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set tends to suggest the others. But it is very difficult to see how this Law of Association explains the phenomenon in question, viz., the conception of a single cause for the manifold of sensations. What

it appears to imply is simply that a something which is touched, suggests another something capable of being seen, smelt or tasted; but certainly not the existence of one thing capable of producing all these various sensations by itself.

Taking account of the above considerations, which, though the chief, are by no means the whole that might be brought into court, the Philosophical Principles of Locke, as expounded in his Essay, are, without "the unexpressed presuppositions," utterly inadequate as an explanation of Experience, and of man's belief in the Reality of Knowledge. Given, the pre-suppositions as well as the Principles, and we may be able to acquiesce in the Philosophy, to accept it as a proximately true exposition of the method the human mind pursues in the development of knowledge. The pre-suppositions themselves must be taken account of if we wish to gain any notion of the nature of the Reality with which Knowledge is concerned.

Now, assuming such pre-suppositions as qualities of Mind, we are led to the opinion that the object of Knowledge is, not a Reality independent of Mind, but a Reality which presents to every Mind the same appearance; with what such Reality is, under other than mental conditions, we have no concern. Knowledge consists in the recognition of the sameness of Thought and Being. When such recognition takes place, we have Certainty.

Certainty is the intuition of the impossibility of a contradictory. For instance, we are certain that every trilateral figure is also a triangular figure, and conversely. We also may become just as certain that all plane triangular figures have the sum of their three interior angles equal to the sum of two right angles. In these cases we recognise the sameness of the thought of trilaterality with the being of triangularity, and vice versa-and of the sameness of the thought of plane triangularity with the being in a figure of the sum of two right angles; and the thought of a figure having the sum of its angles equal to two right angles is that of the being of a plane triangle. Short of such recognition we have Uncertainty, that is, we do not recognise in the given case that the thought we have involves beingthough we may, by a consensus of opinion, be led to assume it. (The consensus meant here is not the consensus estimated by a mere counting of heads, but by an estimate of the competency in any particular subject, of the brains inside them.) Still, until Certainty is gained—that is, until it is impossible for a single individual but to recognise, in any given case, the sameness of thought and being, there is always room for doubting the Existence of any reputed Reality.


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CANON FARRAR, in his article "Eternal Hope," Contemporary Review, June, 1878, p. 570, says that the popular doctrine acts, "not as a deterrent from sin, but as an incentive to despair."

An elderly lady, suffering from a painful and incurable disease, a few days ago feared she was dying, and sent for me in great haste. When I arrived, she inquired most anxiously, "Doctor, am I dying?" On my replying "No," she said, "I would rather die than suffer so much pain, but I am terribly afraid to die." Why?" inquired I. "Because I am not saved, and I dread falling into the hands of an angry God, and being tormented in an eternal Hell."

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My idea," said I, "is, that at death we fall into the hands, not of an angry God,' but of a loving Father who willeth that all men should be saved;' and as for an eternal Hell, that I consider to be a mere old world legend, a bugbear of theology, conjured up in primitive ages, when mankind was ignorant, by priests." "Dear me!" said she, "I wish I could think so, as this would certainly comfort me."

"Whether you think so or not does not alter the fact one iota, for God is unchangeable in all his ways."

"But do you not believe that the wicked will be cast into Hell, and punished hereafter?"

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