? 57. Who acted as regents during her minority?
58. Where was Mary educated? 59. Who was Mary's first husband? 60. Whom did she marry after coming to Scotland?
61. What became of Darnley?
62. Whom did the queen now marry? 63. What did the enraged nobles now
44. In what matter did he imitate his do? father?
45. What did he do under the influence of rage?
46. Where and how did he meet his death?
47. Who were the favourites of James III.?
48. How did the nobles act on seeing this?
49. What was the issue of the conflict between James and his nobles?
50. What was the character of James IV.?
51. In what battle was James slain ?
64. Whither did Mary flee after the battle of Langside?
65. How long was she kept a prisoner in England?
66. When and where was she beheaded? 67. What gives peculiar interest to the reign of Mary?
68. When did James VI. ascend the Scottish throne?
69. What was now the established religion of Scotland?
70. When did he ascend the English throne?
GALILEO had found that water would rise under the piston of a pump to a height only of about thirty-four feet. His pupil Torricelli, conceiving the happy thought that the weight of the atmosphere might be the cause of the ascent, concluded that mercury, which is about thirteen times heavier than water, should only rise under the same influence to a thirteenth of the elevation: he tried, and found that this was so, and the mercurial barometer was invented. To afford further evidence that the weight of the atmosphere was the cause of the phenomenon, he afterwards carried the tube of
mercury to the tops of buildings and of mountains, and found that it fell always in exact proportion to the portion of the atmosphere left below it; and he found that water-pumps, in different situations, varied as to sucking power, according to the same law.
It was soon afterwards discovered, by careful observation of the mercurial barometer, that even when remaining in the same place, it did not always stand at the same elevation ; in other words, that the weight of atmosphere over any particular part of the earth was constantly fluctuating: a truth which, without the barometer, could never have been suspected. The observation of the instrument being carried still further, it was found that in serene dry weather the mercury generally stood high, and that before and during storms and rain it fell; the instrument, therefore, might serve as a prophet of the weather, becoming a precious monitor to the husbandman or the sailor.
When water, which has been suspended in the atmosphere, and has formed a part of it, separates as rain, the weight and bulk of the mass are diminished; and the wind must occur when a sudden condensation of aeriform matter, in any situation, disturbs the equilibrium of the air, for the air around will rush towards the situation of diminished pressure. To the husbandman the barometer is of considerable use, by aiding and correcting the prognostics of the weather which he draws from local signs familiar to him; but its great use as a weather-glass seems to be to the mariner, who roams over the whole ocean, and is often under skies and climates altogether new to him. The watchful captain of the present day, trusting to this extraordinary monitor, is frequently enabled to take in sail, and to make ready for the storm where, in former times, the dreadful visitation would have fallen upon him unprepared the marine barometer has not yet been in general use for many years, and the author was one of a numerous erew who probably owed their preservation to its almost miraculous warning.
It was in a southern latitude. The sun had just set with placid appearance, closing a beautiful afternoon, and the usual mirth of the evening watch was proceeding, when the captain's order came to prepare with all haste for a storm. barometer had begun to fall with appalling rapidity. As yet. the oldest sailors had not perceived even the threatening in the
sky, and were surprised at the extent and hurry of the preparations; but the required measures were not completed, when a more awful hurricane burst upon them than the most experienced had ever braved. Nothing could withstand it; the sails, already furled and closely bound to the yards, were riven away in tatters; even the bare yards and masts were in great part disabled, and at one time the whole rigging had nearly fallen by the board.
Such, for a few hours, was the mingled roar of the hurricane above, of the waves around, aud of the incessant peals of thunder, that no human voice could be heard, and midst the general consternation, even the trumpet sounded in vain. In that awful night, but for the little tube of mercury which had given warning, neither the strength of the noble ship. nor the skill and energies of the commander, could have saved one man to tell the tale. On the following morning, the wind was again at rest, but the ship lay upon the yet heaving waves, an unsightly wreck. The marine barometer differs from that used on shore, in having its tube contracted in one place to a very narrow bore, so as to prevent that sudden rising and falling of the mercury, which every motion of the ship would else occasion. Civilized Europe is now familiar with the barometer and its uses, and, therefore, they almost require to witness the astonishment or incredulity with which people of other parts regard it. A Chinese once conversing on the subject with the author, could only imagine of the barometer that it was a gift of a miraculous nature, which the God of Christians gave them in pity, to direct them in the long and perilous voyages which they undertook to unArnott's Elements of Physics.
