Puslapio vaizdai

Foreigner Asylum and had thus | Dr. Whitney makes the same statelearned the manner of treatment. ment as other medical missionaries Some of these being situated some have made, that there is no diminudistance from Foochow it was much tion in the quantity of the drug more convenient for the victims of consumed. This fact presents a opium smoking to resort to them most sad future for China. than to come to the Foreign asylum.

Report of the Medical Missionary Hospital at Fatshan, in connection with the Wesleyan Missionary Society, in charge of Charles Wenyen, M.D., M.Ch., (Q.U.Q.), L.B.C.P.Ed. For the year 1881.


THIS is the Report of a new Hospi- habit. He was extremely anaemic tal. The buildings were only ready and emaciated, was suffering severe for use at the middle of October neuralgic pain, and his stomach was of the past year. The Report of the unable to digest the simplest food. commencement of the work makes Seeing at once that it was too late it evident that the populous manu- to help him, we declined to admit facturing town of Teatshan presents him to the hospital; his friends, a most favorable field for medical however, refused to take him away, missionary work. We feel assured and at length left him in one of the that Dr. Wenyen's hopes for success unoccupied rooms. Shortly afterin his medical work at Teatshan wards he was found there dead, with will be fully realized during the the opium pipe in his hand, and the current year. We wish him every opium lamp burning by his side." success in his arduous labors for And while we were writing these the good of his fellow men. Dr. lines a missionary of the London Wenyen relates one fatal case of Mission who had just returned from opium smoking which will be interesting from the pending discussion of that subject. Dr. Wenyen says: "A fatal case of opium smoking also came before us a few weeks ago. The patient was a man 35 years of age. He had been smoking opium for about five years, and had consumed daily only a moderate amount of the drug, but the pitiable condition in which he was carried by his friends to the hospital was regarded by them, and not without reason, as a direct consequence of the

a visit to stations in the country, stated to me that he, in one of the passenger boats, had met a most pitiable case of the evils of opium smoking. The man was reduced to nearly a state of idiocy as well as of abject poverty. He had sold two sons to get money. His aged mother and wife were in great distress. His neighbors were reproaching him for having brought all this misery upon himself. The reproaches of his neighbors and family were only noticed by a silly idiotic laugh.

Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. Vol. X. Part 1. Yokohama:

May 1882.

THIS Part of Vol. X, contains value and interest. We transcribe papers of much more than usual the Contents for the benefit of those

who have not seen this Part. the 16th century. At page 63 Mr.

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King of Korea ordered copper mov

V. Birds of Japan. By T. W. movable type, as "In 1420 the Blakisto and H. Pryer. The paper which will most in-able types to be made, and further terest general readers is the one ordered large copper types to be by Mr. Ernest Satow on the History made for the purpose of printing of Printing in Japan. It is a very this book." page 62. Thus it would valuable article and connects itself appear that the nation last to open with the general history of printing its ports to trade with western in other lands. The writer says, nations was the first to use movable page 48:-"In Japan the earliest type in printing books. example of block printing dates from the middle of the 8th century; but in China block printing was known at the end of the sixth century. Printing with movable type was introduced into Japan at the end of

This List of the Birds of Japan is the most complete that has been prepared, reaching the number of 365 species, while the List of the Fauna Japonica only enumerates 199.

"Around the World Tour of Christians Missions." By Wm. F. Bainbridge. Boston: D. Lothrop & Co.

MANY of our readers made the acquaintance of Mr. Bainbridge and his genial wife during their visit to China a few years ago. These and many others will be glad to know that Rev. and Mrs. Bainbridge have each written an account of their observations in the various mission fields visited. It is with Mr. Bainbridge's book that we have now to do.

During his travels Mr.Bainbridge met with over 1000 missionaries,

and conversed with them respecting the methods and results of their work. Many advantages attend such an extensive survey of the mission field at large and actual contact with the mission work in its various departments. All missionaries know the advantages of visiting other mission fields than their own and comparing their own methods of work with those of their brethren. To all who wish thus to enlarge their field of vision and who are

ready to adopt suggestions from the practice of their fellow-laborers this book will prove of great value.

Though prepared apparently in haste, so that there are occasional slips and defects in the English, it is written in a pleasant style and brings the different subjects treated clearly before our minds.

