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heretofore effected so much mischief. Tennessee interfered with the opera The legislature declined any such meas- tions of the Louisville and Nashville ure, and refused to sanction the gov- Railroad, and prevented traffic over it ernor's views, as set forth in his procla- for general purposes of commerce, es mation, May 20th. In this document, pecially for provisions and supplies. he speaks of "standing aloof from an This roused the Union men to greater and lamentable efforts, and a small encampment of unnatural, horrid strife," of "resisting and preventing en- Federal troops under General Nelson croachment on the soil, rights, honor was formed in Garrard county. This and sovereignty of Kentucky," and goes was denounced by Governor Magoffin on to declare: "I hereby notify and as a violation of the neutrality of the warn all other states, separated or unit- state, and he sent by the hands of two ed, especially the United and Confeder-"commissioners" a letter to President ate States, that I solemnly forbid any Lincoln, demanding the withdrawal of movement upon Kentucky soil, or occu- the troops. This was under date of pation of any post or place therein for any purpose whatever, until authorized by invitation or permission of the legis lative and executive authorities. I especially forbid all citizens of Kentucky, whether incorporated in the State Guard or otherwise, making any hostile demonstrations against any of the aforesaid sovereignties, to be obedient to the orders of lawful authorities, to remain quietly and peaceably at home, when off military duty, and refrain from all words and acts likely to provoke a collision, and so otherwise conduct themselves that the deplorable calamity of invasion may be averted; but meanwhile to make prompt and efficient preparation to assume the paramount and supreme law of self-defence, and strictly of self-defence alone."

As might have been foreseen, the attempted neutrality of Kentucky could not be maintained for any length of time. Volunteers entered the Union service, and others took positions in the confederate armies.* The authorities of

* "Men, munitions, and supplies were openly, and

August 19th; a few days afterwards the president, in pretty sharp terms, declined of course to have anything to do with the Kentucky governor's com missioners, and refused to order the Union troops to leave the state. Jefferson Davis also was addressed and asked to do the same thing with the rebel troops; but Davis replied, that he was sorry to say that he was compelled by necessity to seize upon points of moment to prevent their being taken possession of by the Union forces. Previous to this, Tennessee troops had invaded Kentucky, and carried off six cannons and 1,000 stand of arms.

The legislature met, September 2d; it was very decidedly Union in its composition, and not at all disposed to favor Magoffin's views; on the contrary, the legislature resolved, Sept. 9th, that the almost daily, dispatched to the mustering rebel hosts in the South and South-east; while for months, nothing was done by Kentucky for the cause of the Union. The first regiment of Kentuckians raised for the Union

armies was encamped on the free side of the river, in deference to urgent representations from professed Unionists and to Kentucky's proclaimed neutrality.”— Greeley's "American Conflict," vol. i., p. 493.

CH, III.]

CONDITION OF MISSOURI.

39

invading secession forces should be the task of public service, resigned, and expelled by calling out all the troops General W. T. Sherman, in October,

of the state, that aid be asked from the took command. From henceforth United States, and that Gen. R. Ander- Kentucky showed herself to be, and son be requested to enter upon his remained, heart and soul in the Union. command immediately. Hickman and In regard to Missouri, it deserves to Chalk Bluffs had been seized upon and be noted, that her position and influence fortified by the confederates. General with reference both to the older states Grant, alive to the importance of and the vast territory of the United prompt action, marched a force from States beyond her limits, were of prime Cairo, Sept. 6th, and took possession of importance to the cause of the Union. Paducah,where he found everything pre- Elements of discord, it is true, existed pared for rebel arrival instead of for him in her midst, and there were not a few and his men. He issued a proclamation, secession agitators in the state; but, simple and straightforward in its terms, on the other hand, there were noble stating that his business was to deal and active loyal men in Missouri, able with armed rebellion, and nothing else and ready to meet and counteract the would be interfered with. Columbus plans of the governor and all his helpers. was occupied by the rebel General Governor Jackson tried to persuade (Bishop) Polk, Sept. 7th. Zollicoffer, the state to cast in her destiny with in the eastern part of the state, had those who had seceded. He advocated some days before seized upon Cumber- an armed neutrality; got the police of land Gap, on the same plea of military St. Louis entirely under his control; necessity, and he further said he meant and expected to be able to help dis to hold it for the rebels. union in this way, and sooner or later to get Missouri into the secession ranks. But, under the clear sighted intelligence and action of Col. F. P. Blair, in St. Louis, a volunteer military guard, largely composed of Germans, was raised, which became the nucleus of a national army on the soil of that city. Captain (afterwards General) N. Lyon was also an efficient helper in the good cause. He was in command at the

