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bathing in warm water, to which spirits of ammonia has been added, will quickly straighten it out.
In the early stages of its development the hair needs great attention, and the scalp should be bathed almost daily with an infusion of Murillo bark. It should always be most thoroughly dried after cleansing. After this a gentle but firm brushing will be necessary. The brushing should always be in the direction of the hair growth, and never be done roughly. The oily matter in the hair will not then be forced out too quickly, and there will be no need for artificial oils or greases. When this secretion, however, is insufficient to render the hair flexible, soft and glossy, the following formula should be used: Four ounces cologne water, one ounce glycerine, one-eighth ounce of ammonia water, thirty drops oil of origanum. Clip the ends of the hair every two or three weeks.
A shampoo should be given every two wecks when the child is advanced a little more in years. It may be made of two quarts of warm water with a half dram of borax and two drams of water of ammonia added. Tight braiding of the hair is very detrimental to it, and will result in ultimate loss of strength and glossiness.
In all cases it is best to avoid using the public hairdresser, either for children or adults. Nine-tenths of the bald heads are caused by scalp diseases, the seeds of which are sown broadcast by the hairdressers' brushes, which are transferred indiscriminately from head to head. When the brush is formed of hard bristles, a slight puncture is easily made in the scalp, and then the parasitical germs are dropped in to take root and bear abundant fruit for decay.
Constant brushing will do more to improve the condition and appearance of the hair than any wash ever invented. The morning is the best time for this to be done, as the hair is then more supple. Not more than twenty minutes should be occupied in the process, and the brushing should not extend beyond the hair. The scalp should be washed only, and at least once a week. White soap dissolved in spirits of wine should be used in this operation, the head afterward being rinsed in tepid water. To prevent bleaching of the hair from too much washing, it may subsequently be rinsed in water to which two teaspoonfuls of common salt have been added. Careful dressers frequently use a sponge for the hair when rinsing it, and invariably dry it carefully with a cloth after each operation.
The number of diseases to which the scalp is
| subject, and all of which have a serious result on the hair, is legion.
Dandruff is one of the most common causes of the loss of hair. There are many remedies advocated for its cure, but none seem to be so efficacious as common flour of sulphur dissolved in water, with which the head should be saturated night and morning. The advantage of this remedy seems to be that it does not impair the hair as certain other compounds do. Castor oil and alcohol or carbonate of potasse and borax have both been considered specifics for dandruff.
A remedy for falling hair when not traceable to any direct cause is to soak the scalp before going to bed with one part of crude white birch oil and five parts of alcohol. The treatment must sometimes be continued for a couple of months, during which time the hair should be kept cut short and the head left uncovered as much as possible.
Another method is to shampoo the scalp with green soap and tepid water several times a week, after which a lotion should be well rubbed in, which is composed as follows: Four ounces bay rum, half ounce glycerine, two drams spirit of rosemary, and one dram tincture of cantharides. Another hair grower is made of: Cologne water, three ounces; glycerine, one ounce; tincture of cantharides, one ounce; camphor water, three ounces; rosemary oil, one dram. Apply morning and night. Also four ounces of boxwood shavings steeped in eight ounces of proof spirit at a temperature of sixty degrees for twelve days. Strain and add half an ounce each of rosemary and spirit of nutmegs.
Loss of hair may often be traced to scurf in the scalp. For this take a quarter pint of lemon juice, dissolve therein two drams of salt of tartar, and add fifteen drops each of tincture of cantharides and spirits of camphor. Keep this tightly corked.
The whites of eggs beaten up thoroughly and applied to the scalp will render the hair rich and glossy if the hair is afterward cleansed with bay rum.
Clipping the ends of the hair occasionally, and always when it is broken, will be found conducive to its development. The brushes and combs should always be kept clean.
An excellent plan for keeping black hair from turning gray is to take small doses of iron periodically. It is said that this prevents the hair from ever losing its original color.
