« AnkstesnisTęsti »
Science and the Future
The main capital of the modern world consists of scientific knowledge. When we compile our War losses, let us not forget that our greatest asset, the store of knowledge science has collected is still intact. Without the aid science gives to agriculture the earth even now could not support its population. Lecturing on "Science and the Future," Mr. A. A. Campbell Swinton made these and the following statements: “It had been estimated that the total population the earth could maintain would be reached about 2100 A.D If once the stage were reached in which population increased more rapidly than means of sustenance, then neither Leagues of Nations nor anything else would prevent conflicts between peoples struggling in dire necessity. The main resource when coal was exhausted would have to be the enormous flood of solar radiant energy that was falling on the earth. The pro-blem was, how could this be utilised? The direct transformation of radiant energy into chemical or even into electrical energy was by no means impossible. The former transformation was already effected, inefficiently, by plants, and on a small scale in photographic processes, where light caused chemical reduction; Becquerel and Minchin had shown how radiant energy could be transformed into electrical. Perhaps in photo-electric chemistry we had the most important problem the science of the future had got to solve." Physiological Effects of Cheerfulness
The good physiological effects of cheerfulness and confidence are ascribed to the fact that emotional conditions, such as fear, worry, etc., excite internal bodily reactions and accelerate the secretion of harmful products, which inflame already pathological conditions of the vital organs.
The Popular Science Siftings publishes the following description of a machine designed to reveal the defects of the body:
"1he schematograph is merely a means of registering in outline form the natural figure in various poses, all calculated to show the ordinary defects coming from faulty posture. The whole idea of the machine is to show the subject, graphically, the physical defects as indicated by his or her posture."
The device is as follows: An oblong box, about the size of a large camera, the bottom sides and ends made of wood, but the top with a sliding cover made of ground glass, a triple lens mounted in the front is an important feature of this machine. Inside this box, at the end opposite the lens, a reflecting mirror is mounted at an angle of forty-five degrees. The purpose of this mirror is to catch the rays from the image on the lens and reflect them to the ground glass cover above, where they can be observed by the operator. The "operating room" is long and narrow. A black screen about seven feet high stands against the wall at one end. Some twelve feet from the screen hangs a thick black curtain. Behind this the operator is posted, only the lens of the camera protruding through the curtain. This arrangement serves the double purpose of shutting off all rays of light and in securing complete privacy to the subject. To make a schematogram, as the tracing is called, the subject undresses and mounts a miniature model's throne in front of the screen. The operator focuses the machine, with the lens directed about at the subject's waistline. Just above and in front of the subject, two powerful electric lights are switched on to make the outline as clear as possible. On the ground glass at the top of the machine is clearly visible the image of the white figure, standing out against the dark screen. If the image is satisfactory, the operator lays a thin sheet of paper over the glass and traces the outline; and if it is not, images are taken from various poses to locate the defects.
The Use of Sea-Weed
During the last few years Swedish sea weed has been coveted by the Germans who make it into fodder and also use it as a source of valuable chemical products. From a series of careful experiments carried out in Stockholm the dry distillation of 1 kilo. of dried sea-weed has produced the following:-illuminating gas 30-32 litres; carbon 43 per cent.; distillates (acetic acid, methylated spirit, formic acid, acetone, etc.,) 35 percent.; salts (sodium sulphate, pottassium sulphate, potassium chloride) 14 per cent.; and in addition iodine, homene, a very aromatic tar product, and carbolic tar, an excellent preservative of timber.
Lord Sinha's Appointment
Mr. P. C. Lyon writes to the "Times": The appointment of Sir S. P. Sinha to be Under Secretary of State for India will be welcomed by all who are looking for a genuine advance towards Self Government in India. It will be in the memory of your readers that it was Sir Satyendra who, as president of the Indian National Congress in 1915, pressed for a declaration of the policy and ultimate aims of England's Rule in India on the lines of the one actually made in Parliament some 18 months later. He has always been a sturdy advocate of progress in our administration, and his appointment will be of welcome assistance to the Moderate Party, who are putting up a plucky fight at this moment against the extreme Home Rule faction. Signs have not been wanting that the Moderates bad some fear lest the attacks made in reactionary quarters upon the Montagu Chelmsford Scheme might result in a whittling away of the reforms contained in it; but they will realize now that, whatever modifications may be found necessary in the details of the Scheme to facilitate its working and secure its main objects, the required changes will not be allowed to impair the responsibility and power which are to be entrusted by the Scheme to Indian hands.
