Puslapio vaizdai

up the gulley, we pass in succession Ling kwang & () which is adorned by a large thirteen-storied white pagoda, a conspicuous object in approaching the hills from the city; next in order comes San shan an (EU) “Tremont Temple;" behind this and slightly higher up is Ta pei sz (†) and still higher up stands Lung wang tang ( E) "Pool of the Black Dragon;" higher still is situated Hsiang chich sz() "Fragrant Boundary Temple," a large Imperial monastery; and highest of all stands Pau chu t'ung (†) about 900 feet above the first named temple. Behind the pagoda-temple is a prominent hill with bold projecting rocks called in Chinese Hu teu shan (L) "Tiger's Head Hill," but by foreigners Mount Bruce in honour of the first British Minister accredited to the court of Peking. Behind the uppermost temple, or the grotto of the precious pearl, the hill, higher than the tiger's head and rising over 1000 feet above the plain, is named after Mr. Burlingame the first resident United States' Minister. Besides these seven temples on the west side of the ravine there are several on the opposite side; the two most noted being Pi mo yen (), a monastery romantically situated over a well-wooded and deep ravine with a magnificent cascade, where the "hill water" rushes down during a great storm of rain, and containing an overhanging rock, the cave under which is supposed to be the residence of the secret demon, and hence the name of the temple. In this cave are placed various images. On the opposite side of this ravine is a small shrine with the characters hsiang chi li kan (f), meaning Look here, in large characters. The religious exercises of the Buddhist faith are most regularly attended to here and the temple courts and buildings are kept scrupulously clean. The aged abbot, 91 years old, of this temple died recently. The rich Pekinese like to pay a visit to this temple in summer and its neighbour Shi tzewo (7) "The Lion's Den," situated at the top of the hill on the same side, lying in a naturally formed basin, whence its name. This temple is on a level with the "Grotto" and belongs to some retired eunuchs. Here are no Buddhist priests. The view from it is at once grand, commanding and extensive. Having reached the saddle of the hill, popularly called pan teng kew(), as if to indicate a place of rest after the fatigues of the ascent, we were close to the upper part of the Hsiang shan ()the Imperial Hunting Park, and had right in front of us a still higher range of hills, at least three times the height of these now passed. Here we struck the stone road which runs over the hills affording communication between Bread Village and the valley of the Hwen river. We then began to descend and found the road rough and in many places carried away by the torrents which sweep down

here in great violence in the rainy season. About half way down we crossed the deep gulley, bridged over by a new structure erected by the eunuchs of the Lion's Den a few years ago, to assist pilgrims in their journey to Tien tai shan (F). There is in this valley a lower intermediate range of hills, passing round the brow of which, at an old temple termed Shuang chuen ss (#) “Double Fountain, we arrived at Tien tai shan "Ileavenly Terrace Hill," standing several hundred feet straight out of the gulley separating the intermediate range from the higher and more northerly range, which forms the western background of the view from the Peking plain. Here the visitor is amply repaid by a charming view of the richly cultivated valley through which flows the Hwen river just as it emerges from its mountain gorge. The beautifully terraced hillsides on the opposite bank of the river, planted with millet, not vineyards, remind one somewhat of Rhine scenery. The monastery of T'ien tai shan stands in a sequestered spot about 800 feet above the plain. In an almost perpendicular direction downwards is a small hamlet, Tan ü, which nestles cosily in the gulley at the bottom of the hill and whose roofs at the period of our visit are covered with large red dates so-called, really however jujubes--the sisyphus vulgaris-laid out to dry. Along the foot-path to the monastery bushes of these dates are plentiful and of large size. We may remark that there are three sorts of these dates in this neighbourhood, the largest or sweet variety, grows on considerable trees; the medium or large dates so-called and the small or sour on smaller trees or bushes. After passing an outer loop-holed wall enclosing some buildings, the temple suddenly comes into view and the peculiar situation, with the deep ravine beneath and the towering hills in front and around it on the east side give a charm of seclusion, retirement and peacefulness to this sacred spot. As we walk up to the temple, we pass a small shrine to the goddess of mercy who is seated on the invariable lotus with a cavern below into which a spring of water issues. This is called the Shui lien tung (ITA) “lotus

