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1. The birds sing', the lambs play', the grass grows', the trees are green', and all na. ture is beautiful'.
2. The blind see'; the lame walk'; the lepers are cleansed'; the deaf hear'; the dead are raised'; and to the poor' the gospel is preached'.
In this example all the particulars have the falling inflection.
The first line in Mark Antony's harangue is read differently by equally good readers; but the difference arises wholly from their different appreciation of the spirit and intention of the speaker. Thus:
Friends', Romans', countrymen', lend me your ears'!
If Antony designed to characterize "countrymen" with peculiar emphasis, he gave it the falling inflection, otherwise he gave the word no greater prominence than the preceding words "friends" and "Romans."
RULE IX.-Expressions of tender emotion, such as grief, pity, kindness, gentle joy, a gentle reproof, gentle appeal, gentle entreaty or expostulation, etc., commonly require a gentle rising inflection.
EXAMPLES.-Mary'! Mary'! do' not do so'.
My mother'! when I learned that thou wast dead',
Is your father' well', the old man' of whom ye spake'? Is he' yet alive"?
RULE X.-Expressions of strong emotion, such as the language of exclamation (not designed as a question), authority, surprise, distress, denunciation, lamentation, earnest entreaty, command, reproach, terror, anger, hatred, envy, revenge, etc., and strong affirmation, require the falling inflection.
EXAMPLES.-What a piece of work is man'! How noble in reason'! how infinite in faculties'! in action', how like an angel'! in apprehension', how like a God'! My lords, I am amazed'; yes, my lords, I am amazed at his Grace's speech.
Woe unto you Pharisees! Woe unto you Scribes'!
You blocks', you stones', you worse than senseless things'!
Go to the ant', thou sluggard'; consider her ways, and be wise'.
Jesus saith unto her, Mary'. She turned herself, and said unto him, Rabboni".
I tell you, though you', though all the world', though an angel from heaven' should declare the truth of it, I could not believe it.
I dare' accusation. I defy the honorable gentleman.
I'd rather be a dog', and bay the moon', than such a Roman'.
CAS. O ye gods'! ye gods! must I endure all this'?
BRU. All this? ay`, and more`.
NOTE. When exclamatory sentences become questions they require the rising inflection.
EXAMPLES.-What are you saying'!-Where are you going'!
They planted by your care'! No! your oppressions planted them in America'.
THE CIRCUMFLEX OR WAVE.
RULE XI.-Hypothetical expressions, sarcasm, and irony, and sentences implying a comparison or contrast that is not fully expressed, often require a union of the two inflections on the same syllable.
EXPLANATION.-In addition to the rising and falling inflections, there is what is called the circumflex or wave, which is a union of the two on the same syllable. It is a significant twisting or waving of the voice, generally first downward and then upward, but sometimes the reverse, and is attended with a sensible protraction of sound on the syllable thus inflected. It is marked thus: (~~) as, “I may possibly go to-morrow, though I can not go to-day." "I did it myself, sir. Surprising'! You did it!”
EXAMPLES.-If the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?
I grant you I was down, and out of breath; and so was he.
And but for these vile guns, he would himself' have been a soldier'.
QUEEN. Hamlet', you have your father much offended.
HAMLET. Madam', you have my father much offended.
SHYLOCK. If it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge.
Hath a dog money'? Is it possible a cur can lend two thousand ducats'?
They tell us to be moderate; but they, they are to revel in profusion.
You pretend to reason'? You don't so much as know the first elements of reasoning. NOTE.-A nice distinction in sense sometimes depends upon the right use of the inflections.
EXAMPLES.-"I did not give a sixpence"."
"I did not give a sixpence."
The circumflex on sixpence implies that I gave more or less than that sum; but the falling inflection on the same word implies that I gave nothing at all.
"Hume said he would go twenty miles to hear Whitefield preach," (here the circumflex implies the contrast), "but he would take no pains to hear an ordinary' preacher."
"A man who is in the daily use of ardent spirits, if he does not become a drúnkard`, is in danger of losing his health and character."
The rising inflection on the closing syllable of drunkard would pervert the meaning wholly, and assert that, in order to preserve health and character, one must become a drunkard.
"The dog would have died if they had not cut off his head."
The falling inflection on died would make the cutting off his head necessary to saving his life.
A physician says of a patient, "He is better." This implies a positive amendment. But if he says, "He is better'," it denotes only a partial and perhaps doubtful amendment, and implies, "But he is still dangerously sick."
RULE XII.—The monotone, which is a succession of words on the same key or pitch, and is not properly an inflection, is often employed in passages of solemn denunciation, sublime description, or expressing deep reverence and awe. It is marked with the short horizontal dash over the accented vowel. It must not be mistaken for the long sound of the vowels, as given in the Pronouncing Key.
EXAMPLES.-And one cried unto another, and said, Hōly, hōly, hōly is the Lord of hosts. The whole earth is full of his glōry.
