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and weighed, would be found to have lost part of their weight, and the water would have gained it. In some cases, it is an extremely small portion of a substance that is soluble, but then it is that in which its most remarkable qualities reside. Thus, a small piece of spice will communicate a strong flavour to a large quantity of liquid, and yet lose but a trifle of its weight.
P. When I observed that chalk was insoluble, you said pointedly, in water it is: I suppose, then, that in some other liquid it is soluble.
T. Yes-in acids; that is, in vinegar and other liquids of a similar class. Indeed, in proper menstrua, not only is chalk soluble, but most other bodies; even the metals, those solid and seemingly indestructible bodies, by being put into certain liquids, become converted into transparent fluids. P. How exceedingly curious!
T. It is. Upon this principle are founded many curious matters in the arts. Thus, spirit-varnish is made of a solution of various gums or resins in spirits, that will not dissolve in water. Therefore, when it has been laid over any substance with a brush, and is become dry, the rain or the moisture of the air will not affect it. This is the case with the beautiful varnish laid upon coaches. On the other hand, the varnish left by gum-water could not be washed off by spirits.
P. I remember, when I made gum-water, upon setting the cup in a warm place, the water all dried away, and left the gum just as it was before. Would the same happen if I had sugar or salt dissolved in the water.
T. Yes, upon exposing the solution to warmth, it would dry away, and you would get back your salt or sugar in a solid state, as before.
P. But if I were to do so with a cup of tea, what should I get?
T. Not tea-leaves, certainly! But your question makes a few observations necessary. It is the property of heat to make most things fly off in vapour, which is called evaporation, or exhalation. But this it does in very different degrees to different substances. Some are easily made to evaporate; others very difficultly, and others not at all by the most violent fire we raise. Fluids in general are easily evaporable; Spirit of wine flies off in vapour much
but not equally so.
sooner than water; so that if you had a mixture of the two, by applying a gentle heat you might drive off almost all the spirit, while the greater part of the water would remain. Water, again, is more evaporable than oil. Some solid substances are much disposed to evaporate; thus, smelling-salts by a little heat may entirely be driven away in the air. But, in general, solids are more fixed than fluids; and, therefore, when a solid is dissolved in a fluid, it may commonly be recovered again by evaporation. It is by this operation that common salt is obtained from sea-water and salt-springs, either by the artificial application of heat, or by the natural heat of the sun. When a quantity of water contains as much salt as it will dissolve, it is called a saturated solution; upon evaporating which a little, the salt begins to assume the solid state, forming little regular masses called crystals. Sugar may be made in like manner to form crystals, and then it is sugar-candy. But, now to your question about tea. On exposing it to considerable heat, those fine particles in which its flavour consists, being as volatile or evaporable as the water, would fly off along with it; and when the infusion came to dryness, there would be left only those particles in which its roughness and colour consist. This would make what is called an extract of a plant.
P. What becomes of the water that evaporates?
T. A very proper question-it ascends into the air, and unites with it, causing it to become moist or dewy. But if, however, the vapour in its way happen to be stopped by any cold body, it is condensed—that is, it returns to the state of water again. Lift up the lid of the tea-pot, and you will see water collected on the inside of it, which is the condensed steam which rises from the hot tea beneath it. Hold a spoon or knife in the way of the steam which bursts out from the spout of the tea-kettle, and you will find it immediately covered with drops of water. This operation of turning a liquid into vapour, and then condensing it, is called distillation. For this purpose, the vessel in which the liquor is heated is closely covered with another called the head, into which the steam rises and is condensed. It is then drawn off by means of a pipe from this vessel called a still, into another called a receiver. In this way all sweet-scented and aromatic liquors are drawn from fragrant vegetables by means of water or spirits. The fragrant part being very volatile, rises along
with the steam of the water or spirit, and remains united with it after it is condensed. Rose-water and spirit of lavender are liquors of this kind.
P. Then the water collected on the inside of the tea-pot lid should have the fragrance of the tea.
T. It should-but unless the tea were extremely strong, you could scarcely perceive it.
P. I think I have heard of making salt water fresh by means of distillation.
T. Yes, that is an old discovery lately revived. The salt in sea-water being of a fixed nature, does not rise with the steam; and, therefore, on condensing the steam, the water is found to be fresh. And this indeed is the method nature employs in raising water by exhalation from the ocean, which, collecting in clouds, is condensed in the cold regions of the air, and falls down in rain.-But our tea is done; so we will now put an end to our chemical lecture.