Another method of preventing the hair from turning gray or restoring it to its pristine color is to take half a tumbler of strong tea and ap ply it to the hair with maiden-hair fern, as if the latter were a sponge. A little liquorice
may be advantageously added to the tea.
The tea and fern combined are certain restorers of the coloring matter. The roots of the hair should be thoroughly rubbed every day for two months with this decoction, when the good results will begin to be visible, if not sooner.
Black hair can be readily changed to a golden hue by the use of peroxide of hydrogen. The hue changes gradually, passing through the various shades of brown until the golden tint is reached. Red or auburn hair can be produced by the use of henna.
An infallible method of coloring the hair either black or brown can be found in the following formula: Two ounces of tincture of sesqui-chloride of iron, two ounces of acetic acid, and five grains of acid of gall. Add the acetic acid to the others after the gall has been dissolved in tincture of iron, and apply after thoroughly washing the head.
To apply this dip the points of a fine tooth comb into the fluid and draw the comb slowly through the hair, from the roots downward, until the hair is thoroughly saturated. If the dressing be applied while the hair is moist the hair will change to black, but if not put on until thoroughly dry it will assume a brown shade. After applying, the hair can be oiled, brushed
and dressed at once.
With reference to superfluous hair, an excellent specific has been given in the section on hands. The undesirable growth on the face has baffled physicians and dermatologists for years, and most modern works on this subject contain descriptions of more or less barbarous methods for removing it. Many recommend the use of the tweezers, entailing the removal of each hair individually. But the tweezer is not infallible, as a recurring growth generally shows. Plasters made of galbanum and pitch spread upon leather and laid upon the hair growth are also used. They are said to bring away the hair, and generally the roots, if laid on carefully, and allowed to remain for several minutes. They should be drawn off slowly. The electrolytic needle is probably the most popular means of removing superfluous hairs. If used properly it undoubtedly destroys the individual hair follicle treated, but it is said that a weaker and thicker growth of hair appears on the same surface as the operations have
The spirit of sulphur, as prescribed for the superfluous hair on the hands, will be found the simplest, most convenient, and efficacious of all known remedies. It is a new discovery, and is being extensively advertised as a specific at exorbitant prices. The real cost is trivial.
For curling the hair take two ounces of borax,
one dram gum arabic, one quart of hot water, not boiling. When the ingredients are amalgamated add three tablespoonfuls of strong spirits of camphor. Wet the hair with this wash at night and do it up in curling paper.
THE EYES, EYEBROWS, AND EYELASHES.
One of the best methods of strengthening and brightening the eyes is to indulge freely in the use of the cold water douche for them. unless some serious defect exists. Plenty of This will render them bright and sparkling sleep in a pure atmosphere, and as much as possible before midnight, will enhance their brightness. Care should be taken to avoid reflections of the sunlight from water, which Sudden awakening in a glare of sunlight is often produces lasting trouble to the eyes. as dangerous as to have the moonlight playing on one's eyes while asleep.
long periods spent under the study lamp are The glare of the ballroom and the effect of bound to impair the natural brilliance of the
As a soothing and restorative agent when cel a gentle bathing with opodeldock. Witch the eyes are overtired, there is nothing to ex
hazel is sometimes substituted for this, but is not so efficacious.
The following is recommended as an eyelash or eyebrow developer: Two ounces of vaseline, tharides, and ten drops each of rosemary and one ounce of glycerine, quarter ounce of canlavender water. The eyes must not be touched with this lotion.
formulas given for the hair. The eyebrows can be dyed by any of the
lieved to be conducive to their beauty, as it has The custom of clipping the eyelashes is bebeen followed in the Orient for ages with wellknown results.
by some can be produced by rubbing a small The languid expression of the eyes affected quantity of bella donna ointment on the brow over each eye. Darkness or discoloration around of French chalk, supplemented by rouge. Arthe eyes can be hidden by a small application tificial brightness of the eyes is produced by placing one drop of diluted prussic acid in the bottom of an eye cup and holding it against the eye for a few seconds while the vapor effects it.