1. Tell me something about Galileo and Torricelli.
2. To what height can water be made to rise in a pump?
3. What happy thought on this subject entered Torricelli's mind?
4. How many times is mercury or quicksilver heavier than water?
5. If water rise under pressure of the air 34 feet, how many inches will mercury rise?
6. Why does the mercury fall in the tube on the tops of mountains?
7. What important fact about the atmosphere has been made known to us through the barometer?
8. How does the mercury stand in calm dry weather, and before storms?
9. To whom must the barometer be of the greatest service?
10. If the mariner sees the mercury fall very rapidly what must he immediately do? 11. How violent was the storm of which Mr. Arnott here gives an account?
12. Could they have known to prepare for this storm without the barometer?
13. In what respect does the barometer used at sea differ from that used on land?
14. What did the Chinese who conversed with Mr. Arnott think about the barometer?
15. Who raises up men such as Galileo, Newton, Watt, &c., to benefit men by their great discoveries ?
16. Should not then the very sight of a barometer or steam-engine excite our gratitude?
XIV. THE ACQUITTAL OF THE BISHOPS.
James Second, who was a bigoted Roman Catholic, was born in 1633, and began to reign 6th Feb., 1685, but after a short reign of 2 years, he was obliged to abdicate the throne, for his attempting to put down Protestantism in England, Jan. 22, 1688. On the throne becoming vacant, William and Mary, the Prince and Princess of Orange, were proclaimed King and Queen of England. Such was the revolution of 1688, justly called Glorious.
Ir was dark before the jury retired to consider of their verdict. The night was a night of intense anxiety. Some letters are still extant which were dispatched during that period of suspense, and which have therefore an interest of a peculiar kind. "It is very late," wrote the Papal Nuncio, "and the decision is not yet known. The judges and the culprits have gone to their own homes. The jury remain together. Tomorrow we shall learn the event of this great struggle."
The solicitor for the bishops sat up all night with a body of servants on the stairs leading to the room where the jury was consulting. It was absolutely necessary to watch the officers who watched the doors; for those officers were supposed to be in the interest of the crown, and might, if not carefully observed, have furnished a courtly juryman with food, which would have enabled him to starve out the other eleven. Strict guard was therefore kept. Not even a candle to light a pipe was permitted to enter. Some basins of water for washing were suffered to pass at about four in the morning. The jurymen raging with thirst soon lapped up the whole. Great numbers of people walked the nieghbouring streets till dawn. Every hour a messenger came from Whitehall to know what was passing. Voices high in altercation, were repeatedly heard within the room; but nothing certain was known.
At first, nine were for acquitting and three for convicting. Two of the minority soon gave way, but Arnold was obstinate.
Thomas Austin, a country gentleman of great estate, who had paid close attention to the evidence and speeches, and had taken full notes, wished to argue the question. Arnold declined. He was not used, he doggedly said, to reasoning and debating. His conscience was not satisfied, and he should not acquit the bishops. If you come to that," said Austin, "look at me; I am the largest and strongest of the twelve, and before I find such a petition as this a libel, here I will stay till I am no bigger than a tobacco-pipe." It was six in the morning before Arnold yielded. It was soon known that the jury were agreed, but what the verdict would be was still a secret.
At ten the court again met. The crowd was greater than ever. The jury appeared in their box, and there was a breathless stillness.
Sir Samuel Astry spoke, "Do you find the defendants, or any of them guilty of the misdemeanour whereof they are impeached, or not guilty?" Sir Roger Langley answered, "Not guilty." As the words passed his lips, Halifax sprung up and waved his hat. At that signal, benches and galleries raised a shout. In a moment ten thousand persons, who crowded the great hall, replied with a still louder shout, which made the old oaken roof crack; and in another moment the innumerable throng without set up a third huzza, which was heard at Temple Bar. The boats which covered the Thames gave an answering cheer. A peal of gunpowder was heard on the water, and another, and another; and so, in a few moments, the glad tidings went flying past the Savoy and the Friars to London Bridge, and to the forest of masts below.
As the news spread, streets and squares, market-places, and coffee-houses, broke forth into acclamations. Yet were the acclamations less strange than the weeping. For the feelings of men had been wound up to such a point that at length the stern English nature, so little used to outward signs of emotion, gave way, and thousands sobbed for very joy. Meanwhile, from the outskirts of the multitude, horsemen were spurring off to bear along the great roads intelligence of the victory of our church and nation. Yet not even that astounding explosion could awe the bitter and intrepid spirit of the solicitor. Striving to make himself heard above the din, he called on the judges to commit those who had violated, by