Blessing, honor, glōry, and power be unto him that sitteth on the throne, and to the Lamb forever and ever.
In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep fälleth on mēn, fear came upōn me, and trembling which made all my bones to shake. Then a spirit passed befōre my face; the hair of my flesh stood up. It stood still, but I could not discern the form thereōf: an image was before my eyes, there was silence, and I heard a voice, saying, Shall mōrtal man be mōre just than God? Shall a man be more pūre than his Maker?
Emphasis is a forcible stress of voice upon some word or words in a sentence on account of their significancy and importance. Sometimes it merely gives prolonged loudness to a word, but generally the various inflections are connected. with it. Thus it not only gives additional force to language, but the sense often depends upon it.
EXAMPLES.-I did not say he struck me'; I said he struck John`.
I did not say he struck me; I said he pushed me.
I did not say he struck me; I said John did.
I did not say he struck me;
but I wrote it.
I did not say he struck me; but John said he did.
It is not so easy to hide one's faults as to mend them.
CASSIUS. I may do that I shall be sorry for.
(The varied effects of emphatic stress, and emphatic inflection, are so fully shown in the Reading Lessons of all the Readers, as to need no further illustration.)
TO THE SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS, AS DESIGNATED IN THE SCHOOL AND FAMILY READERS.
The system of pronunciation here adopted is that of Noah Webster, as contained in the later and improved editions of his Dictionary; and the indicative marks used are the same as those found in Webster's late "Pronouncing and Defining Dictionary," edited by Prof. Goodrich.
A, long, as in fāme, aīm, dãy, breāk, cāke, māke; heard also in sail, veil, gauge, inveigh. Ă, short, as in făt, ăt, cărry, tăriff; heard also in plăid, băde, răillery, etc.
Ä, Italian, as in fär, fäther, bälm, päth; heard also in heärt, heärth, äunt, häunch. *Â, as in câre, âir, shâre, pâir, beâr, fâir, pârent; heard also in where, heir.
A, as in låst, åsk, gråss, dånce, brånch, ståff, gråft, påss, chance, chant.
A, sound of broad a, as in all, call, talk, haul, swarm, awe; heard also in naught, taught. A, short sound of broad a, as in what, wash. This coincides with the o in not.
E, long, as in mē, mēte, schēme; heard also in bēard, field, leisure, brief, sēize, kēy. Ě, short, as in mět, měrry; heard also in feather, heifer, leopard, any, friend, guess. Ê, like & in câre; as in thêre, thêir, hêir, whêre, êre, ê'er, whenê'er, etc.
E, short e before r, as in term, vérge, verdure, prefer, earth.
I, like long ē, as in ïque, machine, mïen, marïne. This is the sound of the French i. I, long, as in pine, fine, isle; heard also in height, aisle, oblige, microscope.
I, short, as in pin, fin, pit; heard also in sieve, since, been (bin), etc.
i, short, verging toward u, as in bird, firm, virgin, dirt.
ō, long, as in nōte, ōh, nō, dōme; heard also in course, yeōman, rõll, pōrt, dōor, etc. Ŏ, short, as in not, bond; heard also in coral, Corinth. It coincides with the a in what. Ỏ, like short u, as in dôve, love, son, done, worm; heard also in dỏes (duz), nône (nun). ö, like long oo, as in pröve, dö, möve, tömb, löse, whö, tö.
Ọ, like short oo, as in wolf, Wolsey. This sound coincides with that of u in bull. ọọ (short oo), as in foot, book, wool, wood.
u, long, as in mute, duty, cube, unite, has the sound of yu, slightly approaching yoo when it begins a syllable; but in other cases it is difficult to distinguish the sound of the y.
Ŭ, short, as in but, tub, sun; heard also in dões (duz), blood (blud), etc.
Û, long, nearly approaching oo when preceded by r, as rûle, rûde, rûby.
E (italic) marks a letter as silent, as fallen, token.
Cc soft (unmarked), like s sharp, as in cede, mercy. € e hard, like k, as in eall, earry.
CH ch (unmarked), like tsh, as in child, choose.
Ss sharp (unmarked), as in same, gas.
TH th sharp (unmarked), as in thing, path.
No like ng, as in longer, congress.
PH like ƒ (unmarked), as in phaeton, sylph.
FIRST DIVISION OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
(This subject is continued in the Fifth Reader.)
THE FRAME-WORK OF THE HUMAN BODY.
1. ALL persons know how important it is that the framework of a house, such as the walls, the posts, the beams, the braces, and the rafters, should be made of strong materials, and be well put together. If there should be any thing wrong
GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY is the science which treats of the properties and functions of all living things, which include animals and plants.
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY treats of the functions or offices of all the different parts or organs in the human body, and the laws which govern them; such as the action of the muscles, the circulation of the blood, digestion, breathing, etc. A knowledge of these functions requires some knowledge of the structure or anatomy of the parts, and the whole is the basis of that department of medicine which treats of the preservation of HEALTH.