MEDICAL TREATMENT FOR SKIN DISEASES.
It must be steadily borne in mind that many of the imperfections of the skin are due to de
rangements of the internal organs, and will entirely disappear when proper medical attention has been given to such diseases.
There are other conditions under which the skin affection may be partially due to such internal troubles; while there are yet others which are entirely of a local nature, and where medicine would naturally be superfluous.
Eczema, many forms of pimples, sallowness, paleness, redness of the face, boils, and many less common forms of skin disorder, frequently come from dyspepsia.
In these cases the dyspepsia must be cured before any permanent results can be received from external treatment.
Biliousness causes many of the same outward symptoms.
Many more skin affections are the direct result of liver and kidney troubles, while yet oth ers are due to an impoverished condition of the blood.
Sometimes in females they are due to conditions peculiar to certain ages of women.
A disordered liver is apt to be responsible for yellow and muddy skin, one particular form of which is chloasma or liver spot, which is a very great disfigurement to the face, especially in the case of a blonde complexion. It is caused by an irregular distribution of the coloring matter in the skin. Blotchy faces are very often due, especially in the case of middle aged persons, to liver disorder.
Defective action of the kidneys will frequently produce roughness of the skin, pallor and blackheads.
Acne, on the other hand, is often the result of impoverished blood, due either to nonassimilation of healthy food, or too rapid growth or overwork.
Again, certain forms of pimples, more especially the white ones, flesh-worms, blackheads, freckles, tan, and even boils, may be due to no internal disturbance whatever.
If the soreness be due to lack of action of the sebaceous glands, or to oversusceptibility of the cuticle, it may develop into permanent disfigurement from exposure to sun, wind, dust or bacterial germs.
There are many simple remedies which can be used when the correct diagnosis has been made of a case. To do this usually calls for
the interference of a physician.
The household scrap-book generally contains a good many of these simple remedies, but so many new substances are being continually
| added to the materia medica that a first-class physician should be consulted when practicable, for obvious reasons. The same local conditions in persons of different habits and temperament would vary the efficacy of any general treatment prescribed.
Many persons are cured of constipation, after having exhausted the skill of the best physicians, by simply drinking a glass of hot water in the morning upon arising. Others have found the same results from taking the hot water before retiring.
In the latter case, relief from insomnia has often been experienced from drinking the hot water, sometimes accompanied by a warm foot bath.
A good laxative for temporary constipation is fluid extract of cascara sagrada, twenty or thirty drops of which can be taken in water, morning and evening.
The constipation may be, and generally is, accompanied by biliousness, in which case a lemon squeezed into the water without sugar added will prove beneficial, gently warding off the nausea until the fecal matter has been dissolved by the hot fluid, and peristaltic action has set in.
Fullness after eating, and flushing of the face, are due to indigestion, which may be caused by improper diet or weakness of the organs acting upon the digestive tract.
For this trouble, in its immediate shape, pepsin is usually prescribed, and it may be taken to advantage, sometimes with the following admixture: Powdered pepsin, 140 grains; pancreatin, 124 grains; dried papaw juice, 15 grains; concentrated lactic acid, 15 minims; hydrochloric acid, 15 minims; sugar of milk, 14 drams.
The minor liver troubles, due to insufficient action of that organ, are known frequently as biliousness. The delayed bile in the stomach enters into the blood and results in making it impure. This condition produces blotches and pimply spots on the skin, or yellowness.
In this case the cup of hot water in the morning should also contain half a teaspoonful of phosphate of soda.
When the condition is serious the diet must be at once arranged to meet the capacity of the liver until it has been restored to healthy action. Greasy foods, salt meats, tinned or shellfish, and very sour foods, must be avoided, as they either clog or irritate the organ. Cereals, fruit, eggs, underdone and rare meats, broiled fresh fish, vegetables, and coffee or tea, in moderation, should be taken, without beer or other stimulants.