Gen. Anderson assumed command of the district allotted him, on Sept. 20th. Union volunteers were called for to drive out the invaders and support the cause of our common country. Zollicoffer advanced to Barboursville, and captured a Union camp. A month later, October 21st, he marched upon Camp Wild Cat, where Gen. Schoepf, in command of the forces, repulsed him with severe loss. A rebel force at arsenal in St. Louis, and durPiketown, in Eastern Kentucky, was ing the absence of General gathered under Col. Williams. Gen. Harney, was in charge of the entire Nelson marched to disperse it, Nov. 8th, department. but Williams succeeded in getting off, and retreated to Pound Gap. Gen. Anderson, finding his health unequal to

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Gen. Scott in
specimen of a
getic soldier.

He had served under
Mexico, and was a fine
loyal, brave, and ener-
Acting under instruc-

tions from Washington, Captain Lyon the enraged secessionists; shots were delivered, on the 25th of April, a large fired; and the soldiers returning the fire quantity of arms, some 20,000 or more, at last, killed and wounded some forty to Captain Stokes of Chicago, who had to fifty persons. Great excitement was been sent with a requisition from the produced, and threats of vengeance secretary of war to convey these arms made; but it was evident, that the to Springfield, Illinois. The transfer United States commander was in was not effected without considerable earnest and not to be trifled with. danger from the excited crowd of secessionists in St. Louis; but, by zeal and courage combined, the arms were saved from falling into the hands of those who did not scruple to steal United States property, as in Virginia, North Carolina, and other states.

Capt. Lyon's course was highly approv ed at Washington, and he was at once raised to the rank of brigadier-general of the first brigade of Missouri Volunteers.

General Harney returned from the east on the 12th of May, and resumed Being entrusted with further powers command in Missouri. He issued two by the president, to enrol 10,000 loyal proclamations, giving the governor and men if needed for the maintenance of legislature to understand that he would the authority of the United States in maintain the authority of the United St. Louis and Missouri generally, Cap- States against all secessionary movetain Lyon proceeded to vigorous mea- ments. A week or so later, however, sures. He resolved, with Colonel Gen. Harney entered into a sort of truce Blair's help, to break up Camp Jack or compact with Gen. Sterling Price, son, as it was called, where the State who had been placed by Governor Guard were gathered, waiting their Jackson in command of all the state opportunity to give help to secession militia. The professed object of this and rebellion. Early on the morning arrangement was to restore peace and of May 10th, with some 6,000 men good order, and to put a stop to miliand artillery, Lyon appeared, wholly tary movements of various kinds in the unexpectedly, at the camp. He de- state. "We do, therefore, mutually manded its immediate surrender, as enjoin upon the people of the state to being made up of elements hostile to attend to their civil business, of whatthe government and in open communi- ever sort it may be; and it is to be cation with the southern confederacy. hoped that the unquiet elements which General Frost, who was in command have threatened so seriously to disturb of the state troops, had no alternative. the public peace, may soon subside, and Lyon was resolute and peremptory. Everything was surrendered; 20 cannon, 1,200 new rifles, a large amount of ammunition, etc. On the return to St. Louis with the prisoners, the troops were mobbed and grossly insulted by

be remembered only to be deplored." But, as notwithstanding this so-called truce, Union men in Missouri were hunted down and maltreated, and as it was evident the compact was, as it was meant to be, by secessionists, of service

CH. III.]

GEN. LYON'S ACTIVITY IN MISSOURI.

41

and protection to treason only, General infamous and degrading sway of its Harney's course was promptly re- wicked minions in this state. No brave pudiated at Washington, and General and true-hearted Missourian will obey Lyon, on the 1st of June, was placed the one or submit to the other. Rise, in command of the department. This then, and drive out ignominiously the active and energetic officer, at an inter- invaders, who have dared to desecrate view with Governor Jackson and the soil which your labors have made General Price, on the 11th, positively fruitful, and which is consecrated by refused to agree to any measures other your homes." than those which he had thus far steadily been carrying out. He put no faith in the professions of the governor and his sympathizers, and he would not listen for a moment to any proposal which looked towards giving up the vantage ground already held by the government. He further demanded the disarming of the state militia and the rejection of the obnoxious militia bill, and insisted upon the full and unrestricted right of the government to take any steps it deemed necessary, in order to protect Union men and repress insurrection.

