Puslapio vaizdai
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5. He raised a mortal' to the skies',

She' drew an angel' down`.

6. Passions' are winds' to urge us o'er the wave', Reason' the rudder', to direct and save`;

7. This without those' obtains a vain' employ, Those without this', but urge us to destroy`.

8. The generous buoyant spirit is a power
Which in the virtuous mind doth all things conquer.
It bears' the hero' on to arduous' deeds:
It lifts' the saint' to heaven`.

Note. In the following examples the treble emphasis, though not expressed, is evidently implied.

EXAMPLES.

1. To reign is worth ambition, though in hell;
Better to reign' in hell` than serve' in heaven'.

2. I would rather be the first man in that village' than the second' in Rome'.

THE ANTECEDENT.

RULE I-Personal or adjective pronouns, when antecedents, must be pronounced with accentual force, to intimate that the relative is in view, and in some measure to anticipate the pronunciation of it.

EXAMPLES.

1. He, that pursues fame with just claims, trusts his happiness to the winds; but he, that endeavours after it by false merit, has to fear, not only the violence of the storm, but the leaks of his vessel.

2. The weakest reasoners are always the most positive in debate; and the cause is obvious; for they are unavoidably driven to maintain their pretensions by violence, who want arguments and reasons to prove that they are in the right.

3. A man will have his servant just, diligent, sober, and chaste, for no other reason but the terror of losing his master's favour, when all the laws divine and human cannot keep him whom he serves within bounds, with relation to any one of these virtues.

4. And greater sure my merit, who, to gain

A point sublime, could such a task sustain.

RULE II.-When the relative only is expressed, the antecedent being understood, the accentual force then falls upon the relative.

EXAMPLES.

1. What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy, The soul's calm sunshine, and the heartfelt joy, Is virtue's prize.

2. Who noble ends by noble means obtains,
Or failing, smiles in exile or in chains,
Like good Aurelius let him reign, or bleed
Like Socrates, that man is great indeed.

GENERAL EMPHASIS

Is that emphatic force, which, when the composition is very animated, and approaches to a close, we often lay upon several words in succession. This emphasis is not so much regulated by the sense of the author, as by the taste and feelings of the reader, and therefore does not admit of any

certain rule.

EXAMPLES.

1.

What men could do

Is done already heaven and earth will witness,
If' Rome' must`fall', that we are innocent.

2. There was a time, then, my fellow-citizens, when the Lacedæmonians were sovereign masters both by sea and land; when their troops and forts surrounded the entire circuit of Attica; when they possessed Euboea, Tanagra, the whole Boeotian district, Megara, Ægina, Cleone, and the other islands, while this state had not one ship, not one' wall.

In these examples, if the words marked as emphatic are pronounced with the proper inflections, and with a distinct pause after each, it is inconceivable the force that will be given to these few words. This general emphasis, it may be observed, has identity for its object, the antithesis to which is appearance, similitude, or the least possible diversity.

THE INTERMEDIATE OR ELLIPTICAL MEMBER

Is that part of a sentence which is equally related to both parts of an antithesis, but which is properly only once expressed.

EXAMPLES.

1. Must we, in your person, crown' the author of the public calamities, or must we destroy' him?

2. A good man will love himself too well to lose an estate by gaming, and his neighbour too well to win' one.

In the above examples, the elliptical members, "the author of the public calamities" and "an estate by gaming,' are pronounced with the rising inflection, but with a higher and feebler tone of voice than the antithetic words crown and lose.*

In the two following examples, the elliptical members, which are immediately after the last two antithetic words win and brain, are pronounced with the falling inflection, but in a lower tone of voice than these words.

EXAMPLES.

3. A good man will love himself too well to lose', and his neighbour too well to win', an estate by gaming.

4. It would be in vain to inquire, whether the power of imagining things strongly proceeds from any greater perfection in the soul', or from any nicer texture in the brain' of one man than of another.

When the intermediate member contains an emphatical word, or extends to any length, it will be necessary to consider it as an essential member of the sentence, and to pronounce it with emphasis and variety.

EXAMPLE.

5. A man would not only be an unhappy', but a rude unfinished creature, were he conversant with none but those of his own make.

