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a populous town in the west, a poft chaife and four came rattling along, with prodigious velocity, and with the ufual a companiments of dogs barking, women and children screaming, &c. &c. The ufual concourfe appeared at the gate of the inn to fee
the great perfonage. He was a young
Account of UGSTON, in Derbyshire, the Seat of Francis Turbot, Efq. With a VIEW of that handfome Manfion.
GSTON, the feat of Fraticis Turbo, efq. ftands on an elevation about eight miles from Chefterfield, and feven from Matlock. It is a handfome house, built of stone, with a Venetian window over the hall door. It is feen from fome diftance, and, together with a very rich hilly country, forms, on a fummer's funfet, a grand profpect, bounded by craggy hills, intermixed with others more fertile. At the foot of one of thefe hills is a very fine lead mine, which is not far from Matlock. The earth, in these parts, abounds with every defcription of ores, except gold and filver. For fome distance toward Matlock, the country is pleafing and greatly cultivated; but, at the fourth
mile, commences a barren and dreary moor, two miles in length, and nearly as broad; but this is compenfated for, in proceeding, by the rich profpect of the hills and torrs of Matlock, Cromford, &c. with numberless hills beyond them for many miles. Of Matlock fo much has been faid that little can be added that is new. Of what is fo, Mr. Arkwright's Caftle and cotton works form a friking cbject. This caftle was unfortunately deftroyed by fire, when near finished. but it is now rebuilding, and, when completed, will be a very capital manfion. The profpect from Ugfton is much confined in front, as, at one mile diftance, rifes a confiderable hill, on which ftands Higham.
Further EXTRACTS from the MISCELLANEOUS WORKS of Edward Gibbon, Efq. *.
Account of the Rev. William Chilling
VILLIAM CHILLINGWORTH, M. A. and fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, was, at the age of twenty-eight years, perfuaded to elope from Oxford, to the English feminary at Douay in Flanders. Some difputes with Fisher, a fubtle jefuit, might firft awaken him from the prejudices of education; but he yielded to his own victorious argument, that there must be fomewhere an infallible judge; and that the church of Rome is the only Chriftian fociety which either does or can pretend to that cha
racer. After a fhort trial of a few
months, Mr. Chillingworth was again tormented by religious fcruples: he returned home, refumed his tudies, unravelled his mistakes, and delivered his mind from the yoke of authority and fuperftition. His new creed was built on the principle, that the Bible is our fole judge, and private reason our fole interpreter: and he ably maintains this principle in the religion of a proteftant, a book which, after ftartling the doctors of Oxford, is ftill efteemed the most folid defence of the reformation. The learning, the virtue, the recent merits of the author, entitled him to fair preferment: but
See Universal Magazine, June, page 406.
the flave had now broken his fetters; and the more he weighed, the lefs was he difpofed to fubfcribe to the thirty-nine articles of the church of England. In a private letter he declares, with all the energy of language, that he could not fubfcribe to them without fubfcribing to his own damnation; and that if ever he fhould depart from this immoveable refolution, he would allow his friends to think him a madman, or an atheift. As the letter is without a date, we cannot àfcertain the number of weeks of months that elapfed between this paffionate abhorrence and the Salisbury Regifter, which is ftill extant. Ego Gulielmus Chillingworth,omnibus hifce articulis, et fingulis in iifdem contentis volens, et ex animo fubfcribo, et confenfum meum iifdem præbeo. 20 die Julii 1638.' But, alas! the chancellor and prebendary of Sarum fcon deviated from his own fubfcription: as he more deeply fcrutinized the article of the Trinity, neither scripture nor the primitive fathers could long uphold his orthodox belief; and he could not but confefs, that the doctrine of Arius is either a truth, or at least no damnable herefy." From this middle region of the air, the descent of his reafon would naturally reft on the firmer ground of the Socinians: and if we may credit a doubtful ftory, and the popular opinion, his anxious inquiries at laft fubfided in philofophic indifference. So confpicuous, however, were the candour of his nature and the innocence of his heart, that this apparent levity did not affect the reputation of Chillingworth. His fre
quent changes proceeded from too nice an inquifition into truth. His doubts grew out of himself; he affifted them with all the strength of his reafon: he was then too hard for himself; but finding as little quiet and repose in thofe victories, he quickly recovered, by a new appeal to his own judgment: fo that in all his fallies and retreats, he was in fact his own convert.
Account of the celebrated Peter Bayle.