* ili ita grotto.” The temple of T'ien tai shan is not very large but well kept. It has been repeatedly repaired; on the last occasion by Prince Kung, in the 12th year of Tung Chi (1873) at a cost of over Tls. 6000. One of the rooms contains scrolls written by the Prince's eldest son at fifteen years of age. In the principal hall of the temple is a fleshly image of the Emperor Shun Chi, the first of this dynasty ruling on the throne of China. The priest and servants unite in declaring the image to be the real body of the above Emperor and in proof point to the natural hair and beard and to the nails on the hands and feet. The image is bronzed to preserve it, the height and general appearance are not in.

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human. The posture is that of sitting, with a long, yellow satin mantel covering the entire person. We did not venture to scrutinize the image too closely and expose what is presumably a deception. The priest affirms solemnly his belief and the whole story is told with circumstantial truth. The people all round know of this circumstance and give it credence, and the statement is generally believed in by the Pekingese. The tomb of the Emperor at the Eastern Mausolea is said to be vacant. It is almost incredible that the reigning dynasty would permit this to continue. Still it may be that the dynasty approves of it and is desirous of having it believed that its ancestor had become a Buddha, that his shrine was celebrated for pilgrimages, and that blessings were there bestowed upon all who chose to ask. Another similar story is related of Hung Wu, the first Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He gave the throne to his grandson Chien Wu, who was conquered by his uncle Yung Lo, thence Prince of Yen, who deposed him, and thereafter he became a priest and died, according to tradition, at the Lion pagoda, outside the N.E. gate of Peking, where he is buried and where worship is paid to him. We give Shun Chi's story as it was told to us and leave the reader to exercise his own judgment. Beside the image are piles of caps and shoes presented by sick rich people in Peking, who have recovered from their maladies. after pilgrimages to this shrine. Prince Kung's repairs were, doubtless, the result of a vow if recovery from sickness took place. This is quite a common way by which Buddhist monasteries are built and repaired. Adjoining the image is an earthen water vessel called Show kang ( HII.) in which the body of the Emperor seems to have been preserved until the temple was ready to receive him. This monastery is said to date from the Christian era and the fact is said to be recorded on a stone tablet erected on the hill behind the temple. It has been, like all other temples from time to time repaired, through the devotion of the priests who undergo much self-mortification in a variety of ways in collecting funds, or through the religious zeal of adherents of the faith or, as already said, through cures from disease effected through the interposition of the gods. In Shun Chi's time it would seem to have been entirely rebuilt. He is said to have reigned 18 years and then to have abdicated in favour of his son, Kang Hi, in the 49th year of whose reign he is said to have died. This period was spent partly at Wu tai shan, the celebrated Buddhist mountain in northern Shansi and thence at T'ien tai shan, whether he had come to live a hermit's life and erect this temple. For years he is said to have prayed daily on the opposite hill, a part of the intermediate range; the stone slab upon which he kneeled having been found there and carried to the


monastery, where it is now most religiously preserved in a wooden case and placed beside the image. This stone contains shallow indentations of two feet and two closed fists, indicating the prostration of the hermit Emperor and the long continuance of his devotions, sufficient to wear such impressions into the stones. These marks are certainly curious and regular as if produced in the manner asserted. The Emperor while pursuing his devotions, rolled a wooden ball down the hill, which he afterwards carried up again, to be repeated in this manner ad infinitum, thus indicating much physical exertion, self-denial, and mortification of the flesh, and to such an extent and for such a length of time was the process carried on, that eventually the ball, it is said, rolled back of its own accord! This sacred object is now interred under the small pagoda in the burying ground of the temple on the brow of the hill. On each side of the Emperor's shrine is the following couplet cut in wood :