EXERCISES ON EMPHASIS.

1. In their prosperity, my friends shall never hear of me; in their adversity, always.

2. There is no possibility of speaking properly the language of any passion, without feeling it.

3. A book that is to be read, requires one sort of style; a man that is to speak, must use another.

4. A sentiment, which, expressed diffusely, will barely be admitted to be just; expressed concisely, will be admired as spirited.

5. Whatever may have been the origin of pastoral poetry, it is undoubtedly a natural, and very agreeable form of poetical composition.

6. A stream that runs within its banks is a beautiful object; but when

When the elliptical member contains no emphatical word it must be pronounced in a monotone.

it rushes down with the impetuosity and noise of a torrent, it presently becomes a sublime one.

7. Though rules and instructions cannot do all that is requisite, they may, however, do much that is of real use. They cannot, it is true, in spire genius; but they can direct and assist it. They cannot remedy barrenness; but they can correct redundancy.

8. A French sermon is, for the most part, a warm animated exhortation; an English one, is a piece of cool instructive reasoning. The French preachers address themselves chiefly to the imagination and the passions; the English, almost solely to the understanding.

9. No person can imagine that to be a frivolous and contemptible art, which has been employed by writers under divine inspiration, and has been chosen as a proper channel for conveying to the world the knowledge of divine truth.

10. The tastes of men may differ very considerably as to their object, and yet none of them be wrong. One man relishes poetry most; another takes pleasure in nothing but history. One prefers comedy; another, tragedy. One admires the simple; another, the ornamented style. The young are amused with gay and sprightly compositions; the elderly are more entertained with those of a graver cast. Some nations delight in bold pictures of manners, and strong representations of passions; others incline to more correct and regular elegance both in description and sentiment. Though all differ, yet all pitch upon some one beauty which peculiarly suits their turn of mind; and, therefore, no one has a title to condemn the rest.

11. Pleads he in earnest? Look upon his face:

His eyes do drop no tears; his prayers are jest ;

His words come from his mouth; ours, from our breast;
He prays but faintly, and would be denied ;
We pray with heart and soul.

12. Two principles in human nature reign;
Self-love to urge, and reason to restrain;
Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call;
Each works its end, to move or govern all.

13. See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow !
Which who but feels can taste, but thinks can know :
Yet poor with fortune, and with learning blind,
The bad must miss; the good untaught will find.

14. In this our day of proof, our land of hope,

The good man has his clouds that intervene ;
Clouds that may dim his sublunary day,
But cannot darken: even the best must own,
Patience and resignation are the pillars
Of human peace on earth.

15. Some dream that they can silence when they will
The storm of passion, and say, Peace, be still;
But Thus far, and no farther,' when addressed
To the wild wave, or wilder human breast,
Implies authority, that never can,
And never ought to be the lot of man,

16. While hence they walk, the pilgrim's bosom wrought
With all the travail of uncertain thought.

His partner's acts, without their cause appear:
'Twas there a vice, and seem'd a madness here.
Detesting that, and pitying this, he goes,
Lost and confounded with the various shows.

RHETORICAL PAUSES.

RULE I.-Pause after the nominative when it consists of more than one word.*

EXAMPLES.

1. The fashion of this world passeth away.

2. To practise virtue is the sure way to love it.

3. The pleasures and honours of the world to come are, in the strictest sense of the word, everlasting.

Note 1.-A pause may be made after a nominative, even when it consists of only one word, if it be a word of importance, or if we wish it to be particularly observed.

EXAMPLES.

1. Adversity is the school of piety.

2. The fool hath said in his heart there is no God.

Note 2. When a sentence consists of a nominative and a verb, each expressed in a single word, no pause is necessary.

EXAMPLES.

1. George learns.-2. The boys read.-3. The tree grows.-4. He comes.

RULE II.—When any member comes between the nominative case and the verb, it must be separated from both of them by a short pause.

EXAMPLES.

1. Trials in this state of being are the lot of man.

2. Such is the constitution of men, that virtue however it may be neglected for a time will ultimately be acknowledged and respected.

The place of the pause is immediately before each of the words printed in italics.

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