Puslapio vaizdai

moral, it will follow that such conclusions are as contrary to reason as they are to scripture.

The above remarks are far from being designed to cherish a spirit of bitterness against one another as men, or as christians. There is a way of viewing the corruption and depravity of mankind, so as to excite bitterness and wrath, and every species of evil temper; and there is a way of viewing them, that, without approving or conniving at what is wrong, shall excite the tear of compassion. It does not become us to declaim against the wickedness of the wicked in a manner as if we expected grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles: but, while we prove ourselves the decided friends of God, to bear good will to men. It becomes those who may be the most firmly established in the truth as it is in Jesus, to consider that a portion of the errors of the age, in all probability, attaches to them; and though it were otherwise, yet they are directed to carry it benevolently towards others who may err : “ In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God, peradventure, will give them repentance, to the acknowledging of the truth."*

Finally: There is an iinportant difference between rasing the foundation, and building upon that foundation a portion of wood, and hay, and stubble. It - becomes us not to make light of either : but the latter may be an object of forbearance, whereas the former is not. With the enemies of Christ, we ought, in religious matters, to make no terms; but towards his friends, though in some respects erroneous, it behoves us to come as near as it is possible to do, without a dereliction of principle. A truly christian spirit will feel the force of such language as the following, and will act upon it: “ All that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours, grace be unto them, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ-Grace be. with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sine cerity !”

A. F. 2 Tim. ii. 25.








WHEN Jesus Christ made his appearance on earth, a great part of the world was subject to the Roman empire. This empire was much the largest temporal monarchy that had ever existed : so that it was called, “all the world.” (Luke ii. 1.) The time when the Romans first subjugated the land of Judea, was between sixty and seventy years before Christ was born; and soon after this the Roman empire rose to its greatest extent and splendour. To this government the world continued subject tiļl Christ came, and many hundred years afterwards. The remoter nations who had submitted to the yoke of this mighty empire, were ruled either by Roman governors, invested with temporary commissions, or by their own princes and laws, in subordination to the republic,

whose sovereignty was acknowledged, and to which the conquered kings, who were continued in their own dominions, owed their borrowed majesty. At the same time the Roman people and their venerable senate, though they had not lost all shadow of liberty, were yet in reality reduced to a state of servile submission to Augustus Cæsar; who by artifice, perfidy, and bloodshed, attained an enormous degree of power, and united in his own person the pompous titles of Emperor, Pontiff, Censor, Tribune of the People : in a word, all the great offices of the state. *

At this period the Romans, according to Daniel's prophetic description, had trodden down the kingdoms, and by their exceeding strength devoured the whole earth. However, by enslaving the world, they civilized it; and whilst they oppressed mankind, they united them together. The same laws were every where established, and the same languages understood. Men approached nearer to one another in sentiments and manners; and the intercourse between the most distant regions of the earth was rendered secure and agreeable. Hence the benign influence of letters and philosophy was spread abroad in countries which had been before enveloped in the darkest ignorance.t

Just before Christ was born the Roman empire not only rose to its greatest height, but was also settled in peace. Augustus Cæsar had been for many years establishing the state of the Roman empire, and subduing his enemies, till the very year that Christ was born: then, all his enemies being reduced to subjection, liis dominion over the world appeared to be settled in its greatest glory. This remarkable peace, after so many ages of tumult and war, was à fit prelude to the ushering of the glorious Prince of Peace

* Mosheim's Ecclesiastical IIistory, vol. i. p. 16.
* Robertson's Sermon on the Situation of the World at

the time of Christ's appearance,

into the world. The tranquillity which then reigned was necessary to enable the ministers of Christ to ext ecute with success their sublime commission to the human race. In the situation into which the providence of God had brought the world, the gospel in a few years reached those remote corners of the earth into which it could not otherwise have penetrated for many ages.

All the heathen nations, at the time of Christ's appearance on earth, worshipped a multiplicity of gods and demons, whose favour they courted by obscene and ridicalows ceremonies, and whose anger they endeavoured to appease by the most abominable cruelties.*

Every ñation had its respective gods, over which one more excellent than the rest presided ; yet in such a manner that the supreine deity was himself controlled by the rigid decrees of fate, or by what the philosophers called eternal necessity. The gods of the east were different from those of the Gauls, the Germans, and other northern nations. The Grecian divimities differed from those of the Egyptians, who deified plants, and a great variety of the productions both of nature and art. Each people had also their peculiar manner of worshipping and appeasing its respective deities. In process of time, however, the Greeks and Romans,grew as ambitious in their religious pretensions as in their political claims. They maintained that their gods, though under different appellations, were the objects of religious worship in all nations, and therefore they gave the names of their deities to those of other countries. +

The deities of almost all nations were either ancient heroes, renowned for noble exploits and worthy deeds, or kings and generals who had founded empires, or women wlio had become illustrious by remarkable actions or useful in ventions. The merit of those emi

* See Moshein and Robertson.

† Mosheim, vol. i. p. 18,

nent persons, contemplated by their posterity with enthusiastic gratitude, was the cause of their exaltation to celestial honours. The natural world furnished another kind of deities; and as the sun, moon, and stars, shine with a lustre superior to that of all other material beings, they received religious homage from almost all the nations of the world. *

From those beings of a nobler kind, idolatry descended into an enormous multiplication of inferior powers ; so that in many countries mountains, trees, and rivers, the earth, and sea, and wind, nay, even virtues and vices, and diseases, had their shrines attended by devout and zealous worshippers,+

These deities were honoured with rites and sacri. fices of various kinds, according to their respective nature and offices. Most nations offered animals; and human sacrifices were universal in ancient times, They were in use among the Egyptians till the reign of Amasis : they were never so common among

the Greeks and Romans; yet they were practised by them on extraordinary occasions. Porphyry says that the Greeks were wont to sacrifice men when they went to war. He relates also that human sacrifices were offered at Rome till the reign of Adrian, who ordered them to be abolished in most places.

Pontiffs, priests, and ministers, distributed into several classes, presided over the pagan worship, and were appointed to prevent disorder in the performance, of religious rites. The sacerdotal order, which was

* The learned Mr. Bryant, in his analysis of ancient mythology, supposes that the worship of the powers of nature, principally the sun, was ihe original idolatry, which prevailed in all nations; that the characters of the pagan deities of different countries melt into each other; and jhat the whole crowd of gods and goddesses mean only the powers of nature, (especially the sun) branched out and diversified by a number of different names and attributes. Sir William Jones, in his history of the antiquities of Asia, appears to have embraced the sanie opinion. See Bryant, vol. 1: p. 2, 308. See also Sir William Jones's Dissertation of the gods of Greece, Italy, and India.

- † Mosheim, vol. i. p. 20. Dr, Priestley's Discourses relating to the Evidences of Revealed Religion.

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