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vengeance, and we read, with horror, of the scenes of massacre and outrage which continued for years after that outbreak When it becomes a case of starvation with masses of men, their natures change and they become as merciless as wolves Before things get into this state, would it not be sound policy for those who have wealth in this country to combine and form themselves into a great Joint Stock, Limited Liability Company with the same object as that of the Beneficent Society above referred to, namely, the employing of superfluous labour in fertilizing and cultivating the wastes and poor lands of this country, and large tracts of uncultivated land in our colonies. In addition to cultivating the soil at home and abroad, labour could be employed in building, in manufacturing agricultural implements, in making common household furniture, and, among other things, wearing apparel. The scheme is immense and, of course, would require an immense capital, but, if such rich noblemen as the Duke of Sutherland and the Marquis of Westminster headed the list of 10 shareholders with £100,000 each, it would only be a third of their annual income and would go a good way towards a capital of a million which, I should say, would be required to start such a scheme. Thus, as one of my reviewers, Dr. Nichols, says, "a scheme could be started for destroying poverty, vice and misery at the cost of one of our smallest wars; a scheme which would record no disasters, no killed or wounded or missing; and with no defeats, but most blessed victories." My pamphlet gives the details of such a scheme, the main feature of which, namely, paying officials with the regular currency, and all who applied for work with paper money, could be adopted by a Company, as well as it could by Government. This cheap labour would, in a few years, make the Company's property valuable, especially in the colonies, whilst, by giving employment to all who applied for it, the extreme distress in the country would be allayed, and a safety valve to carry off the dangerous feelings which poverty is apt to engender, be created.
It would, however, lengthen this paper too much to go into further particulars. I will, therefore, conclude by calling upon the reader to reflect on the millions of the trading and working classes whom, in the course of time, such a scheme would provide with employment, and the thousands upon thousands of the middle and educated classes, who are now starving in the professions, who could then be employed as Governors, Directors, Commissioners, Bankers, Surveyors, Clergymen, Surgeons, Schoolmasters, Clerks, Storekeepers, Auctioneers, Sea Captains, Sailors, and so forth.
NOTICES OF BOOKS.
MIXED ESSAYS, by MATTHEW ARNOLD. London:
Whatever Mr. Arnold publishes is sure of a hearty welcome from his many admirers, and, although these are always glad when their favourite magazine is enlivened by a contribution from his pen, it is, necessarily, still more satisfactory when his works appear in the handier and more permanent form of a volume. The nine papers which make up the present book have all been printed before,-most of them within the last few years. They are marked by Mr. Arnold's characteristic freshness of style and thought. He discourses, in the first place, on the kindred subjects of "Democracy" and "Equality"-subjects which few are able to touch so clearly and so justly and with such tact and insight as Mr. Arnold. The subject of "Democracy" has engaged the attention of a contributor to the present number of Papers for the Times, and much would be gained if others who discuss it would do so in the impartial and religious spirit of these two writers. Professed lovers of progress should fix in their minds some true conception of
what Democracy and Equality are, and make for that. What some do make for is, unfortunately, a very different and much less worthy thing. Great movements are only retarded when their promoters misapprehend them. Mr. Arnold well says, "This movement of Democracy, like other operations of nature, merits properly neither blame nor praise. Its partizans are apt to give it credit which it does not deserve, while its enemies are apt to upbraid it unjustly. Its friends celebrate it as the author of all freedom. But political freedom may very well be established by aristocratic founders; and, certainly, the political freedom of England owes more to the grasping English barons, than to Democracy. Social freedom-equality,-that is rather the field of the conquests of Democracy."
The other essays are not less worthy of attention than those just referred to. In "A Guide to English Literature " Mr. Arnold starts to review Mr. Stopford Brook's Primer of English Literature, and proceeds to expound his own views upon a subject in which he is particularly at home. Other literary studies relate to Milton, Goethe and George Sand. Mr. Arnold brings Religion to bear on all he touches. He feels so deeply the truths of Christianity and penetrates so thoroughly the falsehoods which have been mis-called Christian, that he is able to show how direct a bearing Christianity really has on affairs of life and to apply its teachings to movements of the present time. The surface cobwebs which obscure the vision of many people, he lightly sweeps aside, and, with a master's hand, makes manifest whatever is true and lovely and worthy of regard.
PLEASANT WAYS IN SCIENCE, by RICHARD A. PROCTOR. London: Chatto and Windus, 1879.
Here, as elsewhere, Mr. Proctor discourses pleasantly on a variety of subjects. His purpose, as he tells us, "is to interest rather than to instruct." He succeeds in doing both.
Many, to whom a regular scientific treatise would be dreadful, will gain their first introduction to serious reading in books such as these. Mr. Proctor does an excellent work in thus popularizing science.
The Vaccination Inquirer is a new monthly journal established to state the case on behalf of the opponents of compulsory vaccination. It is ably edited and well written. Mr. Young sends us several tracts on the same subject.- From a half-crown quarterly, the Psychological Review, (E. W. Allen,) has been transformed into a sixpenny monthly, a change which will, we trust, give it the publicity it deserves. Although unable to assent to all its spiritualistic theories, we cannot but appreciate the high tone of its discussions and the ability of its writers.
Mr. Frothingham's admirable essay on "The Real God," which was printed in No. Ix. of Papers for the Times, is now issued as a pamphlet for generel readers. This essay ought to be widely circulated by those who wish to substitute a higher conception of the Reality of God, for those anthropomorphic fancies, unhappily so common, which almost necessarily lead to Atheism. The pamphlet is published at fourpence-four copies for one shillingand may be had by post from Mr. W. Lewin, 135, Bridge Street, Birkenhead.
HELPS TO CIVILIZATION.
THE Romans were the first and only people who ever attempted to promote civilization by making roads. The more modern fashion is different. The missionary and not the pickaxe is the forerunner of what is termed enlightenment. The Roman method was, on the whole, the better of the two, for it succeeded in great part in achieving the desired results, while, for some reason or another, the religious efforts of modern days generally, before long, call for the services of the soldier, and result, in couse of time, in the suppression and probably the extermination of the race operated upon. Whether, even with a pure, religious interest, the direct missionary method is calculated to be as efficacious as the indirect road making one is a question which may be seriously considered. It is to be feared that, too often, savages are taught, not to admire civilization and Christianity, but to practice quite other than Christian virtues of any sort.
The point of the mistake lies in attempting to plant seeds before the ground is prepared. It is hopeless to try to root Christian or any other truths until the mental condition is fitted for their reception. Not by studying catechisms or by learning texts of scripture can this desired object be achieved. The force of example and the power of contact are essential. If we want to mend the manners of a so-called savage-though, possibly, for all that, a well-disposed nation, we must begin by showing it what civilization is, by carrying our ways and customs into its borders, by opening up trade with it; in short, by going back to the Roman plan and making roads. Then, when these people have learned civilized usages, they will, of their own accord, improve their habits, and take the first step towards advancing their race.