Mr. J. D. Anderson writes in the "Times 19 As an old Bengal civilan, Mr. P. C. Lyon might have noted the remarkable part that is being played in recent Indian developments by Bengalis. The first two Indian members of His Majesty's Privy Council, Mr. Ameer Ali and Sir S. P. Sinha, are both Bengalis. Mr. Bhupendranath Basu is another. The one Indian who has a worldwide literary reputation is Sir Rabin
dranath Tagore, another Native of Calcutta. And now, to the gratification of all who know and love Bengal, Sir S. P. Sinha is promoted to the Upper House of the Empire. It was a Bengali, Sir Rabindranath's elder brother, who was the first Indians to enter the I.C.S. Another, the late Romesh Chandra Dutta, was the first to administer an Indian Division. Such successes mark more than intellectual distinction, and imply qualities of courageous industry and integrity not common anywhere. Surely our comment on Sir S. P. Sinha's elevation should be, "Well done, Bengal!"
The Parliamentary correspondent of the "Times 19 writes
Sir S. P. Sinha, the new Under-Secretary for India, who is to be made a peer will be the first Indian to become a Member of the House of Lords. Two Indians-the late Mr. Dadabhoy Naoroji and Sir M. M. Bhownaggree-have sat in the House of Commons; but nothing has come of suggestions put forward from time to time for Indian princes and nobles to be made peers of the realm. While Lord (then Mr.) Morley was in the House of Commons and Secretary of State for India his successive lieutenants were in the same Chamber; but there are obvious advantages in the more usual practice of the Under-Secretary being in "another place." These are especially strong at a time when a measure for Indian constitutional reform is in preparation and will run the gauntlet of criticism in the Lords from peers who have held high administrative office in India. Indian gratification at the appointment has been voiced by Mr. Bhupendranath Basu, Member of the Indian Council, in a telegram sent to the Prime Minister.
All India rejoices and thanks you for Sinha's appointment. You have appealed to the imagination of India and done what the greatest Moghul Emperor Akbar did in the 16th century. I join my personal thanks,
India Office Reform
In accordance with the proposal made in paragraph 293 of the Report of the Secretary of State and the Viceroy on Indian Constitutional Reforms, the following committee has been appointed to enquire into the organisation of the India Office and the relations between the Secretary of State in Council and the Government of India : The Marquis of Crewe, Chairman; H. H. the Aga Khan, the Viscount Esher, the Lord Inchape, Mr. B. N. Basu, Sir J. R. Brunyate, Lt.-Col. Godfrey Collins, Mr. Harry Gosling, Professor A. B. Keith, Edinburgh University, Mr. Evelyn Murray, Secretary to the Post Office.
The terms of reference to the Committee are as follows: To advise what changes should be made in (A) the existing system of Home Administration of Indian affairs and (B) the existing relations between the Secretary of State or the Secretary of State in Council and the Government of India both generally and with reference to the relaxation of the Secretary of State's powers of superintendence, direction and control.
2. To examine in particular (A) the Constitutional powers of the Council of India, its relations to the Secretary of State as affecting his responsibility to Parliament and otherwise, and the financial and administrative control exercised by the Council. (B) The composition of the Council, the qualifications, method of appointment and term of office of its members and the number of Indian members. (C) The working of the Council in relation to office procedure. (D) The general departmental procedure of the India Office. (E) The organisation of the India Office establishment and question of modifying the system of its recruitment so as to provide for (1) the interchange of appointments with Indian services and (2) the throwing open of a proportion of the appointments to Indians.
