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Q. Was the old St Paul's open to the public as a promenade?
A. Yes; merchants stuck their advertisements on its walls and pillars; stalls were erected in the aisles for the sale of wares; and pedlars, buffoons, beggars, and thieves, gained a living from the crowd which daily resorted there.
Q. What was the great aisle of St. Paul's called?
A. "St. Paul's walk."-Our Lord said (and we may apply the words), "My house shall be called a house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves." (Matthew xxi. 13). Q. Describe the style of the houses inhabited by the great in the reign of Elizabeth.
A. Something between a castle and a mansion; there was a moat and gateway, and one or two strong turrets, more for ornament than defence.
Q. How were houses decorated during the Tudor dynasty? A. The houses of the great were furnished most splendidly. The walls were gilt, and hung with gorgeous tapestry; and the sideboards crowded with massive plate.
Q. Was not tapestry in a great measure discontinued in the reign of Elizabeth?
A. Yes; it was superseded by exquisite oak and chestnut carving; many rooms were wainscotted throughout.
Q. How were the gentlemen dressed in the reign of Elizabeth?
A. In flowered silk, perfumed leather, or satin; their silk and satin shoes, (embroidered with silver and gold) had very high red heels.
Q. What extravagance was introduced in body-linen in the reign of Elizabeth?
A. The shirts of the courtiers were made of the finest cambric, with open-work down the seams, and often cost £80, (according to the present value of money).
Q. How were the ladies dressed in the reign of Elizabeth? A. With enormous ruffs round the neck; which became so absurdly long, that persons were stationed at the gates of the different streets, to cut down every ruff which exceeded 3 feet.
Q. How long did this ugly fashion last?
A. Till the middle of the reign of James I.; when Mrs. Turner was hanged up by her ruff, for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.
Q. Was not queen Elizabeth very extravagant in her dress? A. Yes; and at her death 3000 different habits were found in her wardrobes.
Q. Were not some of Elizabeth's dresses emblematical? A. Yes; the lining of one was worked with eyes and ears, to signify "Vigilance;" and a serpent was embroidered in the arm with pearls and rubies, to signify "Wisdom."
Q. Describe the way in which Elizabeth went in state to St. Mary's cross, to hear one of the Reformers preach.
A. Besides a vast train of lords and ladies, she had 1000 soldiers, 10 great cannons, hundreds of drums and trumpets, a party of morris-dancers, and two white bears in her train. Q. Was not Elizabeth very fond of noisy music?
A. Yes; she played very well herself on several instruments; and when she went to dinner, 12 trumpets, 2 kettledrums, and various other instruments, amused her with their thundering uproar.
Q. What improvement in stockings was invented in the reign of Elizabeth?
A. They were woven; the queen had a pair of black silk ones presented to her, with which she was so delighted, that she would never wear any others.
Q. What were stockings made of before the reign of Elizabeth?
A. Of cloth, laced or buttoned tight like a buskin.
Alison's Guide to English History.
XII.-AN ABSTRACT OF THE SCOTTISH REIGNS.
WHEN are the Scots and Picts first spoken of in history? In the fifth century: the former inhabited the eastern shores of Scotland, as far south as the Firth of Forth, and as far
The name of Picts seems to
north as the island extended. have been given them by the Romans, from the habit of staining their bodies when going to battle: the term picti signifies painted. They were probably of Gothic origin, though some think they were descendants of the ancient Caledonians, who were Celts mingled with Gothic settlers. The Scots were
of Irish origin: a colony of this people from Ulster, the northern province of Ireland, settled on the coast of Argyleshire, under Fergus, who had been called over to assist the Scots against the Picts and Britons, about the year 330 B.C., and gradually occupied the whole of the western coast of Scotland. This prince was lost at sea, off Carrickfergus in Ireland, which bears his name.
Twenty-five pagan kings ruled Scotland from the death of Fergus to the reign of Donald the first, A.D. 199, who was the first Scottish king converted to Christianity; and it was he also who made his subjects first acquainted with money coined from precious metals. During this reign Caledonia was invaded by Severus, who built a boundary wall to the Roman provinces from the Firth of Forth to that of Clyde.
Fergus II. succeeded Eugenius in the year 404. Having lived abroad and in retirement during twenty-seven years (according to the Black book of Paisley); he returned to aid in expelling the Romans, accompanied by Dunstan, king of the Picts, and Dionethus a Briton. He long and successfully opposed the enemy, but was at last slain fighting against Maximianus: Dunstan his friend shared his fate, but Dionethus effected his escape, not however before he had received a grievous wound. Fergus II., founder of the kingdom of the Scots, possessed piety, courage, and abilities: he reigned honourably for sixteen years, and was a benefactor to his country..