BAYLE was the fon of a Calvinist minifter in a remote province of France, at the foot of the Pyrenees, For the benefit of education, the proteftants were tempted to rifk their children in the Catholic universities; and in the twenty-fecond year of his age, young Bayle was feduced by the arts and arguments of the jefuits of Thouloufe. He remained about feventeen months (19th March 166919th Auguft 1670) in their hands, à voluntary captive; and a letter to his parents, which the new convert compofed or fubfcribed (15th April 1670) is darkly tinged with the fpirit of popery. But nature had defigned him to think as he pleased, and to fpeak as he thought: his piety was offended by the exceffive worship of creatures; and the ftudy of phyfics convinced him of the impoffibility of tranfubftantiation, which is abundantly refuted by the teftimony of our fenfes. His return to the communion of a falling fect was a bold and difinterefted ftep, that expofed him to the rigour of the laws; and a speedy flight to Geneva protected him from the re
* Mr. Gibbon too lightly adopts the calumny which was propogated against this great and good man, by the bigots of the laft century, of his having fubfided into that philofophic indifference, which, it is probable, was not fo honourable in his estimation as in the opinion of Mr. Gibbon.-To adopt the charges of bigots but ill becomes a philofopher. Chillingworth was called an infidel by the zealots of his age, because he was moderate, candid, and rational. A Tillotfon, a Locke, an Emlyn, &c. have been traduced in like manner: yet the Chriftianity of Chillingworth was perfectly confiftent, both in doctrine and fpirit, with that of Newton and Locke, of Watfon am Paley, and other illuftrious perfons among both the clergy and laity; men, not only ornaments to religion, but to human nature; and while Chriftianity continues to be profefed and defended, in its own genuine fpirit, by fuch men, the greatest masters of human reafon, it can never be injured by the derifion of its adverfaries, their fly in finuations, or more open and direct attacks.
other. The wonderful power which he fo boldly exercifed, of affembling doubts and objections, had tempted him jocofely to affume the title of the VEDENYEPETα Zave, the cloud-compelling Jove; and in a converfation with the ingenious abbé (afterward cardinal) de Polignac, he freely disclosed his univerfal Pyrronifm. I am moft truly (faid Bayle) a Proteftant; for I proteft indifferently against all systems and all fects.'
fentment of his fpiritual tyrants, unconfcious as they were of the full value of the prize, which they had loft. Had Bayle adhered to the Catholic church, had he embraced the ecclefiaftical profeffion, the genius and favour of fuch a profelyte might have afpired to wealth and honours in his native country; but the hypocrite would have found lefs happiness in the comforts of a benefice, or the dignity of a mitre, than he enjoyed at Rotterdam in a private ftate of exile, indigence, and freedom. Without a country, or a patron, or a prejudice, he claimed the liberty and fubfisted by the labours of his pen: the inequality of his voluminous works is explained and excufed by his alternately writing for himself, for the bookfellers, and for pofterity; and if a fevere critic would reduce him to a fingle folio, that relic, like the books of the Sybil, would become ftill more valuable. A calm and lofty fpectator of the religious tempeft, the philofopher of Rotterdam condemned with equal firmness the perfecution of Lewis the fourteenth, and the republican maxims of the Calvinists; their vain prophecies, and the intolerant bigotry which fometimes vexed his folitary retreat. In reviewing the controverfies of the times, he turned againft each other the arguments of the difputants; fucceffively wielding the arms of the Catholic and Proteftants, he proves that neither the way of authority, nor the way of examination can afford the multitude any teft of religious truth; and dexterously concludes that cuftom and education muft be the fole grounds of popular belief. The ancient paradox of Plutarch, that atheism is lefs pernicious than fuperftition, acquires a tenfold vigour, when it is adorned with the colours of his wit, and pointed with the acuteness of his logic. His critical dictionary is a vaft repofitory of facts and opinions; and he balances the falfe religions in his fceptical fcales, till the oppofitie quantities (if I may ufe the language of algebra) annihilate each
fervations on a Tour in Swisserland.
DURING two years, if I forget fome boyith excurfions of a day or a week, I was fixed at Laufanne; but at the end of the third fummer, my father confented that I fhould make the tour of Swifferland with Pavil liard: and our fhort abfence of one month (September 21 ft-October 20th, 1755) was a reward and relaxation of my affiduous ftudies. The fashion of climbing the mountains and reviewing the Glaciers, had not yet been introduced by foreign travellers, who feek the fublime beauties of nature. But the political face of the country is not lefs diverfified by the forms and fpirit of fo many various republics, from the jealous government of the few to the licentious freedom of the many. I contemplated with pleasure the new profpects of men and manners; though my converfation with the natives would have been more free and inftructive, had I poffeffed the German, as well as the French language. We paffed through most of the principal towns of Swifferland; Neufchâtel, Bienne, Soleurre, Arau, Baden, Zurich, Bafil, and Bern. In every place we visited the churches, arfenals, libraries, and all the moft eminent perfons; and after my return, I digefted my notes in fourteen or fifteen fheets of a French journal, which I difpatched to my father, as a proof that my time and his money had not been mif fpent. Had I found this journal among his papers, I might be tempted to fele fome paffages; but
I will not transcribe the printed accounts, and it may be fufficient to notice a remarkable spot, which left a deep and lafting impreffion on my memory. From Zurich we proceeded to the Benedictine Abbey of Einfidlen, more commonly ftyled Our Lady of the Hermits. I was aftonifhed by the profufe oftentation cf riches in the pooreft corner of Europe; amid a favage fcene of woods and mountains, a palace appears to have been erected by magic; and it was erected by the potent magic of religion. A crowd of palmers and votaries was proftrate before the altar. The title and worship of the Mother of God provoked my indignation; and the lively naked image of fuperftition fuggefted to me, as in the fame place it had done to Zuinglius, the mot preffing argument for the reformation of the church. About two years after this tour, I paffed at Geneva a ufeful and agreeable month; but this excurfion, and fome fhort vifits in the Pais de Vaud, did not materially interrupt my ftudious and fedentary life at Laufanne.