Besides giving a glance at the prevailing systems of religious thought in the lands visited, and a detailed account of mission work there, Mr. Bianbridge gives his own views as to different points of missionary policy. In almost all of these opinions he shows such a grasp of his subject, such an appreciation of the arguments on both sides, and such sound judgment that these thoughts will be to many the most attractive part of the book. Indeed the author states that this is the special purpose of this volume. His disclaims their being merely personal impressions from a world-wide range of observation, and says truly that the value of the book depends on its being "an attempted compilation of the matured thoughts and feelings of hundreds of experienced missionaries, met in frequent conversations face to face with their work in almost all lands throughout the world." All missionaries feel their need of just such knowledge and while the book will be valuable at home in diffusing missionary information it will be none the less so to missionaries on the field.

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THE HE relation between Chinese Proverbs and Chinese Poetry (not classical) resembles that between Proverbs and Antithetical Couplets. All those qualities of the Antithetical Couplet which adapt it for quotation, are frequently found in poetry, with the additional attraction of the rhyme. Proverbs and other Common Sayings are often caught up by the composer of an Ode, and woven into his verses, while on the other hand, a well turned poetical expression sometimes gives it a permanent currency, as is the case with so many of the lines of Pope. Whether the Proverb has been made poetical by its setting, or the poetical expression has become proverbial by constant quotation, it may be sometimes difficult to determine. In cases of the latter class, the remote origin of a poetical 'Common Saying' has often been lost sight of by every one but Scholars. An examination in detail of the Rules governing the construction of the different varieties of Chinese poetry (vaguely classified as Shih, Tz'u, Ko and Fu), is fortunately quite unessential to our purpose, since the subject is somewhat complicated, and as full of intricate details and thorny Exceptions as a Latin Accidence. In the Literary Examinations, the Shih and Fu are the only recognized forms of Poetry. The Tzu and Ko are more spontaneous, or even lawless, sometimes descending by rapid stages into a species of rythmic prose, or even into mere doggerel. While the Shih has either five or seven characters to the line, other kinds of verse often enjoy unfettered license. To avoid the introduction of confusing distinctions in the appended examples, whatever assumes a poetical form, is generically termed an Ode. The examples themselves have been selected, as in the case of Antithetical Couplets,

not only to show how Proverbial Sayings are often found in such poetical forms, but also to make it incidentally evident how smooth verses may easily become current linguistic coin. A little book called the Poems of Shen Tung() or the Divine Child-also known as Hsieh hsuch shih (1)—is in general circulation, and contains many lines which have become proverbial. The verses are reputed to have been composed by this supernatural Infant before the age of ten years. The following is a common citation from Shen Tung:


'He was only a Common Farmer, when that morning brought its light,

And yet as the Emperor's Minister high, he trod his halls at night;

For Generals and Statesmen too, are seldom raised from seed,

That every youth should struggle hard-this is the vital need.'*

朝為田舍郎。 暮登天子堂。



A 'Princeless Medicine' for preserving peace in the household.

'When sisters-in-law are joined in heart

No family comes to ill;

When sons all act a filial part

It works like a Harmony-pill.'



In the collection of Shen Tung's Odes, these four lines are generally found under the title: Exhortation to Study (). The obvious intention is to urge to extreme diligence (H), since the fruit of such a course will be a certain and perhaps sudden reward. The practical embarrassments of an arrangement of proverbs merely by 'subjects,' is illustrated in the circumstance that in Mr. Scarborough's volume the first two of these four lines are separated from the last two, and placed (No. 688) under the caption 'Luck.' A more inappropriate situation it would be difficult to select. The quest of the expression is by no means facilitated by the fact that no reference occurs in the index to any word in the couplet, or to anything cognate to its contents. The same inconveniences are met with in the classification of Antithetical Couplets, as in that of Odes. Thus, under the title "Concession and Forbearance," is appropriately found (No. 1852) "Imitate Chang Kung who wrote so many times the Jen character" **A #2). The other line of the couplet is, however, placed (No. 34) under the head of "Example": "Imitate Ssu Ma who laid up much secret merit" (D). So also under "Wine," (No. 1005) we find: "Wine does not intoxicate men-men intoxicate themselves" (7 B^^). The second line of this couplet is banished to the title "Hypocrisy and Deceit," where we have (No. 1719): "Beauty (or lust) does not bewitch men-men bewitch themselves" (*^^*). Yet in other cases where the connection between two lines of the same distich is even less intimate, they are allowed to remain undisturbed in their union. That it is undesirable to learn separately, and with no knowledge of their appropriate connection, lines which to the Chinese ear belong together, must be obvious. Imagine a Dictionary of Quotations from English authors, classified according to subjects, in which the words: "Hope springs eternal in the human breast," is found under "Hope," while the following line: "Man never is, but always to be blest," are entered under "Man"! Divorces of this kind are quite unnecessary, since judicious cover-references would obviate every difficulty.

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