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were perfectly astonished-they had never heard of such a feat before; and deemed it quite impossible that a mere fishing smack, worked only by four men, and commanded by an ignorant master, should plough the billows of the Atlantic, and reach the West Indies in safety-yet so it was. This relation justifies the title given by the Spaniards to the zone where the trade winds are constant, el Golpo de las Damas, the Sea of the Ladies, on account of the ease with which it may be navigated, the uniform temperature prevalent night and day, and its pacific aspect.

1. Are the Trade winds permanent or periodical?

2. Whence has their name most likely been derived?

3. State the limits between which they prevail.

4. In what direction do they blow north of the Equator, and in what south? 5. Do we pass at once from the N. E. to the S. E. Trades?

6. What separates them?

7. What mean you by an easterly wind, and what by an easterly stream?

8. To whom owe we the discovery of the "Trades?"

9. Why is this rarely mentioned with the name of Columbus?

10. When did Columbus discover San Salvador, one of the Bahamas?

11. Who discovered the route to India by the Cape of Good Hope, and when? 12. How did the crew of Columbus feel in the N. E. trade wind?

Milner's Gallery of Nature.

13. What voyages are most easily made by these favouring gales ?

14. What things are particularly delightful in the region of these winds?

15. What did Columbus say about them? 16. What says Las Casas on the same subject?

17. In what terms does Humboldt speak of the tropical regions at sea?

18. What was the amount of knowledge possessed by the master of the fishing smack spoken of?

19. On the morning of what day from his starting did he descry St. Vincents? 20. How many men worked the smack? 21. Now how came it that such a vessel could sail to the W. Indies?

22. What name do the Spaniards give the zone of the Trades?

23. Now say, are not God's wisdom and goodness very apparent in these permanent winds?

24. To whom should we ever look in prosecuting the voyage of life?


We are told by Comte de Buffon, that his sister had a parrot which would frequently speak to himself, and seemed to fancy that some one addressed him. He often asked for his paw, and answered by holding it up. Though he liked to hear the voice of children, he seemed to have an antipathy to them, and bit them till he drew blood. He had also his objects of attachment, aud though his choice was not very nice, it was constant. He was excessively fond of the cook-maid; followed her every where, sought for her when absent, and seldom missed finding her. If she had been some time out of his sight, the bird climbed with his bill and claws to her shoulders, and lavished on her his caresses. His fondness had all the marks of close and warm friendship. The girl

happened to have a sore finger, which was tedious in healing, and so painful as to make her scream. While she uttered her moans, the parrot never left her chamber. The first thing he did every day was to pay her a visit; and this tender condolence lasted the whole time of her confinement, when he returned to his former calm and settled attachment. Yet all this strong predilection for the girl, would seem to have been more directed to her office in the kitchen, than to her person; for when another cook-maid succeeded her, the parrot showed the same degree of fondness to the new comer, the very first day.

Willoughby mentions a parrot, which, when a person said to it," Laugh, Poll, laugh," it laughed accordingly, and immediately after screamed out,-" What a fool; to make me laugh."

A parrot which had grown old with its master, shared with him the infirmities of age. Being accustomed to hear scarcely anything but the words, "I am sick," When a person asked it "How do you do?" "I am sick," it replied with a doleful tone, stretching itself along; "I am sick."

A gentleman who resided at Gosport in Hampshire, and had frequent business across the water to Portsmouth, was astonished one day on going to the beach to look for a boat, and finding none, to hear the words distinctly repeated, "Over master? Going over?" (which is the manner that watermen are in the habit of accosting people when they are waiting for passengers.) The cry still assailing his ears, he looked earnestly around him, to discover from whence the voice came; when, to his great surprise, he beheld the parrot in a cage, suspended from a public house window on the beach, vociferating the boatman's expressions.

The following curious instance of limited loquacity occurred with a brace of parrots in London. A tradesman who had a shop in the Old Bailey, opposite the prison, kept two parrots, for the inconvenience of his neighbours, a green disturber and a gray. The green parrot was taught to speak when there was a knock at the street door-the gray put in his word whenever the bell was rung; but they only knew two short phrases of English a-piece, though they pronounced these very distinctly. The house in which these "Thebans" lived, had a projecting old-fashioned front, so that the first floor could not be seen from the pavement on the same side of the way;

and one day when they were left at home by themselves, hanging out of a window, some one knocked at the street door. "Who's there?" said the green parrot-in the exercise of his office. "The man with the leather!" was the reply; to which the bird answered with his further store of language, which was "Oh, ho!" The door not being opened immediately as he expected, the stranger knocked a second time. "Who's there?" said the green parrot again.-" Away with your who's there," said the man with the leather, "why don't you come down?" to which the parrot again made the same answer, “Oh, ho!" This response so enraged the visitor, that he dropped the knocker, and rang furiously at the house bell; but this proceeding brought the gray parrot, who called out in a new voice, "Go to the gate.' -"To the gate ?" muttered the appellant, who saw no such convenience, and moreover imagined that the servants were bantering him. "What gate?" cried he, getting out into the kennel, that he might have the advantage of seeing his interlocutor. "New-gate, responded the gray parrot-just at the moment when his species was discovered.