Medicine will also be needed, and the follow
ing prescription might afford considerable assistance: Compound extract of colocynth, 12 centigrams; blue mass, 12 centigrams; extract of belladonna, 15 milligrams; aloin, 7 milligrams; sulphate of strychnine, 1 milligram. This should be taken for several nights in succession, in the form of pills, and every second or third night a five-grain blue pill must be also taken. At the time the medicine is used there should be no attempt to use any local treatment other than keeping the pores of the skin well open by steaming or friction.
The medical treatment may be continued every two or three weeks, and local remedies applied as prescribed elsewhere for the particular form of skin trouble indicated.
In the treatment of boils springing from less serious trouble of the stomach and blood, a good dose of Rochelle salts should be taken every morning and a one-fifth grain pill of sulphide of calcium every five hours.
Boils are seldom cut or poulticed nowadays. Boric acid, in alcohol, is used for a dressing. It can be applied with a camel's hair brush.
In cases of acne, which are generally the result of poor blood, a more liberal diet is prescribed and good meats with nutritious foods advised. Milk, claret, and sometimes porter, are advocated to add strength to the system.
If the appetite is poor a good appetizer may be found, early in the morning, in a cup of strong beef tea. Sometimes a raw egg in vinegar, with salt and pepper added, will prove efficacious, or a fruit juice or juice of lemon may be substituted for the vinegar.
Iron should be taken, in some form, to change the chemical constituents of the blood, and the following old time prescription makes an excellent tonic: one-half pint of spirits frumenti; three-fourths oz. tinct. cardamom comp.; one and one half drams tinct. nux vomica, one-half dram each pulv. gentian, pulv. columbo, pulv. quassia, cinchona red, carb. iron. One tablespoonful is a dose, and should be taken before meals.
Temporary irritations of the skin, such as itchiness, nettle rash, or hives, can be best overcome by strict attention to diet. They usually result from overheating of the blood by indiscreet feeding or drinking, or else an injudicious mixture, which causes annoyance to the intestines. Certain articles, such as shell-fish, cucumbers, or berries, when first in season, will occasion these troubles continually with some individuals. In other cases the effect will be only experienced once, when the blood is in a condition to be easily irritated. Seidletz powders, lemonade, sprudel salts, or some mild laxative can be used to
cool the blood and relieve the stomach. the irritation of the skin is intolerable, ease locally by applying carbonate of soda in warm, water to the skin, letting it dry in and afterward dusting with talcum powder. A simple diet of cooked vegetables or white bread and milk are often resorted to in severe cases of hives, to afford a speedy cure.
With plenty of sleep, freedom from annoyance or worry, moderate exercise, healthy air and plenty of mental occupation, such as inter esting reading, or quiet diversions, added to this regimen, very serious annoyances may be combated and removed.
The essential point to remember is the rela tionship existing between health and beauty, both of which require care and vigilance to preserve them at their best.
REHABILITATION AND SUBSTITUTIONAL EFFECTS.
The misshapen mouth, the bridgeless nose, the hare-lip, and many other freaks of nature which it was formerly considered necessary to bear as a heaven-sent burden through life, are now remediable.
Surgery has taken cognizance of these irregularities of feature and successfully coped with them.
The records of some of our leading hospitals during the past few years bear testimony to the fortunate outcome of hundreds of operations designed solely to overcome these unsightly imperfections.
Faces have practically been reconstructed, involving changes in all the principal organs, such as the ears, eyes, mouth, nose and lips. Even the double chin has been relieved of its fleshy incumbrance.
The oversized mouth is corrected by slitting the edges of the lip at each side of the mouth, removing a small piece of the red skin at each end, drawing the flesh together and sewing up at the point desired. A reverse operation enlarges the mouth.
Ears which appear to have been too hastily or clumsily set on by nature are brought to a comely condition by removing some of the bulging growth of cartilage at the point where the ears join the head. A pug nose is transferred into a Roman or Grecian, and a squinting eye corrected with more ease than formerly attended the drawing of a tooth.