After a long and sanguinary struggle between these two people, in which Drushenus, the Pictish king, was slain, Kenneth II., king of the Scots, finally ascended the Pictish throne in 833, and united both states into one kingdom, comprising the whole country north of the wall of Antonine: the routed Picts found an asylum in England.
Gregory, the seventy-third king, ascended the throne in 875. He was justly entitled to his surname, "the Great." He subdued the Picts, vanquished the Danes, putting Hardicanute, their king, to flight, in Northumberland: defeated
and slew Constantine, king of the Britons, in the battle of Lochmaben; chastised the Irish, who had invaded Galloway, and added Cumberland and Westmoreland to his dominions. He died in 892, after a glorious and most exemplary reign of eighteen years. It was not for his military abilities alone that he was admired by foreign princes; for it was his reputation for learning, wisdom, and justice that led Alfred the Great to court his friendship.
Malcolm II., "the victorious," eighty-third king, ascended the throne in 1004: he repelled the Danes, improved the laws, and formed a titled aristocracy. After a splendid reign of thirty years, he became suddenly sordid and unjust, and was assassinated by his attendants as he slept.
Duncan, 1033. A prince of pacific temper, and great virtues: he was treacherously murdered by Macbeth, his general, and distinguished friend.
Macbeth, 1040. This tyrant usurped the throne to the prejudice of Malcolm, son of Duncan, who with his younger brother Donaldblain, took refuge in England. Macbeth's reign was short as cruel, being killed in a war with the English, who armed in favour of Duncan's children.
Malcolm III., 1057, long an exile in England, ascended the throne of his ancestors upon the death of Macbeth: he introduced among the Scots the custom of giving surnames; and during the crusades, assisted Godfrey, Earl of Boulogne, in the reduction of Jerusalem. This wise and valiant monarch was killed, with one of his sons, at the siege of Alnwick. Donaldblain, or Donald VII., 1092, uncle to Malcolm III.: his reign was short, being dethroned by Duncan, natural son of Malcolm.
Duncan II., 1094. The transient authority which this prince possessed was marked chiefly by his vices: he died without children.
Edgar, 1096, son of Malcolm III., was a good king, and cherished the interests of his subjects.
On the death of Edgar, his brother Alexander I., surnamed Acer, the Sharp, succeeded 1107. The early years of his life and reign were marked by rude and boisterous conduct, but, repenting of his folly and ferocity, he turned his thoughts to works of peace. Under this new feeling he built the church of St. Michael at Scone, and founded a monastery there: driven by a tempest to Æmona Isle, in gratitude for his pre
servation, and for his maintenance by the hermits, he dedicated a church there to St. Columb: he also enriched the monks of St. Andrews, and completed Dunfermline church, which his father had begun. He had espoused the princess Sibylla, daughter of William the Norman, but left no issue. David I., contemporary with Stephen, king of England, 1124. His valour was unquestioned, and his liberality to churchmen great: he compiled a code of Scottish laws, built many religious edifices, and reigned gloriously.
Malcolm IV., 1153, grandson of David. His actions are little celebrated, and his reign is chiefly memorable for the origin of the power engrossed by the Stuart family; Walter, one of the king's courtiers, being appointed seneschal or steward of Scotland, from which employment his descendants derived their family name.
William, surnamed the Lion, 1165, was frequently at war with England; and being taken prisoner, at the battle of Alnwick, by Henry II., that monarch refused to release him till he had done homage in his own name, and those of his
Alexander II., 1214, son of William the Lion: he was often at war with the Norwegians, who invaded the Scottish isles.
Alexander III., 1249: a prince of great virtues. In this reign the Norwegians were completely defeated, and obliged to retire from the isles. Alexander's issue failing, the crown was claimed by the descendants of David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother to William the Lion.
1235. An interregnum of some years succeeded, whilst the rival candidates asserted their claims, all descended from David in different degrees of affinity. Of twelve competitors, the most distinguished were John Baliol, great grandson to David by his eldest daughter; and Robert Bruce, grandson by the youngest. The nobles agreeing to refer the decision of this question to Edward I. of England, he adjudged the throne to Baliol as his vassal, and treacherously asserted English supremacy.
John Baliol, 1299, was more the creature of Edward than a monarch possessing uncontrollable authority. Gilbert de Umphraville, Earl of Angus, and William Wallace, were the foremost of the few who ventured still to assert the independence of Scotland, refusing subjection to Balio as the