Fah ti choang gen tsao tiem ti pu chieu
法 地裝 嚴造 天 地 不久
Hwei teng lang chao jih yueh cheng kuang
慧燈朗照與日 月 爭光

慧照日 A couplet which indicates that this place is about as ancient as the creation of heaven and earth; and that its light, like that of the sun and moon, will never decay. This may refer either to the temple or the fleshly image or both. On the outside of this hall, which has an upper story and is richly painted, is suspended a large cash with the usual hole in it, and visitors are induced to strike it with cash or try to throw the cash through the hole, the money thus spent falling to the temple. Anyone who wished to shut himself out from the world and at the same time enjoy a beautiful prospect, would find T'ien tai shan a most secluded spot. The temple possesses rooms for visitors which could be readily rented for the season at a very cheap rate; one small room is most charmingly situated, overlooking the deep ravine and with a delightful prospect. Provisions would require to be obtained from Man teu tsun—the so-called Bread Village, on the Peking side of the hill a few miles distant. Its distance from the capital and the difficulty of procuring provisions conveniently are its chief drawbacks. The temple is not more than forty li from Peking crossing the range of hills at S: p'ing tai, or fifty li passing round by Mo shi kow, through the excavated gorge in the low hills there--the route of traffic from the city to San chia tien and the gorges of the Hwen river.

After leaving the temple we descended the brow of the hill, by a gentle slope, crossed the gulley and entered a beautiful valley on the higher range.

On the way thither we crossed some dry beds of water courses; met an old woman of 78 years of age, collecting dung for fuel

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who remarked when interrogated as to her age, wo sheu tsui sz puh liau ( ZE TE T). I am suffering punishment (in consequence of sin) and cannot die. At this spot the high hills are richly wooded almost to their summits and contain several remarkably large and finely laid out tombs which we were bent on visiting. The place is called Lung mën 82 ( 19 ) and certainly no more delightful spot could be selected for a picnic and a ramble through the woods. There is a little village adjoining the tombs containing the families of those who take their turn every five days in duty at the tombs. These people are all pensioners on the Imperial bounty and are Manchoos. The tombs are on the whole in very fair order, the poor people were busy inside gathering pine cones for fuel, and later the grass is cut down and sold for fodder. These tombs contain many specimens of the white barked pine. The keeper, for the day, of the larger tomb—the one invariably visited—being engaged in harvesting operations, we were obliged to wait until he could be found or the key got. The time appearing somewhat long, we regaled ourselves with luscious clusters of grapes which the people brought to us, and being informed of an adjoining tomb which was more private, we repaired thither and consumed some sandwiches which had not been inconsiderately stowed away in a knapsack and which we were now in a position to relish. We partook of this repast on the steps of the neighbouring tomb—there are said to be five altogether. The keeper of this tomb coming up, we were kindly invited to inspect it, and were surprised to find it precisely similar to the one we had come to see, for this was not our first visit to this favoured locality. These tombs are built on the style of the Ming Dynasty Tombs thirty miles north of Peking, and among foreigners are therefore frequently called the Little Ming Tombs. The buildings are of considerable architectural beauty and will well repay a visit and inspection. The various tombs are all modelled on the same principle, a description of one therefore will suffice for all. There is, on entering, the usual triportal entrance, an avenue lined with white pines. There are pairs of lions, tigers, sheep, camels, horses and civil and military officials lining the avenue on each side. On entering there are stone columns-monoliths of considerable height-one on each side surmounted by a monkey. The pillars are not inappropriately called tung tlien chu ( F#) and the monkeys wang t'ien how ( # "L). At the end of the avenue is the usual large hall--in bad repair. Wherever wood enters into the construction, decay sets in in the course of years, the roofs are covered with grass, and trees, in many cases, growing in the roofs; but where stone predominates, as at these tombs, the state of preservation is excellent. Behind the hall is an artificial

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