The parts are sprayed with cocaine while the operation is performed, so that little pain is felt by the patient, and the result amply repays the inconvenience and expense.
Dressing for defects is an art which many
women understand, but all do not. It is thoroughly understood by the modiste or costumier. There are many unwritten laws connected with it, which are so obvious as to almost suggest themselves.
Narrow shoulders and long necks, for instance, call for high collars, puffed sleeves and epaulets. The costume for a person of this build should have a plaited waist with plaits running obliquely from the shoulder points to the widest part of the bust and back, thus counteracting the effect of the figure.
On the contrary, persons with ample waists should have their dresses made as plainly as possible at the shoulders, with plaits running to a point at the back of waist and stomacher effect. The folds of a dress can be bunched in front to hide a lack of development in the bust, and the figure lacking development across the hips can be helped by puffing the skirt behind. When this portion of the body is narrow the skirt should taper down to a small circumference at the bottom.
Tall women require ample skirts and flounces, and stout women close fitting garments.
Sallow complexions can be offset by bright colors, while, as a rule, light complexions are enhanced by light, and dark ones by dark clothing.
These few hints are sufficient to suggest many others to the thoughtful dresser.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUST-HOW TO AVOID FLESHINESS AND ATTAIN A SYMMETRICAL FIGURE.
"Were I a woman," said a man once-naturally he was a sculptor-"I would prefer at any time to have an exquisite form rather than a beautiful face."
The graceful undulations of the perfect figure are indeed "a thing of beauty and a joy forever."
The nearest to the ideal form that we know of as a universal model is that of the Venus of Cnidus, executed in white marble by Praxiteles. From the description of this we learn that "the limbs and breasts were fully developed, the mamma, while not too full, rising from the bosom in graceful curves to the apices. The waist tapered gently to its smallest circumference just above the middle of the body, the lower part swelling out gradually down to the umbilicus. From this point there was a steady expansion to the haunches, the greatest width being reached at the termination of the thighs. The fullness of this region was conspicuous on either side of the spine, descending
| from the waist line to the swell of the clearly separated hips, on each side of which was a clearly defined dimple. In front the abdomen swelled out gracefully, until its greatest expansion was reached at the umbilicus, from which it sloped gracefully downward, the muscular parts extending from the pelvis standing out distinctly on either side, and the thighs rising upward to the same level.
"The head was rather small and covered with short luxuriant curls. The eyes were gentle and lighted with happiness. The eyebrows were arched and the lower eyelid slightly raised to lend a languishing expression to the face. The nose sloped straight and gracefully from the forehead to an agreeable fullness. The lips were slightly opened at the center, indicative of expectancy, but very slightly developed through a considerable portion of their length, except toward the center. This lent an effect of sweetness and delicacy to the face, which was not marred by any sinister angles at their extremities."
It should be some satisfaction to the modern woman to know that the work of Praxiteles was idealized, for in no one woman yet was found all the charms combined in the famous statue. The best that can be expected is to possess a fair share of them. In this age of corsets and other absurd fashions the woman who can approximate to anything lovely in figure is a paragon. Better figures, in fact, are found among savage tribes than fall as a rule to the women of civilization.
Perhaps the trouble is largely due to the clothing worn. It is so easy to hide defects that women do not take pains to eradicate them, but simply cover them up. At least that would be the impression gained from a summer sojourn at Narragansett or Bar Harbor.
The first question of vital importance in either developing or maintaining approximate perfection of figure is exercise. Nothing will take the place of the daily constitutional, not even the bicycle. In regard to other forms of exercise, the question has been already treated in these papers. Gymnastic exercises are among the most valuable developers of a perfect figure. Where the taste or habits make such exercise distasteful massage will be found a valuable substitute.
Such outdoor games as tennis also serve to strengthen and upbuild certain parts of the muscular system, while rowing is another excellent form of exercise to practice.
Many women suffer from a tendency to fleshiness, and watch with sad misgivings their gradually disappearing contours.