The ode which he composed on his first arrival on the banks of the Leman Lake, O Maifon d'Ariftippe, O Jardin d'Epicure, &c. had been imparted 'as a fecret to the gentleman by whom I was introduced. He allowed me to read it twice; I knew it by heart; and as my difcretion was not equal to my memory, the author was foon difpleafed by the circulation of a copy. In writing this trivial anecdote, I wifhed to obferve whether my memory was impaired, and I have the comfort of finding that every line of the poem is ftill engraved in freth and indelible characters. The highest gratification which I derived from Voltaire's refidence at Laufanne, was the uncommon circumstance of hearing a great poet declaim his own productions on the ftage. He had formed a company of gentlemen and ladies, fome of whom were not deftitute of talents. A decent theatre was framed at Monrepos, a country-houfe at the end of a fuburb;' drefies and fcenes were provided at the expence of the actors; and the author directed the rehearsals with the zeal and attention of paternal love. In two fucceffive winters his tragedies of Zayre, Alzire, Zulime, and his fentimental comedy BEFORE I was recalled from Swif- of the Enfant Prodigue, were played ferland, I had the fatisfaction of fee- at the theatre of Monrepos. Voltaire ing the most extraordinary man of the reprefented the characters best adapted age; a poet, an hiftorian,, a philofo- to his years, Lufignan, Alvarez, Bepher, who has filled thirty quartos, of naflar, Euphemon. His declamation profe and verfe, with his various pro- was fashioned to the pomp and caductions, often excellent, and always dence of the old ftage; and he exentertaining. Need I add the name preffed the enthufiafm of poetry, raof Voltaire? After forfeiting, by his ther than the feelings of nature. My own misconduct, the friendship of the ardour, which foon became confpicu first of kings, he retired, at the age ous, feldom failed of procuring me a of fixty, with a plentiful fortune, to a ticket. The habits of pleasure fortifi-, free and beautiful country, and refided ed my tafte for the French theatre, two winters (1757 and 1758) in the and that taste has perhaps abated my town or neighbourhood of Laufanne. idolatry for the gigantic genius of My defire of beholding Voltaire, Shakspeare, which is inculcated from whom I then rated above his real our infancy as the firft duty of an magnitude, was eafily gratified. He Englishman. The wit and philoforeceived me with civility as an Eng-phy of Voltaire, his table and theatre, lifh youth; but I cannot boaft of any peculiar notice or diftinction, Virgilum vidi tantum.
Anecdotes of Voltaire.
refined, in a visible degree, the manners of Laufanne; and, however addicted to ftudy, I enjoyed my hare of
the amusements of fociety. After the reprefentation of Monrepos I fometimes fupped with the actors. I was now familiar in fome, and acquainted in many houses; and my evenings were generally devoted to cards and converfation, either in private parties pr numerous alemblies.
in the fciences and languages; and in her fhort vifits to fome relations at Laufanne, the wit, the beauty, and erudition of mademoiselle Curchord were the theme of universal applause. The report of fuch a prodigy awaken ed my curiofity; I faw and loved. I found her learned without pedantry, lively in converfation, pure in fenti
Interfling Account of Modemoiselle Cur-ment, and elegant in manners; and chard, afterward Wife of the celebrated M. Necker.
I HESITATE, from the apprehenfion of ridicule, when I approach the delicate fubject of my early love. By this word I do not mean the polite attention, the gallantry, without hope, or defign, which has originated in the fpirit of chivalry, and is interwoven with the texture of French manners. I understand by this paffion the union of defire, friendship, and tenderness, which is inflamed by a fingle female, which prefers her to the reft of her fex, and which feeks her poffeffion as the fupreme or the fole happiness of our being. I need not bluth at recollecting the object of my choice; and though my love was difappointed of fuccefs, I am rather proud that I was once capable of feeling fuch a pure and exalted fentiment. The perfonal attractions of mademoiselle Sufan Curchord were embellished by the virtues and talents of the mind. Her fortune was humble, but her family was refpectable. Her mother, a native of France, had preferred her religion to her country. The profeffion of her father did not extinguish the moderation and philofophy of his temper, and he lived content with a fmall falary and laborious duty, in the obfcure lot of minifter of Craffy, in the mountains that feparate the Pays de Vaud from the county of Burgundy. In the folitude of a fequeftered village he bestowed a liberal, and even learned, education on his only daughter. She furpassed his hopes by her proficiency
the firft fudden emotion was fortified.
It has been obferved, that this is a scoff, neither dictated by the spirit of modera tion, nor by that of true philofophy.