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Gen. Lyon, in carrying out his instructions from headquarters, not only issued a proclamation, denouncing the action of the governor as setting at defiance the authori ties of the United States and consummating his treasonable purposes, but he also resolved to arrest the rebel authorities and break up their military preparations. He moved at once on Jefferson City, which was reached on the 15th of June; but he found that Jackson had retreated some forty miles. above, to Booneville, cutting off the telegraph and destroying the railroad bridges on the route. Gen. Lyon followed him, and two days afterwards defeated and dispersed the hostile forces. At the same time, in a proclamation the next day, he avowed the most liberal and conciliatory policy towards all quiet and orderly persons in Missouri.

Governor Jackson, thinking these terms to be "degrading," as he phrased it, issued a proclamation, calling for 50,000 state militia to repel federal invasion, and to protect life, liberty and property in Missouri. He acknowledged that the state was still one of the United States, and to a certain extent bound to obey the government; It is interesting, in this connection, to but he closed in the following words, take note of the position of affairs in which show plainly the animus at the Western Virginia and Eastern Tennesbottom:-"It is my duty to advise see. Virginia, as previously related, you that your first allegiance is due to (see p. 22) had, through its unscrupul your own state, and that you are under ous governor and legislature, been carno obligation whatever to obey the ried into the arms of secession. But unconstitutional edicts of the military there was, notwithstanding, a large despotism which has enthroned itself portion of the people who abhorred the at Washington, nor to submit to the course which had been forced upon the

VOL. IV.-6.

state, and who resolved to resist to the utmost the designs of the rebels, and to stand by the Union in its integrity. Especially was this the case in Western Virginia. In the counties west of the Blue Ridge there were some 10,000 slaves, while in those on the east the number reached to nearly half a million. The white population was decidedly more numerous in the western part of the state than elsewhere, and rapid advances were being made in the develop ment of its agricultural and industrial resources, in comparison with the stagnation in the counties more favored in many respects on the seaboard. That extensive western region, bounded by the Alleghany Mountains and the Ohio River, and bordering on the north upon Pennsylvania, had little indeed in common with the slave-holding, slave-trading interests and southern sympathies of the eastern division. Thus socially and industrially, as well as geographically, situated, they felt the pressure of taxa tion to be very unequal as compared with the more favored slave-holders, and they were not prepared to give themselves up to joining the secessionists in their mad and wicked purposes against the life of the Republic.

counties west of the Alleghanies, and a convention was held at Wheeling, May 13th, to consider and determine upon the action requisite in the existing crisis. Resolutions were passed, condemning the ordinance of secession, as "unconstitutional, null and void," and declaring the annexation to the southern confederacy "a plain and palpable violation of the constitution of the state, and utterly subversive of the rights and liberties of the good people thereof." Provision was also made for a convention of representatives of the people, to be held at Wheeling, June 11th, in case the ordin ance of secession should be ratified, as was proposed, on the 23d of May, (see p. 23).

On the day appointed the convention assembled. Forty counties (five to the east of the Alleghanies) were represented, and the delegates entered upon their work, first taking an oath to sup port the Constitution and laws of the United States. It was maintained, that the government at Richmond, having violated the constitution of the state, its authority was thereby annulled, and that the offices of all who adhered to the usurping convention and executive Acting on their convictions, these were, ipso facto, vacant. After a few patriotic Virginians denounced the pro- days' discussion, this view was found ceedings of Governor Letcher and the to prevail, and a declaration, setting secession leaders. A meeting was held forth the motives of the decision, and at Clarksburg, in Harrison county, on an ordinance for the reorganization of the 22d of April, and the the state government, were passed by initial step was taken to sepa- a nearly unanimous vote. The declararate Western Virginia from any part or tion was forcible and clear in its statelot in the evil counsels prevailing ments as to the necessity of energetic throughout the rest of the state. Dele- action. The ordinance, reorganizing gates were chosen from the various the state government, provided for the

very

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