P. But is this real chemistry?
T. Yes, it is.
P. Why, I understand it all without any difficulty.
T. I intended that you should.
1. What mean you by an infusion? 2. What by a decoction ?
3. What by maceration?
4. What do you say of a solid, when it entirely disappears in a fluid?
5. When do you say a substance is diffused?
6. Is chalk soluble in acids?
7. To what class of liquids does vinegar belong?
8. What effect has heat upon most things, particularly liquids?
9. If you apply heat to a mixture of spirit-of-wine and water, which of these flies off first?
Evenings at Home.
10. How do you obtain common salt from sea water?
11. If vapour be stopped by any cold body, what effect follows?
12. Explain to me the process of distillation.
13. Whence comes the vapour that forms clouds and rain?
14. If from the sea, why is it not salt then?
15. Is not this arrangement of God very simple-looking indeed?
16. But does not this very simplicity add to its beauty?
THE translation of the Bible at present in use in England was undertaken by the authority of King James I. of England. He came to the throne in 1603. Several objections having been made to the "Bishop's Bible," then in general use, he ordered a new translation to be made. This work he committed to fifty-four men; but before the translation was commenced, seven of them had either died, or had declined the task, so that it was actually accomplished by forty-seven. All of them were eminently distinguished for their piety, and for their profound acquaintance with the original languages. This company of eminent men was divided into six classes, and to each class was allotted a distinct part of the Bible to be translated. Ten were to meet at Westminster, and to translate from Genesis to the end of the second book of Kings. Eight assembled at Cambridge, and were to translate the remaining historical books, the Psalms, Job, Canticles, and Ecclesiastes. At Oxford, seven were to translate the four greater Prophets, the Lamentations of Jeremiah, and the twelve minor Prophets. The four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Revelation, were assigned to another company of eight at Oxford; and the Epistles were allotted to a company of seven at Westminster. Lastly, another company at Cambridge were to translate the Apocrypha."
To these companies the king gave instructions to guide them in their work, of which the following is the substance:The Bishop's Bible, then used, to be followed, and to be altered as little as the original would permit.
The names of the sacred writers to be retained as they were commonly used.
When a word had different significations, that to be kept which hath been most commonly used by the fathers, and most eminent writers.
No alteration to be made in the chapters and verses. marginal notes to be affixed, except to explain the Greek and Hebrew words that could not be briefly and fitly explained in the text. Reference to parallel places to be set down in the margin.
Each man of a company to take the same chapters, and translate them according to the best of his abilities; and when this was done, all were to meet together and compare their translations, and agree which should be regarded as
Each book, when thus translated and approved, to be sent to every other company for their approbation.
Besides this, the translators were authorized, in cases of great difficulty, to send letters to any learned men in the kingdom to obtain their opinions.
In this manner the Bible was translated into English. In the first instance, each individual translated each book alloted to his company. Secondly, the readings to be adopted were agreed upon by that company assembled together. The book thus finished was sent to each of the other companies to be examined. At these meetings one read the English, and the rest held in their hands some Bible, of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, etc. If they found any fault, says Selden, they spoke; if not, he read on.
The translation was commenced in 1607, and completed in about three years. At the end of that time, three copies of it were sent to London. Here a committee of six reviewed the work, which was afterwards reviewed by Dr. Smith, who wrote the preface, and by Dr. Bilson. It was first printed, in 1611, at London, by Robert Barker.
From this account. it is clear that no ordinary care was taken to furnish to English readers a correct translation of the sacred Scriptures. No translation of the Bible was ever made under more happy auspices; and it would now be impossible to furnish another translation in our language under circumstances so propitious. Whether we contemplate the number, the learning, or the piety of the men employed in it; the cool deliberation with which it was executed; the care taken that it should secure the approbation of the most learned men, in a country that embosomed a vast amount of literature; the harmony with which they conducted their work; or the comparative perfection of the translation, we see equal cause of gratitude to the great Author of the Bible that we have so pure a translation of his word.
From this time the English language became fixed. More than two hundred years have elapsed, and yet the simple and majestic purity and power of the English tongue is expressed in the English translation of the Bible, as clearly as when it was given to the world. It has become the standard of our language; and nowhere can the purity and expressive dignity of this language be so fully found as in the sacred Scriptures.