1. Was it the cook herself that the parrot possessed by Buffon's sister loved?

2. How did it act when the girl had a sore finger?

3. What did the parrot spoken of by Willoughby, the natural historian, say?

4. Tell me the anecdote of the old parrot and of his old master.

5. Who will tell me the laughable story of the parrot at Gosport?

6. What was the colour of the parrots kept by the tradesman in the Old Bailey? 7. When did the green parrot speak, and when the gray ?

8. Describe the old-fashioned house where these parrots lived.

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Appendix to Goldsmith.

10. What said the green parrot ?

11. What answer was returned when the man told who he was?

12. When he furiously rang the bell, what words met his ear?

13. Did the man see any gate to go to?

14. When he said "what gate," where was he directed to go?

15. What was "Newgate ?"

16. Do you think parrots understand fully what they say?

17. Ought we not to try and understand what we learn?

18. What does a boy resemble who goes through his lessons without trying to un

9. Who knocked at the shut door one derstand their meaning ? day?










De-fined', v.. ........finis.
Ex-ten'sion, n...........tendere.
Im-pen-e-tra-bil'i-ty, n..penetrare.
Di-vis-i-bil'i-ty, n........dividere.
Mo-bil'i-ty, n...........................]
In-er'tia, n.......
In-de-struc-ti-bil'i ty, n..struĕre.
At-trac'tion, n...........trahere.
Par'ti-cle, n...................... ..pars.
Mole'cules, n.............moles.
Def'i-nite, adj..... ...finis.
Diffused', part..........fundĕre.

Mag'ni-fies, v.......... magnus,


O-do-rif'er-ous, adj......odor.

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Father. Do you understand, my dears, what philosophers mean when they make use of the word Matter?

Em. Are not all things which we see and feel composed of matter?

Fa. Everything which is the object of our senses is composed of matter, differently modified or arranged: but, in a philosophical sense, it is defined to be an extended, impenetrable, inactive, and moveable substance.1

1 The essential properties of matter, then stated here are, Extension, Impenetra bility, Divisibility, Inertia, and Mobility, to which may be added Figure, or form, which is the result of extension, for we cannot conceive that a body has length, breadth, and thickness, without its having some kind of figure.-Indestructibility that is the property by which matter never ceases to exist,-Attraction, the pro perty by which bodies tend towards each other.

Ch. If by extension is meant length, breadth, and thickness, matter, undoubtedly, is an extended substance. Its impenetrability also is manifest by the resistance it makes to the touch.


Em. And the other properties nobody will deny; for all material objects are, of themselves, without motion, which I suppose is what is meant by inactive and yet, it may be readily conceived that, by the application of a proper force there is no body which cannot be moved, whence it may be said to be moveable. But I remember, Papa, that you told us something strange about the divisibility of Matter, which you said might be continued without end.

Fa. I did, some time ago, mention this as a curious and interesting subject; and this is a very fit time for me to explain it.

Ch. Can matter indeed be infinitely divided? For I suppose that this is what is meant by a division without end.

Fa. Difficult as this may at first appear, yet it seems very capable of proof. Can you imagine a particle of matter to be so small as not to have an upper and an under surface?

Ch. Certainly not; every portion of matter, however minute, must have two surfaces at least; and then I see that it follows of course that it is divisible; for the upper surface could be separated from the under one, and this again be repeated to infinity.

Fa. Your conclusion is just; matter is by some considered to be infinitely divisible, and many arguments besides yours have been advanced in support of that opinion; nevertheless it is impossible to imagine that the molecules of which you conceive matter to consist, can be composed of anything else than certain definite but excessively minute indivisible atoms, and this is the opinion now adopted by most philosophers, although it is perhaps a question which is incapable of satisfactory solution.

Em. But you were kind enough to say that you would mention to us some remarkable instances of the minute division of matter.

Fa. A few years ago a lady spun a single pound of wool into a thread 168,000 yards long: and Mr. Boyle mentions that two grains and a half of silk were spun into a thread of 300 yards in length. If a pound of silver, which contains 5760 grains, and a single grain of gold, be melted together,


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