3. To advise whether any of the charges on account of the India Office and if so what charges should be placed along with the Secretary of State's salary upon the estimates.
4. To advise how effect should be given by legislation or otherwise to the committee's recommendations.
5. To enquire into and report upon any other matters cognate or relevant to the above which it may consider expedient to take into consideration. The committee will have regard generally to the proposals made in the Report on Indian Constitutional Reforms for the Reform of the Government of India and Provincial Governments and in particular to the recommendations contained in the paragraphs 290 to 295 of the Report.
London Chamber on Indian Reform The Council of the London Chamber of Commerce after discussion, declined to express any opinion on the questions referred to in the resolution of the East India Section last month, that the report on Indian Reforms did not sufficiently recognise the social, religious and ethical obstacles to the growth of purely Indian enterprise, the achievements of British merchants in building up India's prosperity, excellent relations between British merchants and the hereditary trading classes of India, and that it did not safeguard important commercial interests against the theories of doctrinaire economists, and the attacks of irresponsible antagonists of British enterprise.
The Future of Luxemburg
The question of Luxemburg is attracting considerable attention. The Grand Duchess is undesirable, and will probably leave the country soon. A considerable section of the population desires association with France, while others again incline to Belgium. The general opinion prevails that autonomy will be preserved after the Government has been changed.
The Ahmadiyya Congress
At the anniversary of the Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishat Islam on the 26th December in Lahore, Shaikh Mahomed Ismail Sahib, Proprietor of the Flour Mills, Lyallpur, presided. After the recitation of the holy Kuran to the men, Mudassar Shah made an interesting speech. He was followed by Moulvi Ghulam Rasul, of Kabul, who spoke in Persian. He narrated the history of the development of the Ahmadiyya movement in Afghanistan, after the death of Sahibzada Abdul Latifs. He also pointed out that the people of the country never heard of the novel doctrines invented by Mirza Mahmood Ahmad, the present head of the Gadian section from the Sahibzada Sahib, and that these were denounced by the Ahmadees of Afghanistan.
Moulvi Muhamadazi then delivered a learned lecture on "Islam and the Causes of its Rise and Fall." ÷
He was then followed by Moulvi Sadruddin who spoke on the way of success and explained how it was achieved in the times of the Holy Prophet.
Lord Haldane and the Future
Viscount Haldane, presiding at a lecture on The Possible Industrial Development of India,' at the National Liberal Club by Mr. Dickinson, said: Before the war we were taking things easily. There were those who dreaded Germany in peace more than Germany in conflict, because with their industry, with their science, and with their practical methods, there was at least a very serious risk of penetrating the whole word in a peaceful fashion, as to which we should have taken no exception, and Germany, without firing a bullet, would have attained her object. Then it was
that she committed the most tremendous moral and intellectual blunder that a nation could ever be guilty of. She threw away her chance, and had resorted to us our opportunity. (Cheers.) We had got to take that opportunity, and we should not take it if we remained sleepily, in the old tracks. We had got to adopt new methods. Labour was setting up a new claim-that it was not capital that made wealth, but labour. As a matter of fact, it was neither the one nor the other. It was direction which guided both capital and labour, and we wanted to substitute for the present aristocracy of wealth an aristocracy of talent-the talent which arose out of the educated hand and brain. If they could only make use of that vast untapped reservoir of the children of the working classes, insufficiently educated to-day and to whom opportunities of advancement were denied, what an opening, what a prospect it gave them for the future. They must show Labour that they cared not only for the body, but also for the soul, by giving them equality in a spiritual as well as in a material sense. Until Liberals learnt that lesson, they would never get back their position as the leaders of the progressive movement in this country.
Newspaper Men and the War
A striking fact in connection with recruiting is mentioned in a speech by Sir Auckland Geddes. Of ten thousand men and boys employed in London newspaper offices, five thousand joined the Army and at the moment when the Armistice was signed there were not thirty men fit for general service in all the London newspaper offices. That was a record, said Sir Auckland Geddes, which placed the Press at the head of every trade group in the matter of recruiting.